B’nai B’rith International (English pronunciation: , from Hebrew: b’n brit, “Children of the Covenant”), is the oldest Jewish service organization in the world. B’nai B’rith states that it is committed to the security and continuity of the Jewish people and the State of Israel and combating antisemitism and bigotry. Its mission is to unite persons of the Jewish faith and to enhance Jewish identity through strengthening Jewish family life, to provide broad-based services for the benefit of senior citizens, and to facilitate advocacy and action on behalf of Jews throughout the world.
Although the organization’s historic roots stem from a system of fraternal lodges and units in the late 20th century, as fraternal organizations declined throughout the United States, the organization evolved into a dual system of both lodges and units. The membership pattern became more common to other contemporary organizations of members affiliated by contribution in addition to formal dues paying members. In recent years, the organization reported more than 200,000 members and supporters in more than 50 countries and a budget of $14,000,000. Nearly 95% of the membership is in the United States.
B’nai B’rith International is affiliated with the World Jewish Congress.
B’nai B’rith was founded in Aaron Sinsheimer’s caf in New York City’s Lower East Side on October 13, 1843, by 12 recent German Jewish immigrants led by Henry Jones. The new organization represented an attempt to organize Jews of the local community to confront what Isaac Rosenbourg, one of the founders, called “the deplorable condition of Jews in this, our newly adopted country”. The new group’s purpose, as described in its constitution, called for the traditional functions performed by Jewish societies in Europe: “Visiting and attending the sick” and “protecting and assisting the widow and the orphan.” Its founders had hoped that it soon would encompass all Jews in the United States, but this did not happen, since other Jewish organizations also were forming around the same time.
With their Yiddish heritage, the founders originally named the organization Shne des Bundes (Sons of the Covenant) to reflect their goal of a fraternal order that could provide comfort to the entire spectrum of Jewish Americans. Although early meetings were conducted in Yiddish, after a short time English emerged as the language of choice and the name was changed to B’nai B’rith. In the late 20th century, the translation was changed to the more contemporary and inclusive Children of the Covenant.
Despite its fraternal and local beginnings, B’nai B’rith spoke out for Jewish rights early in its history and used its growing national chain of lodges as a way to exercise political influence on behalf of world Jewry. In 1851, for example, it circulated petitions urging Secretary of State Daniel Webster to demand the end of Jewish disabilities in Switzerland, during on-going trade negotiations. Into the 1920s the B’nai B’rith continued in its political work by joining in Jewish delegations and lobbying efforts through which American Jews sought to influence public policy, both domestic and foreign. B’nai B’rith also played a crucial role in transnational Jewish politics. The later spread of the organization around the world made it a nerve center of intra-Jewish communication and mutual endeavor.
The organization’s activities during the 19th and 20th centuries were dominated by mutual aid, social service and philanthropy. In keeping with their concerns for protecting their families, the organization’s first concrete action was the establishment of an insurance policy awarding widows of deceased members $30 toward funeral expenses and a stipend of $1 a week for the rest of their life. To aid their children, each child would also receive a stipend and, for male children, the assurance he would be taught a trade.
In 1851, Covenant Hall was erected in New York City as the first Jewish community center in the United States, and also what is widely considered to be the first Jewish public library in the United States. One year later, B’nai B’rith established the Maimonides Library. Immediately following the Civil Warwhen Jews on both sides of the battle were left homelessB’nai B’rith founded the 200-bed Cleveland Jewish Orphan Home. Over the next several years, the organization would establish numerous hospitals, orphanages and homes for the aged.
In 1868, when a devastating flood crippled Baltimore, B’nai B’rith responded with a disaster relief campaign. This act preceded the founding of the American Red Cross by 13 years and was to be the first of many domestic relief programs. That same year, B’nai B’rith sponsored its first overseas philanthropic project raising $4,522 to aid the victims of a cholera epidemic in Ottoman Palestine.
In 1875, a lodge was established in Toronto, followed soon after by another in Montreal and in 1882 by a lodge in Berlin. Membership outside of the United States grew rapidly. Soon, lodges were formed in Cairo (1887) and in Jerusalem (1888nine years before Theodor Herzl convened the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland). The Jerusalem lodge became the first public organization to hold all of its meetings in Hebrew.
After 1881, with the mass immigration of Eastern European Jews to the United States, B’nai B’rith sponsored Americanization classes, trade schools and relief programs. This began a period of rapid membership growth, a change in the system of representation and questioning of the secret rituals common to fraternal organizations. In 1897, when the organization’s U.S. membership numbered slightly more than 18,000, B’nai B’rith formed a ladies’ auxiliary chapter in San Francisco. This was to become B’nai B’rith Women, which in 1988 broke away as an independent organization, Jewish Women International.
In response to the Kishinev pogrom in 1903 President Theodore Roosevelt and Secretary of State John Hay met with B’nai B’rith’s executive committee in Washington, D.C. B’nai B’rith President Simon Wolf presented the draft of a petition to be sent to the Russian government protesting the lack of opposition to the massacre. Roosevelt readily agreed to transmit it and B’nai B’rith lodges began gathering signatures around the country.
In the first two decades of the 20th century B’nai B’rith launched three of today’s major Jewish organizations: The Anti-Defamation League (ADL), Hillel and BBYO (originally B’nai B’rith Youth Organization). Later they would take on a life of their own with varying degrees of autonomy.
A growing concern in the 1920s was the preservation of Jewish values as immigration slowed and a native Jewish population of Eastern European ancestry came to maturity. In 1923, Rabbi Benjamin Frankel of Illinois established an organization on the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to provide both Reform and Orthodox Sabbath services, classes in Judaism and social events for Jewish college students. Two years later, he approached B’nai B’rith about adopting this new campus organization. B’nai B’rith sponsorship of the Hillel Foundations enabled it to extend throughout the United States, eventually become international and to grow into a network of more than 500 campus student organizations.
At virtually the same time as Hillel was being established, Sam Beber of Omaha, Neb., presented a plan in 1924 to B’nai B’rith for a fraternity for Jewish men in high school. The new organization was called Aleph Zadik Aleph in imitation of the Greek-letter fraternities from which Jewish youth were excluded. In 1925, AZA became the junior auxiliary of B’nai B’rith.
In 1940, B’nai B’rith Women adopted its own junior auxiliary for young women, B’nai B’rith Girls (BBG, then a loose-knit group of organizations) and, in 1944, the two organizations became the B’nai B’rith Youth Organization (BBYO).
B’nai B’rith has also been involved in Jewish camping for more than a half century. In 1953, B’nai B’rith acquired a 300-acre camp in Pennsylvania’s Pocono Mountains. Originally named Camp B’nai B’rith, the facility would later be named B’nai B’rith Perlman Camp in honor of the early BBYO leader Anita Perlman and her husband, Louis. In 1976, a second camp was added near Madison, Wis. Named after the founder of AZA, the camp became known as B’nai B’rith Beber Camp. In 2010, Beber Camp became independent of B’nai B’rith. Perlman Camp functions as both a Jewish children’s camp and as a leadership training facility.
In 1938 B’nai B’rith established the Vocational Service Bureau to guide young people into careers. This evolved into the B’nai B’rith Career and Counseling Service, an agency that provided vocational testing and counseling, and published career guides. In the mid-1980s, the program was dissolved or merged into other community agencies.
Since 1886, B’nai B’rith has published B’nai B’rith Magazine, the oldest continually published Jewish periodical in the United States.
B’nai B’rith also publishes program guides for local Jewish education programs and each year sponsors “Unto Every Person There is a Name”. This program includes community recitations of the names of Holocaust victims, usually on Yom Hashoah, Holocaust Remembrance Day.
In 1973, the organization turned what had formerly been an exhibit hall at its Washington, D.C. headquarters into the B’nai B’rith Klutznick National Jewish Museum. The museum featured an extensive collection of Jewish ceremonial objects and art and, for decades featured the 1790 correspondence between President George Washington and Moses Seixas, sexton of the Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island. Although the organization’s move from its own building to rented offices necessitated closing of the museum to public view, select pieces of the collection are still on display at B’nai B’rith’s current headquarters and are available for viewing by appointment.
From its earliest days, a hallmark of the organization’s local efforts was service to the communities in which members reside. In 1852, that meant raising money for the first Jewish hospital in Philadelphia. In the 21st century, these community service efforts range from delivering Jewish holiday packages of meals and clothing to the elderly and infirm, and distributing food and medicine to the Jewish community of Cuba.
With the graying of the American Jewish population, service to seniors became a major focus with the first of what was to become a network of 36 senior residence buildings in more than 27 communities across the United States and more internationallymaking B’nai B’rith the largest national Jewish sponsor of housing for seniors. The U.S. facilitiesbuilt in partnership with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)provide quality housing to more than 6,000 men and women of limited income, age 62 and over, of all races and religions. Residents pay a federally mandated rent based upon income.
The beginning of the 21st century also saw the senior service program expand and become the Center for Senior Services, providing advocacy, publications and other services to address financial, legal, health, religious, social and family concerns for those over 50.
In recent years, B’nai B’rith has advocated for health care reform, Social Security and Medicare protection.
B’nai B’rith also includes, on its domestic agenda, tolerance issues such as advocating for hate crimes legislation as well as sponsoring a youth writing challenge, Diverse Minds. This annual writing contest asks high school students to create a children’s book dedicated to the message of ending intolerance and bigotry. Winners earn college scholarships and the publication and distribution of their books to schools and libraries in their communities.
B’nai B’rith also sponsors the Enlighten America program, the centerpiece of which is a pledge that individuals can take to refrain from using slang expressions or telling jokes based on race, sexual orientation, gender, nationality or physical or mental challenges that would serve to demean another.
B’nai B’rith also produces and distributes “Smarter Kids – Safer Kids”, a booklet in both English and Spanish meant to guide parents through discussions with their children about potential dangers.
By the 1920s, B’nai B’rith membership in Europe had grown to 17,500nearly half of the U.S. membershipand by the next decade, the formation of a lodge in Shanghai represented the organization’s entry into the Far East. This international expansion was to come to a close with the rise of Nazism. At the beginning of the Nazi era, there were six B’nai B’rith districts in Europe. Eventually, the Nazis seized nearly all B’nai B’rith property in Europe.
B’nai B’rith Europe was re-founded in 1948. Members of the Basel and Zurich lodges and representatives from lodges in France and Holland who had survived the Holocaust attended the inaugural meeting. In 2000, the new European B’nai B’rith district merged with the United Kingdom district to become a consolidated B’nai B’rith Europe with active involvement in all institutions of the European Union. By 2005 B’nai B’rith Europe comprised lodges in more than 20 countries including the former Communist Eastern Europe.
In response to what later become known as the Holocaust, in 1943 B’nai B’rith President Henry Monsky convened a conference in Pittsburgh of all major Jewish organizations to “find a common platform for the presentation of our case before the civilized nations of the world”. During the next four years, the conference established the machinery that saved untold numbers of lives, assisted in the post-war reconstruction of European Jewish life and helped spur public opinion to support the 1947 partition decision granting Jews a share of what was then Palestine.
Just prior to the creation of the State of Israel, President Harry S. Truman, resisting pressure by various organizations, declined meetings with Jewish leaders. B’nai B’rith President Frank Goldman convinced fellow B’nai B’rith member Eddie Jacobson, long-time friend and business partner of the president, to appeal to Truman for a favor. Jacobson convinced Truman to meet secretly with Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann in a meeting said to have resulted in turning White House support back in favor of partition, and ultimately to de facto recognition of Israeli statehood.
B’nai B’rith was present at the founding of the United Nations in San Francisco and has taken an active role in the world body ever since. In 1947, the organization was granted non-governmental organizational (NGO) status and, for many years, was the only Jewish organization with full-time representation at the United Nations. It is credited with a leading role in the U.N. reversal of its 1975 resolution equating Zionism with racism.
B’nai B’rith’s NGO role is not limited to the United Nations and its agencies. B’nai B’rith also has worked extensively with officials in the State Department, in Congress, and in foreign governments to support the efforts of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to combat anti-Semitism. With members in more than 20 Latin American countries, the organization was the first Jewish group to be accorded civil society status at the Organization of American States (OAS), where it has advocated for democracy and human rights throughout the region. B’nai B’rith’s role in Latin America dates to the turn of the 20th century and grew considerably with the influx of Jewish refugees from Nazi Europe.
In addition to its advocacy efforts, B’nai B’rith maintains a program of community service throughout Latin America. In 2002, in cooperation with the Brother’s Brother Foundation, B’nai B’rith distributed more than $31 million worth of critically needed medicine, books and supplies to Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Venezuela following the economic disaster that struck much of Latin America. Through 2011 the program had distributed more than $100 million in medicine and supplies.
In addition to founding the Jerusalem Lodge in 1888, life in Israel has been a prime focus for the organization. Among the Jerusalem lodge’s most noted contributions was the city’s first free public library, Midrash Abarbanel, which became the nucleus of the National and University Library; the first Hebrew kindergarten in Jerusalem; and the purchase of land for a home for new immigrants, the village Motza near Jerusalem. In 1936 B’nai B’rith donated $100,000 to the Jewish National Fund to buy 1,000 acres in what was then Palestine, followed by an additional $100,000 in 1939. Following Israel’s declaration of independence, B’nai B’rith members in the United States sent several ships loaded with $4 million worth of food, clothing, medical supplies, trucks and jeeps to the port of Haifa.
In 1959, B’nai B’rith became the first major American Jewish organization to hold a convention in Israel.
Only six weeks after the signing of the Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt in 1978, B’nai B’rith was the first Jewish group to visit Egypt at the invitation of President Anwar Sadat.
In 1980, nearly all nations removed their embassies from Jerusalem in response to the passage by the Knesset of the Jerusalem Law extending Israeli sovereignty over the entire city. B’nai B’rith responded with the establishment of the B’nai B’rith World Center in Jerusalem to serve as “the permanent and official presence of B’nai B’rith in Jerusalem”.
On March 911, 1977, three buildings in Washington, D.C. were seized by 12 African American Muslim gunmen, led by Hamaas Abdul Khaalis, who took 149 hostages and killed a radio journalist and a police officer. After a 39-hour standoff, all other hostages were released from the District Building (the city hall; now called the John A. Wilson Building), B’nai B’rith headquarters, and the Islamic Center of Washington.
The gunmen had several demands. They “wanted the government to hand over a group of men who had been convicted of killing seven relatives mostly children of takeover leader Hamaas Khaalis. They also demanded that the movie Mohammad, Messenger of God be destroyed because they considered it sacrilegious.”
Time magazine noted: “That the toll was not higher was in part a tribute to the primary tactic U.S. law enforcement officials are now using to thwart terroristspatience. But most of all, perhaps, it was due to the courageous intervention of three Muslim ambassadors, Egypt’s Ashraf Ghorbal, Pakistan’s Sahabzada Yaqub-Khan and Iran’s Ardeshir Zahedi.”
B’nai B’rith has responded to natural and manmade disasters since 1865, when it assisted victims of a cholera epidemic in what was then Palestine. B’nai B’rith later raised funds and distributed them to those affected by the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the Galveston, Texas, flood of 1900 and the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906.
Recently, the B’nai B’rith Disaster Relief Fund responded to the 2010 earthquakes in Haiti and Chile, the 2011 Japan tsunami and the multiple tornadoes and subsequent flooding that hit six states in the South and Midwest in 2011. B’nai B’rith also opened a disaster relief fund following the fires that raged through Mt. Carmel in northern Israel and has opened a fund to help victims of the worst drought to hit East Africa in more than 50 years.
Much of the money Bnai Brith raises for disaster relief is focused on long-term rebuilding, meeting needs beyond what the initial responders provide. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in the U.S. Gulf Coast-region in 2005, Bnai Brith raised more than $1 million, distributing the money among various projects over a five-year span. The projects included rebuilding homes, houses of worship and restoring parks.
In Haiti, Bnai Brith raised $250,000 for shoes, medicine, health supplies and other needs immediately following the January 2010 earthquake that struck the island nation. The year following the disaster, Bnai Brith and IsraAID initiated Haiti Grows, a program that trained farmers in theory and in practice over a six-month period. The farmers learned new agricultural techniques that allowed them to increase the number of crops they could grow as well as the yield of those crops.
Following Hurricane Sandy in the fall of 2012, Bnai Briths Young Professional Network in New York immediately began assisting in the cleanup. Members descended upon the Rockaways, and over the course of several days helped remove debris and sand from buildings, extract moldy drywall and insulation, and pull out water damaged furniture and appliances from area homes. Bnai Brith has also held and planned several fundraisers for future rebuilding projects.
B’nai B’rith International bestows various recognitions and awards.
The Presidential Gold Medal is awarded by B’nai B’rith every few years to honor the recipient’s commitment to the Jewish people and the State of Israel. Recipients have included David Ben-Gurion, John F. Kennedy, George H. W. Bush, Stephen Harper and Golda Meir. The Gold Medal has been given to former Austrian chancellor Franz Vranitzky,Australian Prime Minister John Howard, former German Chancellor Willy Brandt and former U.S. presidents Harry S. Truman, Gerald R. Ford and Dwight D. Eisenhower.
The award was established in 1970. The first recipient was Ronald Sanders for his work The Downtown Jews.
Other awards include the “Jewish Heritage Award” and “Award for Outstanding Contribution to Relations with the Jewish People”.
B’nai B’rith International also awards scholarships. This has been an important contribution from the organization. The first B’nai B’rith recipient to the University of Miami was Dagmar R. Henney, who later became known for her research in theoretical mathematics.
B’nai B’rith – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
B or b (pronounced , bee) is the 2nd letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. In English, it represents the voiced bilabial stop, although it sometimes represents other bilabial sounds when used in other languages.
Old English was originally written in runes, whose equivalent letter was beorc , meaning “birch”. Beorc dates to at least the 2nd-century Elder Futhark, which is now thought to have derived from the Old Italic alphabets’ either directly or via Latin .
The uncial and half-uncial introduced by the Gregorian and Irish missions gradually developed into the Insular scripts’ . These Old English Latin alphabets supplanted the earlier runes, whose use was fully banned under King Canute in the early 11th century. The Norman Conquest popularized the Carolingian half-uncial forms which latter developed into blackletter . Around 1300, letter case was increasingly distinguished, with upper- and lower-case B taking separate meanings. Following the advent of printing in the 15th century, Germany and Scandinavia continued to use forms of blackletter (particularly Fraktur), while England eventually adopted the humanist and antiqua scripts developed in Renaissance Italy from a combination of Roman inscriptions and Carolingian texts. The present forms of the English cursive B were developed by the 17th century.
The Roman B derived from the Greek capital beta via its Etruscan and Cumaean variants. The Greek letter was an adaptation of the Phoenician letter bt . The Egyptian hieroglyph for the consonant /b/ had been an image of a foot and calf , but bt (Phoenician for “house”) was a modified form of a Proto-Sinaitic glyph probably adapted from the separate hieroglyph Pr meaning “house”.[n 1] The Hebrew letter beth is a separate development of the Phoenician letter.
By Byzantine times, the Greek letter came to be pronounced /v/, so that it is known in modern Greek as vta (still written ). The Cyrillic letter ve represents the same sound, so a modified form known as be was developed to represent the Slavic languages’ /b/. (Modern Greek continues to lack a letter for the voiced bilabial plosive and transliterates such sounds from other languages using the consonant cluster , mp.)
In English, most other languages that use the Latin alphabet, and the International Phonetic Alphabet, b denotes the voiced bilabial plosive /b/, as in ‘bib’. In English, it is sometimes silent. Most instances are derived from old monosyllablic words where a terminal b is immediately preceded by an m, such as ‘lamb’ and ‘bomb’, but a few are etymological spellings intended to make a word more like its Latin original, such as ‘debt’ or ‘doubt’. As /b/ is one of the sounds subject to Grimm’s Law, English words may find their cognates in other Indo-European languages appearing with bh, p, or f instead.
In Estonian, Icelandic, and Chinese Pinyin, b does not denote a voiced consonant. Instead, it represents a voiceless /p/ that contrasts with either a geminated /p:/ (in Estonian) or an aspirated /p/ (in Pinyin, Danish and Icelandic), which are all represented by p. In Fijian b represents a prenasalized /mb/ whereas, in Zulu and Xhosa, it represents an implosive //, in contrast to the digraph bh which represents /b/. Finnish only uses b in loanwords.
B is also a musical note. In English-speaking countries, it represents Si, the 12th note of a chromatic scale built on C. In Central Europe and Scandinavia, “B” is used to denote B-flat and the 12th note of the chromatic scale is denoted “H”. Archaic forms of ‘b’, the b quadratum (square b, ) and b rotundum (round b, ) are used in musical notation as the symbols for natural and flat, respectively.
In Contracted (grade 2) English braille, ‘b’ stands for “but” when in isolation.
See original here:
B – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vendredi, 10 Juillet 2015
Confrence prsente par le Professeur Ch. Loubet, historien des mentalits et des arts, invit par Yad Vashem le 16 juin, 15H00, au CUM de Nice.
Rsum par Christian Loubet et Gilberte Jacaret Docteur s Lettres, Loge Moshe Dayan du Bnai Brith France, Nice.
Il reste trs peu de tmoignages laisss par des artistes juifs dans les annes 40. Certains ont pu cacher et sauver leurs uvres avant dtre dports (mais elles ne disent rien sur les camps). Dautres ont survcu et exprim lhorreur vcue. Plus tard,s artistes moins directement concerns, ont tenu exprimer leur motion.Ces images compltent les films darchives, prcieux documents contre le rvisionnisme.
Rfugie avec ses grands-parents chez une amie, Villefranche en 1939 puis Nice en 1940, elle rencontre puis pouse A. Nagler. Ils vivent lErmitage Villefranche. Enceinte de cinq mois, elle est arrte en septembre 1943 et est excute son arrive Auschwitz.
Elle avait confi son uvre un ami, le docteur Moridis. Son pre Paul, vad et cach en Hollande survivra avec sa seconde femme. Aprs sa tante, sa mre stait suicide en 1926-, sa grand- mre plus tard en 1940.
Felix Nussbaum Autoportrait dans le camp (dtail), 1940, New York, Neue Galerie
Ne laissez pas mourir mes uvres
N en 1904 Osnabrck, Felix Nussbaum tudie les arts dcoratifs Hambourg, puis les Beaux-Arts Berlin; laurat de lAcadmie allemande Rome, il est pensionnaire la Villa Massimo en 1932. Son atelier brle avec presque tous ses 150 tableaux. Il est alors boursier Rome. On sent, dans ses tableaux, une ironique distanciation et une ironique distanciation et une drive fantastique.
Comme lcrit le professeur Christian Loubet:Lexpressionnisme de Nussbaum est influenc par le cubisme et la metafisica de De Chirico. Proche de la nouvelle objectivit dans les annes 20/30 ( Dix, Grosz, Beckman) il peint des figures nigmatiques dans des formes synthtiques et des couleurs sourdes (Mascarade). Le peintre est clown et pote mais aussi amant et bourgeois, mlancolique et incompris. Les autoportraits reprsentent la moiti de la production.
Lartiste de la fin du XIXme sicle se voyait dj comme un saltimbanque marginal. Nussbaum, hritier dune famille bourgeoise, se voit comme un dclass. Un homme sans qualit, mais un artiste tmoin.
Lors de son sjour romain, les mannequins sans visage voluent dans un monde dnigmes la de Chirico (Solitude). Mais cest la proscription antismite qui linspire bientt (Souvenir de Nordeyney et Place folle). La brocante acadmique est vaine, il faut aller au-del des traditions quitte bousculer les dogmes (Peintre dans latelier).
Nussbaum soriente vers une peinture idologique ds 1930. Larrive dHitler au pouvoir le pousse sur le chemin dun exil en Italie, en Suisse et en France. Il se fixe Ostende en 1935, en dsaccord avec ses parents.Enfants devant lEglise dnonce le conformisme, la lchet et le cynisme des pres. Son ironie caustique alors ne respecte rien (Enterrement). En 1937, il vit Bruxelles avec Felka Platek une artiste juive polonaise. Il dmystifie lart antique jug artificiel. Il est alors clectique: une femme picassienne pleure des perles. Peintre et Modle simbriquent en courbes. Arrt aprs la dfaite franaise, en tant que ressortissant du Reich, il est intern au camp de Saint-Cyprien dans le sud de la France. Evad, il retourne Bruxelles o il demeure cach avec son pouse Felka. Emule dEnsor et de Delvaux dans ses autoportraits et ses paraboles de 39 43, il place le spectateur dans une position de malaise lorsquil exhibe en le fixant, son passeport et son toile jaune. Il projette son Couple nu en 42 comme pour offrir ces corps en rsistance. Lultime Portrait la pipe est une provocation narquoise (les flacons=humeur-mort, nostalgie, souffrance). Cest lincarnation dune volont. La peinture de guerre montre des rfugis juifs aux corps meurtris.
Les derniers tableaux allgoriques modernisent de la symbolique macabre. Les damns sont aux portes de lenfer. Charniers et fossoyeurs les attendent. Nussbaum termine Le triomphe de la mort le 18 avril 1944.
Le couple est finalement arrt le 21 juin. Ils sont dports Auschwitz, le 31 juillet 1944 par le dernier convoi de Malines et assassins. Il avait pu mettre labri ses toiles chez deux amis.
Ce peintre fut redcouvert partir de 1971 grce au travail de ses hritiers en Isral. Le lot des uvres de Bruxelles avait t mis labri chez les Dr. Grosfile et Lefbre. La restauration savra difficile. 214 autres uvres furent dcouvertes en Belgique ou en Allemagne entre 1975 et 1982. Une salle lui fut consacre au Muse dOsnabrck et finalement un btiment fut ralis en 1995 par Liebeskind. En trois parties, ce lieu voque lodysse de lexil. La maison (couverte de bois) est oriente vers la synagogue dtruite le 9 novembre 1933. Le couloir en bton est orient vers la villa qui fut le sige du parti nazi. Le corps central est une mtaphore de lexil. Les deux btiments sont relis par un pont en zinc (chemin de la mort).
Proche de la nouvelle objectivit (Dix, Grosz), on sent dans ses tableaux de la froideur et une drive fantastique.
Une salle lui fut consacre au Muse dOsnabrck et finalement un btiment fut ralis en 1995 par Liebeskind. En trois parties, ce lieu voque lodysse de lexil. La maison (couverte de bois) est oriente vers la synagogue dtruite le 9 novembre 1933. Le couloir FN en bton est orient vers la villa qui fut le sige du parti nazi. Le corps central est une mtaphore de lexil. Les deux btiments sont relis par un pont en zinc (chemin de la mort).
Le Muse d’Art et d’Histoire Juifs a prsent, du 22 septembre 2010 au 23janvier2011, la premire rtrospective importante de son uvre organise en France.
N en Pologne en 1923, Itzchak Belfer a grandi dans l’orphelinat de Janusz Korczak Varsovie, en Pologne. Janusz Korczak tait un mdecin-pdiatre et crivain polonais qui a choisi dlibrment d’tre dport au camp de Treblinka avec les enfants juifs du ghetto de Varsovie dont il s’occupait dans son orphelinat.
Peu de temps aprs la prise de Varsovie par les Allemands au dbut de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et suite la formation du ghetto de Varsovie, Itzchak Belfer parvient s’chapper vers la Russie travers les forts de Pologne. la fin de la guerre, Itzchak Belfer retourne Varsovie et se retrouve directement confront la ralit de l’radication de la communaut juive polonaise. Depuis, le pass vit toujours en Itzchak Belfer puisqu’il n’a jamais vraiment quitt l’orphelinat de Yanusz Korczak, ancr jamais dans ses penses et son esprit. Au plus profond de son me, il reste le petit Itzchakele de Varsovie.
A prsent g de 90 ans, Itzchak Belfer est devenu un artiste isralien reconnu. Durant toute sa vie d’artiste, Itzchak Belfer chercha commmorer le travail de Janusz Korczak et l’Holocauste du peuple juif. Ds lors, Janusz Korczak, le mdecin et ducateur polonais, vit toujours au travers des dessins et des peintures d’Itzchak Belfer dont l’me et l’esprit est habit par l’orphelinat de Korczak Yanusz.
Dans ce reportage, Itzchak Belfer partage ses souvenirs de l’orphelinat. Il rvle l’attitude de Janusz Korczak envers les enfants qu’il traitait tous comme des tres humains dots de la mme dignit et considration que les adultes. Selon lui, un enfant devait jouir des mmes droits qu’un adulte. Il dcrit avec motion le travail de Janusz Korczak et de son assistante, Stepha Wilczyska, au sein de l’orphelinat ainsi que leur amour et dvouement total envers les enfants qu’ils ont tent de sauver, ce qui entrana leur fin tragique. Le Pr Korczack
Il est n en 1902 Varsovie. Il a travaill dans le cinma Berlin puis Paris. Naturalis, il fonde une famille. Ds la dclaration de guerre, en 1939, il est mobilis. Lors de la rafle de 1943, il est intern Drancy puis envoy Auschwitz par le 49me convoi o, sur les mille, six seulement survivront. Il est alors utilis comme interprte car il parle six langues, comme peintre des tortionnaires et aussi comme fossoyeur dans les Zonder-kommandos.
Il sera le seul rescap peintre qui a TOUT VU. Entre le 19 janvier et le 6 mai 1945, il traverse plusieurs camps puis sera libr par les Amricains.
Son uvre est unique. Destine au grand public, elle propose une illustration manichenne du type bande dessine , hyper-raliste avec une attention symbolique trop appuye. Aprs sa mort, en 1985, sa famille a du mal faire passer ses images terribles. Ce sont alors les Klarsfeld qui vont s’y employer. On peut voir une vingtaine de tableaux au muse de la Shoah New York et quelques uns Yad Vashem.
David Olre a reprsent l’un de ces Bunkers.
Il aurait donc pu tre affect au Bunker 1 ou au Bunker 2 peu aprs son arrive
Ce btiment, comme chacun des crmatoires, tait une usine de mort dont il comprenait tous les lments : salle de dshabillage et salle de gazage en sous-sol, salle des fours au niveau du sol, et partir de mai 44 logement des Sonderkommandos l’tage (auparavant, les gardes SS ramenaient les membres des Sonderkommandos au Block 13 du BIId aprs chaque priode de travail. Il s’agissait d’un Block ferm, isol et surveill). Puis…
“Gazage”, la peinture de David Olre ralise en 1960. Elle mesure 1m30 x 1m60.
Ce dessin, d’une extrme violence, ne peut, pour autant, pas tre lud. Il a t ralis en 1945. Il nous fait pntrer dans une pice qui est la “salle de travail” du service de dissection. On constate que ces femmes taient en pleine sant. Elles n’taient videmment pas des prisonnires du camp. Elles n’ont pas t gazes non plus. Les SS les tuaient par balles. Et puis l’vacuation est annonce dans une grande pagaille. Les survivants de cette vacuation du camp sont ceux qui portent tmoignage depuis leur libration. Parmi eux, bien entendu, David Olre.
N en 1903, ce peintre est violemment projectif, parfois ruptif, voire hyper-expressionniste. Le 29 septembre 1944, il est amen avec sa famille et tous les juifs de Bratislava par la Gestapo et la milice slovaque jusqu’ la gare. Il sera l’un des rares survivants sur 2000 au trajet et au typhus libr par l’arme rouge.
Puis la vie continuera Vienne o il a une exposition permanente : Art contre oubli , New York et en Allemagne. Il meurt en 1983.
Eichmann 1957 Macabre composition arcimboldesque
CHRISTIAN BOLTANSKI :
N en 1944 d’un pre juif d’origine russe et d’une mre corse chrtienne, il est rest marqu par le souvenir de la Shoah. Dans ses installations, employant divers matriaux (photographies anciennes, objets trouvs, carton ondul, pte modeler, luminaires, bougies), il suscite l’motion suggrant des prsences virtuelles qui mettent en vidence la disparition. Les thmes sont la mmoire, l’inconscient, l’enfance et la mort. On devine souvent ainsi, en perspective, les souffrances endures par les juifs dans des installations qui expriment, sans mot, l’horreur de la guerre et de la Shoah.
Allemand n en 1945 fut fascin par le judasme. La belle Sulamite, chante par Salomon gt au fond d’un sombre mausole.
n le 12 fvrier 1909 Bukovica, hameau de Gorica (Gorizia), ville aujourd’hui traverse par la frontire italo-slovne et qui fait alors partie de l’empire austro-hongrois, est un peintre et graveur Slovne de la nouvelle cole de Paris. Il est mort le 25 mai 2005 Venise.
Arrt en octobre 1944 par la Gestapo, Music (non juif) est emprisonn Trieste pendant 26 jours. On lui laisse le choix : collaborer comme officier dans le corps tranger de la Waffen SS ou partir pour le camp de concentration de DACHAU. Il choisit la seconde solution. Il parvient raliser en cachette quelque 200 dessins (encre dilue, crayon) de ses compagnons mourants ou morts. Son uvre ultrieure sera marque par les atrocits qu’il voit.
MARC CHAGALL ralise, dans les annes 1940, des compositions bibliques. On y dtecte l’influence de l’enseignement religieux de son enfance. La Passion devient celle du peuple juif.
La crucifixion blanche de Chagall. Le Christ juif avec ses phylactres et son talith qui cache sa nudit incarne les victimes des nazis. En bas du tableau, les juifs religieux, la mre avec son bb et le Juif errant fuient. (cf : Quand le juif errant rencontre Apollinaire et Herzl puis traverse le XXme sicle Edition Mlibe, de Gilberte JACARET)
Ouverture du muse Mendjisky ddi aux “Ecoles de Paris”
Un nouveau muse priv a ouvert ses portes le 11 avril 2014 Paris dans un btiment du 15e arrondissement. Centr sur le peintre Maurice Mendjizky (1890-1951), il entend galement tirer de l’oubli certains artistes des deux “Ecoles de Paris”.
Les artistes de “la premire Ecole de Paris” sont principalement des trangers juifs souvent venus d’Europe centrale, arrivs au dbut du XXe sicle dans la capitale, et fixs autour du quartier Montparnasse. Amedeo Modigliani, Marc Chagall, Cham Soutine, Mose Kisling sont les plus connus.
Un peintre li l’avant-garde au dbut du 20e sicle L’histoire du peintre Maurice Mendjizky pouse les bouleversements de l’Europe de la premire moiti du XXe sicle. N en Pologne, dans une famille juive trs modeste, il arrive en 1906 Paris l’ge de 16 ans. Il tudie aux Beaux-Arts et intgre “la Ruche”, o vivent des artistes d’avant-garde, notamment Soutine.
Install Vence en 1921, il ralise vers 1947 des sries de dessins sur le Ghetto de Varsovie o sont morts son pre, sa mre et ses deux surs.
En octobre 40, sur dnonciation, la Gestapo arrte sa femme Rose Paris. Maurice se rfugie Nice chez sa belle-sur. Il fonde la 8me Compagnie des Francs-Tireurs et Partisans (FTP). Huit jours avant la libration, Claude, son fils an, 20 ans, est arrt au cours d’un parachutage Utelle. Il est fusill le 22 juillet l’Ariane. Maurice lui ddie son premier recueil de 31 dessins publi avec un pome d’Eluard. Picasso crira : C’est un chef d’uvre, une vritable symphonie du noir et blanc . Il a peut-tre lu le tmoignage de Jan Karski (1944) qui a visit le ghetto, effar par ces ombres dshumanises (Voir in Shoah et le roman de Yannik Haenel : Il n’y avait plus rien d’humain dans ces formes palpitantes ). Le Ghetto de Varsovie (440.000 habitants en juin 41, 3000 au km2, 50.000 lors de la rvolte) se souleva le 19 avril 43, veille de Pessah, puis fut ras.
Le muse Mendjisky a t cr par le fils du peintre Mendjizky (qui a remplac le z du nom polonais de son pre par un s). Ag de 85 ans, Serge Mendjisky est lui-mme peintre et photographe.
Pour son ouverture, le muse a propos jusqu’au 12 juillet 2014 une rtrospective consacre Maurice Mendjizky, avec une centaine de ses peintures (paysages, portraits). Il a prsent aussi une trentaine de dessins raliss par l’artiste sur le ghetto de Varsovie, o ses parents et ses surs ont t extermins.)
d’origine polonaise est n en France en 1921, diplm des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg. Dnonc et arrt Nice, lors d’une mission pour la Rsistance, il est enferm rue Gioffredo, puis envoy Drancy et Auschwitz. Toute sa famille a disparu dans les camps. Libr Dachau, il tmoigne par ses dessins et ses pomes. Il est mort en 2010.
Dessin de Serge Smulevic, lors du Procs Papon
Dessins de Sala Sala est le nom d’artiste de Myriam Smulevic, fille de Serge.
La marche de la mort
La marche de la mort (2004)
L’arbre de paix
L’intranquille, GRARD GAROUSTE
Dans les annes 1950, Grard Garouste, enfant, a entendu de son pre des propos antismites. Plus tard, il comprend l’implication de son pre dans le processus de la spoliation des Juifs en France. De l, il cherche en savoir davantage, il va aux archives, enqute et crit un livre. Aujourd’hui il veut transmettre. Je suis le fils d’un salopard qui m’aimait. Mon pre tait un marchand de meubles qui rcupra les biens des juifs dports. Mot par mot, il m’a fallu dmonter cette grande duperie que fut mon ducation….
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Le ventre est encore fcond, d’o a surgi la bte immonde. Bertolt Brecht.
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bienvenue Sur Le Site Du B’nai B’rith Europe
While claiming to represent “the interests of the worldwide Jewish Community” the B’nai B’rith http://www.bbidirect.org/ is in fact a Masonic Order that represents British Freemasonry, and shifts blame for its Luciferian “world government” agenda onto Jews in general. Thus while pretending to fight anti- Semitism, it actually puts Jews in jeopardy. The B’nai B’rith has no mandate to represent the Jewish people. But by equating opposition to the globalist agenda with anti-Semitism, it ensures that Jews are blamed for the emerging New World Order. For example, recently an Internet forum posted an item about B’nai B’rith advocacy of “Hate Laws” and Internet censorship. A member responded, “Those Jews are setting themselves up for extermination again.” Thus “Jews” become the scapegoat for the Freemason agenda despite the fact that about 50 per cent of American Jews have nothing to do with Jewish organizations or religion, and in fact intermarry. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=526039 Yes, many other Jews who are ignorant of the Masonic plan naively subscribe to Zionism and the phony “War on Terror.” They might be surprised to learn that the Star of David featured on the Israeli flag was an occult symbol and not a Jewish symbol in the Old Testament; that most Israeli leaders, like American Presidents, are Freemasons; and that the new Israeli Supreme Court is loaded with Masonic symbolism and is located along Satanic “ley-lines.” Financed and designed by the Rothschilds, it is the court of the New World Order. http://www.planetquo.com/Illuminati-Design-And -Symbolism-In-The-Israeli-Supreme-Court-Building The B’nai B’rith-ADL is probably active in your city. It approaches schools, private companies, and professional associations offering indoctrination in “diversity” and “hate crimes.” It trains the local police to recognize political crimes. “Hate” is anything or anyone that interferes with the world government agenda, partly listed on the ADL website (appropriately in the left column). http://www.adl.org/ The B’nai B’rith is part of the Masonic Scottish Rite Order established in 1843. It’s militant arm, the “Anti Defamation League” (ADL) was formed in 1913, the same year as the US Federal Reserve. According to a book, “The Ugly Truth About the ADL” (1992) http://www.truthinstitute.org/TEI_Book_AnalysisUTA.htm by the Executive Intelligence Review, the B’nai B’rith has always played a leading role in returning the US to the Masonic control of the British “Crown” (a.k.a The New World Order.) (See “The Jewish Conspiracy is British Imperialism” http://www.savethemales.ca/000447.html) “Not only is the ADL emphatically not a Jewish civil rights lobby; the ADL and its parent agency B’nai B’rith have been from their inception, arms of the British secret intelligence services and secret societies that are sworn enemies of the United States. The B’nai B’rith and the ADL have used their nominal Jewishness to conceal their actual allegiance and agenda.” (“Ugly Truth” p. 3) The B’nai B’rith/ Scottish Rite was instrumental in starting the Ku Klux Klan and causing the US Civil War, which destroyed the flower of American manhood. A B’nai B’rith leader, Simon Wolf, was a Confederate spy and was implicated in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the first of many such coup d’etats (i.e. the assassinations of Presidents Garfield, McKinley, Kennedy.) The book goes on to detail ADL links to organized crime, drugs and prostitution, domestic spying, the purchase of the US Congress and the removal of Christianity from public institutions. It says the ADL fought Texas legislation to prosecute satanic ritual crimes and lost numerous libel suits for defaming critics as “anti-Semites.” http://www.americanfreepress.net/Censored/17_02 %20Victims%20Persevere-%20Court%20.htm ADL SHILLS FOR ELITE AGENDA As I have said, the mainspring of the New World Order is the private central bankers’ need to translate their unlimited financial power, derived from their control of your government’s credit, into permanent world institutions of political and social control. Millions of non-Jews and a disproportionate number of Jews have sold their souls to these Lucifer-loving bankers. Led by the Rothschilds and Rockefellers, the banking cartel is behind the Sept. 11 attacks, the Iraq war and the phony “War on Terror. They are behind the B’nai B’rith-ADL. Take their “Diversity” program for example.You cannot work for a large corporation or government today without receiving this insulting Stalinist indoctrination which forces us to accept differences regardless of their merit. A measure of the Masonic control of Western society is that “Diversity” was never debated or put to a vote. It became the official ideology as if by magic. Particularly distasteful is the ADL’s “early childhood initiative” which targets 3-5 year-olds for indoctrination. They hide behind a smokescreen of platitudes but the net effect is that youngsters of European origin do not learn pride in their national or cultural heritage. The ADL boasts that 375,000 teachers and 12 million students have participated in these programs. http://www.adl.org/education/miller/”>” In the workplace, “Diversity” discriminates against Europeans, and particularly white heterosexual males in favor of women, coloreds and homosexuals. People are chosen on the basis of this political profile instead of their competence, which would be truly non-discriminatory and fair, not-to-mention efficient. The purpose is to fragment society and destabilize the family so there is no coherent basis for resistance to world government. At the same time, the ADL actively promotes Zionist education and consciousness, including free trips to Israel for Jewish youth. Thus Jews are indoctrinated to promote the Masonic agenda and to take the fall when the time comes. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=526039 CONCLUSION: THE TRAP Recently President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran told a student conference “Israel must be wiped off the map.” He then joined a million-strong demonstration shouting “Death to Israel, Death to America” and recalled three ambassadors who apologized for his original statement. It is inconceivable that he would play into the Zionist hand by making such a rash statement, right on cue, unless he was also controlled by the Illuminati (i.e. the highest rank of Freemasonry.) The stated goal of the Illuminati is to foment a Third World War between the “political Zionists and the leaders of the Islamic world.” Presumably Iran backed by Russia and China would face off against Israel, the US and the UK. http://www.halturnershow.com/ChineseDefenseMinisterTalksWarAgainstUS.html Albert Pike, the Head of the Scottish Rite in the 19th Century, continued: “The [third] war must be conducted in such a way that Islam (the Moslem Arabic World) and political Zionism (the State of Israel) mutually destroy each other.” The rest of the world will be drawn in. “Meanwhile the other nations, once more divided on this issue will be constrained to fight to the point of complete physical, moral, spiritual and economical exhaustion…” At this point they will be constrained to accept the Luciferian one-world government. See my “Countdown to World War Three” http://www.savethemales.ca/000546.html Thus we are all pawns in a diabolical game from which no one, certainly not Jews or Israelis, will emerge victorious. We need to unite to resist those who lead us into this deadly trap. The B’nai B’rith-ADL doesn’t represent Jews. It represents Freemasonry, which casts a morbid spell over the Anglo-American establishment and plots the demise of Western Civilization.
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Makow – B’nai B’rith/ADL Does Not Represent Jews Jews …
Un article de Wikipdia, l’encyclopdie libre.
LOrdre indpendant du B’nai B’rith ( , de l’hbreu: Les fils de l’Alliance) est la plus vieille organisation juive toujours en activit dans le monde. Calque sur les organisations maonniques, elle a t fonde New York, le 13 octobre 1843, par douze personnes, dont Henry Jones et deux frres, juifs migrs d’Allemagne, qui avaient appartenu la Socit des Frres (Brder Bund) qui joua un certain rle dans l’laboration de la Premire Internationale (Association internationale des travailleurs). Ils voulaient fonder un systme d’entraide pour les juifs arrivants aux tats-Unis et devant faire face des conditions de vie difficiles.
La premire action concrte, fut la cration d’une police d’assurance attribue aux membres (la mortalit des hommes au travail tant importante cette poque). Ainsi les veuves recevaient une somme pour les frais funraires, et une allocation de un dollar par semaine pour le reste de leur vie. Chaque enfant recevant galement une bourse et, pour les enfants mles, l’assurance d’apprendre un mtier.
C’est partir de cette base, de l’aide humanitaire et les services qu’un systme de loges et chapitres fraternels grandit aux tats-Unis, puis dans le monde entier (voir les “liens externes”).
L’organisation, qui a affirm trs tt l’unit du peuple juif, est engage dans une grande varit de services communautaires et d’activits de soutien, incluant la promotion des droits pour les communauts juives, l’assistance aux hpitaux et aux victimes de catastrophes naturelles, la remise de bourses d’tudes aux tudiants juifs et la lutte contre l’antismitisme travers sa Ligue anti-diffamation (Anti-Defamation League). Le BB agit aussi en tant quorganisation non gouvernementale et intervient lONU, lUnesco, au Mercosur et au Conseil de lEurope. L’organisation est exclusivement rserve aux isralites et comprend plus de 500000 frres et surs dans une cinquantaine de pays. En effet, cette poque, les loges maonniques n’taient pas ouvertes aux Juifs en Allemagne.
En plus de ses activits caritatives, le B’nai B’rith soutient la politique et la prennit de l’tat d’Isral et le mouvement sioniste.
En 2002, il a cr avec le AIPAC une initiative nomme BBYO 4 Israel.
Le Bnai Brith a activement apport de laide aux victimes de louragan Mitch, des tremblements de terre en Turquie, au Salvador et en Inde, la population civile au Kosovo et en Asie suite au Tsunami. Il travaille aussi sur de nombreux projets caritatifs concernant des hpitaux pour enfants l o son aide est accepte.
Chaque fin d’anne, la loge Ben Gourion organise le Salon des Ecrivains o des auteurs viennent ddicacer leurs ouvrages la mairie du 16e arrondissement de Paris.
La section canadienne de B’nai Brith (l’orthographe utilise par cette section ne comporte pas d’apostrophe dans le mot Brith) a t fonde en 1875 et est la plus vieille organisation juive du pays.
Le B’nai B’rith France existe depuis 1932 et constitue la section la plus importante du District europen, forte d’une soixantaine de cellules rparties dans cinq rgions: le-de-France – Provence Midi Pyrnes – Cte d’Azur – Est – Rhne-Alpes. Elle a son sige Paris.
Le B’nai B’rith est membre du Conseil reprsentatif des institutions juives de France. Le B’nai B’rith France participe activement aux principaux vnements qui concernent la vie juive en France. L’ancien prsident de la LICRA (1968-1993) Jean Pierre-Bloch en a t le prsident de 1974 1981. Ce dernier a remis la mdaille d’or du B’nai B’rith au prsident du Snat et candidat malheureux la prsidence de la Rpublique Alain Poher en 1979.
Le 22 janvier 1986, lors des forums en marge de l’assemble gnrale de l’Union franaise des associations B’na B’rith, l’association organisa des runions avec des politiciens franais (reprsentant le Parti rpublicain, le Parti socialiste, le Mouvement des radicaux de gauche et le Rassemblement pour la Rpublique) o ceux-ci s’engagrent ne passer aucune alliance avec le Front national,,. Le journal de tendance nationaliste Prsent dplora l’engagement des partis de droite, considrant qu’il s’agissait d’un diktat qui leur tait impos.
la fin des annes 1980, le B’nai B’rith milita pour l’adoption d’une loi visant la condamnation de toute publication et de tout discours discriminatoire de caractre racial ou antismite ainsi qu’une condamnation svre de toute ngation de l’extermination du peuple Juif. Une loi reprenant ces points fut adopte le 13 juillet 1990 (loi Gayssot).
En France, le B’nai B’rith, compos de 63 loges, n’est pas considr comme loge maonnique par les trois plus grandes obdiences franaises (GODF, GLDF, et l’ex-GLNF).
La loge francophone du B’nai B’rith Jerusalem porte le nom de Robert Gamzon, fondateur du mouvement des claireurs isralites de France (EIF) en 1923.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia:
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B’nai B’rith Wikipdia
Bnai Brith (Hebrisch ; deutsch Shne des Bundes), auch Bnai Brith oder im deutschsprachigen Raum (bis zur Zeit des Nationalsozialismus) Unabhngiger Orden Bne Briss (U.O.B.B.) oder Bnei Bri genannt, ist eine jdische Organisation, die im Jahre 1843 in New York als geheime Loge von zwlf jdischen Einwanderern aus Deutschland gegrndet wurde und sich laut Selbstdarstellung der Frderung von Toleranz, Humanitt und Wohlfahrt widmet. Ein weiteres Ziel von Bnai Brith ist die Aufklrung ber das Judentum und die Erziehung innerhalb des Judentums. Zurzeit gibt es rund 500.000 organisierte Mitglieder in ungefhr 60 Staaten. Damit ist Bnai Brith eine der grten jdischen internationalen Vereinigungen. Das Verffentlichungsorgan ist die Bnai Brith International Jewish Monthly.
Mit Grologen, Hauptlogen und Distrikten ist Bnai Brith hnlich wie die Freimaurerei aufgebaut, versteht sich aber nicht als mit dieser Bewegung verbunden.
Die Zentrale ist in Washington, D.C., dort betreibt die Organisation auch ein Museum zur jdischen Geschichte (das Bnai Brith Klutznick National Jewish Museum).
1897 ffnete sich die Organisation auch fr Frauen. So entstanden zu dieser Zeit auch im Deutschen Reich die Bnai-Brith-Schwesternverbnde, die sich zu dem verhltnismig liberaleren Jdischen Frauenbund abgrenzten. Seit 1990 nimmt Bnai Brith International Frauen als Vollmitglieder auf. Die selbstorganisierte, dem Bnai Brith angeschlossene Frauenorganisation nennt sich Bnai Brith Women und behauptet weiterhin ihren unabhngigen Status.
Der erste Ableger in Deutschland wurde 1882 in Berlin gegrndet. Der Vereinssitz befand sich in der Kleiststrae 10 in Berlin-Schneberg. 1924 wurde der Rabbiner Leo Baeck zum Groprsidenten des deutschen Distrikts gewhlt, der damals mehr als hundert Einzellogen umfasste. Seine Prsidentschaft dauerte von 1925 bis 1937. Am 20. April 1938 mussten alle Logen aufgelst werden. Als Eigentmer des Gebudes Kleiststrae 10 fungierte ab 1938 die Gestapo. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg grndete sich der Orden in der Bundesrepublik neu.
Ableger von Bnai Brith sind u.a. die 1913 gegrndete Anti-Defamation League und die auf Studierende spezialisierte Organisation Hillel.
Seit Mrz 1965 existiert in Berlin eine Gedenktafel im Jdischen Gemeindehaus in der Fasanenstrae. In der Passauer Strae 4 residiert mit der Janusz-Korczak-Loge eine Bnai Brith-Loge.
Sigmund Freud war Mitglied der 1895 gegrndeten Wiener Loge von Bnai Brith, deren Prsident jahrelang der Philosoph Wilhelm Jerusalem gewesen ist. Im Februar 2004 wurde in Frankreich die Pariser Loge nach ihm benannt.
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Bnai Brith Wikipedia
BBI Magazine BBUK LBIA Chair Profile BBI International Centre Newsletter BBE Newsletter How BB Operates
Bnai Brith is an international global organisation, which brings together Jews from all backgrounds, with the aims of strengthening the Jewish community, combating racial and religious intolerance, and helping the less fortunate. The membership spans the whole Jewish community irrespective of religious or other affiliations. Our symbol the menorah is lit on formal occasions, each candle being representative of Bnai Briths seven principles: Brotherhood, Benevolence, Harmony, Peace, Truth, Light and Justice.
It is the oldest Jewish service organisation founded in New York in 1843 by 12 German Jewish immigrants. Since 1843 generations of Jewish people around the world have been helping others in need through their membership and activities. It now operates in 59 countries and has official status at the UN and representation in Brussels. Bnai Brith is a powerful voice for Jewish security and continuity and is respected all over the world. Read more
To read the latest BBI Magazine click Part One Part Two
Tony Swabe, Chairman of Bnai Brith London Bureau of International Affairs (BBLBIA)
Bnai Brith UK London Bureau of International Affairs (BBLBIA)
Tony Swabe has taken over as Chairman of BBLBIA. Tony has been working with the Bureau for some time forming part of the team who visit embassies and Government departments to promote favourable views on Israel and counter antisemitism.
Tony has been a member of Bnai Brith for well over 25 years, belonging to Yad BYad Lodge and is a former lodge president. His main career was in higher education, ending as the head of a university business school. He is actively involved in the professional regulation of nurses and as a human resources consultant. One of his voluntary activities is as Vice-Chair of the Independent Monitoring Board at the Heathrow Immigration Removal Centre which is a public appointment by the Home Office.
He plans in co-operation with Helene Briskman, the BBLBIA Director, and the team, to extend the work and contacts of the Bureau and to build on its previous success. He also wants to ensure that our members are more aware of its work and the influence it has. Bnai Brith is not just a social organisation, it also exists to defend Israel, though not uncritically, and to ensure that in co-operation with other communal organisations that the interests of Jews are advanced internationally.
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About Us :: B’nai B’rith UK
Bnai Brith, (Hebrew: Sons of the Covenant), oldest and largest Jewish service organization in the world, with mens lodges, womens chapters, and youth chapters in countries all over the world.
Bnai Brith, founded in New York City in 1843, defends human rights, promotes intercultural relations, provides for the religious and cultural needs of Jewish college students (especially through the Hillel Foundation), sponsors Jewish education among adults and youth groups, supports hospitals and philanthropic institutions, provides vocational guidance, sponsors welfare projects in Israel, assists victims of natural disasters, and carries on a broad program of community service and welfare. It confers with government leaders on such issues as civil rights, immigration, abuses of freedom by totalitarian states, the position of Israel, and problems affecting Jews throughout the world. In 1913 it established the Anti-Defamation League. Bnai Brith is represented at the United Nations through its membership in the Coordinating Board of Jewish Organizations.
The order is headed by a president elected at triennial meetings of the supreme lodge (made up of representatives of district grand lodges), a board of governors, and an administrative committee.
In 1990 Bnai Brith International voted to admit women as full members; a self-governing, affiliated organizationBnai Brith Womendesiring to remain concerned with womens issues continued its independent status.
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B’nai B’rith | Jewish organization | Britannica.com
Two major Jewish institutions have stepped in to provide a home for the art and artifacts of the Bnai Brith Klutznick National Jewish Museum.
Bnai Brith International and Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion will display the Klutznick collection at the HUC-JIRs Skirball Museum, located on the colleges campus in Cincinnati, Ohio.
The Klutznicks sacred and secular fine and decorative arts and social documents will be exhibited in galleries designated as the Bnai Brith Klutznick Collection. In addition, a select group of Klutznick artifacts will be loaned to the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington to be displayed in its new building, slated for opening in 2020, according to a statement issued by the two institutions.
The Skirball was Americas first officially established Jewish museum, originally named the Union Museum. The museum will collaborate with Bnai Brith through online exhibitions and links disseminating information about the collection with other organizations, and the sponsoring of special programs and lectures.
Bnai Brith transferred its archives to the Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives, also located on the Cincinnati campus of HUC-JIR.
The acquisition of this historic collection creates unprecedented opportunities for community engagement on local, regional, national and international platforms. Integrating this collection and making it accessible through digital technology will be a priority, as the Skirball positions itself as a center of Jewish art and culture, Skirball Museum Director Abby Schwartz said in a statement.
Go here to see the original:
B’nai B’rith Museum Trove Will Go Public in Cincinnati …
Leo Frank taken from the Tower to the Coroner’s Inquest, Atlanta, Georgian, Monday, May 5, 1913, on the left is Chief of Detectives Lanford and on the right (image cut out) is Chief BeaversThe procedural machinations of the official Mary Phagan murder investigation wasted no time in efforts regarding uncovering the material circumstances of the crime.
The Coroner’s Inquest
Presided over by the Fulton County Coroner Paul V. Donehoo were a half-petite jury of prominent men from the community, who opened the coroner’s inquest investigation on Wednesday morning, April 30, 1913.
The coroner’s inquest began shortly after nine o’clock after the jury was sworn under oath. The empaneled tribunal in total consisted of seven men (1 + 6), the coroner and six inquest jurymen: (1.) H. Ashford, foreman, (2.) Glenn Dewberry, (3.) J. Hood, (4.) C. Langford, (5.) John Miller, (6.) C. Sheats, (7.) Judge of the Inquest Jury, The Fulton County Coroner, Paul Donehoo.
Within the two cross-examination sessions of Leo Frank, he was very specific that he did not use the second floor bathroom ALL DAY
when he testified under oath at the coroner’s inquest — not that he didn’t remember — but that he DID NOT USE the bathroom on April 26, 1913. He appeared to be distancing himself (verbally and mentally) from the bathroom area of the second floor, which was located in the metal room. There were no other bathrooms on the second floor of the National Pencil Company, except in the metal room (Defendent’s Exhibit 61). This was thought of as a throw-away detail until it became a link in the case.
Caught in a Lie: The Perjury of Lemmie A. Quinn
A controversial new development occurred concerning Leo M. Frank’s murder timeline alibi about him never leaving his office on April 26, 1913, between noon and 12:45 p.m. Leo Frank said he had forgotten for the first week of the murder investigation to bring forward Lemmie A. Quinn, foreman of the metal room, a key witness at the coroner’s inquest and later at the Frank trial. He was criminally impeached during the appeals after the revelation that he was offering bribes to witnesses to change their stories. At the coroner’s inquest, Lemmie Quinn came forward to provide testimony that sounded contrived and did not pass the common sense test.
Quinn told the coroner’s inquest jury, he had went back to the pencil factory and specifically into Leo M. Frank’s office at 12:20 to 12:25 to talk about a baseball bet with Mr. Herbert George Schiff, but Schiff was not supposed to be at the factory at all that day because it was a state holiday and everyone was given the day off.
Herbert G. Schiff later prided himself at the Leo Frank trial for never missing a day of work in five years (BOE, Herbert Schiff, 1913) except once unintentionally during a disastrous flood. Leo Frank gave the false impression that Schiff missed work that day to support the Quinn appearance.
Several employees close to Leo Frank would later provide a cacophony of contradictory information about Schiff.The young Herbert G. Schiff became the superintendent at the NPCo after Leo Frank.If Lemmie Quinn was at the NPCo factory on Confederate Memorial Day, Saturday, April 26, 1913, at 12:20 p.m., asking Leo Frank, “Where is Herbert G. Schiff?” and intimating he had not come to work yet, the average person in 1913 was sarcastically asking why Herbert Schiff was NOT at work on a state holiday in the shuttered factory?
The coroner’s inquest jury saw right through it, and ostensibly the falsified testimony of Quinn was meant to shrink the plausible time Leo M. Frank would have to bludgeon, rape, and strangle Mary Phagan by fifteen minutes from formerly 12:02 p.m. to 12:35 p.m., to 12:02 p.m. to 12:19 p.m. However, the importance of Lemmie A. Quinn’s manufactured testimony was it added eyewitness testimony strength to Leo Frank’s alibi that he never left his office from at least noon to 12:35 p.m.
Lemmie Quinn’s perjury shrunk Leo M. Frank’s unaccounted time on that fateful Saturday, but it still left the time frame Mary Phagan arrived at Frank’s office wide open and unaccounted for.
Three Separate and Distinct Mary Phagan Arrival Times Would Later Become Four
According to Leo Frank:
1. Mary Phagan arrived in his second-floor business office at 12:03 p.m. on April 26, 1913–this information was given to detectives on Sunday, April 27, 1913, in Leo Frank’s office.
2. Mary Phagan arrived in his second-floor business office at “12:05 pm and 12:10 p.m., maybe 12:07 p.m.” according to Leo Frank in State’s Exhibit B, given to the police on Monday, April 28, 1913.
3. Mary Phagan arrived in his second-floor business office at 12:10 p.m. on April 26, 1913–Frank gave this information at the coroner’s inquest.
At the time of the coroner’s inquest, Leo Frank had provided three different times that Mary Phagan had arrived in his office.
Conclusion of the Coroner’s Inquest and Jury
Coroner Paul Donehoo and his inquest jury of six men empaneled, questioned over one hundred factory employees and dozens of other various associated people.
The coroner’s inquest combed through the factory to examine the layout and permutations of the murder.
The weeklong inquest and testimony provided under oath left strong suspicion directed upon Leo M. Frank when Thursday, May 8, 1913, the Mary Phagan Inquest drew to a close.
At 6:30 p.m., the jury went into executive session to hear the testimony of Dr. J. W. Hurt, county physician, on the what had happened to Mary Phagan shortly before her death and what was the likely cause. The doctor addressed the jury for twenty minutes.
Donehoo convened to hear the jury findings:
“We, the coroner’s jury, empaneled and sworn by Paul Donehoo, coroner of Fulton County, to inquire into the death of Mary Phagan, whose dead body now lies before us, after having heard the evidence of sworn witnesses, and the statement of Dr. J. W. Hurt, County Physician, find that the deceased came to her death from strangulation. We recommend that Leo M. Frank and Newt Lee be
held under charges of murder for further investigation by the Fulton County grand jury.
Homer C. Ashford, Foreman
Dr. J. W. Hurt, County Physician”
Coroner and Inquest Jury Verdict: The Coroner Approved the Unanimous Finding of the Inquest Jury
The coroner and his inquest jury of six men together voted unanimously 7 to 0 recommending Leo M. Frank be bound over for murder and investigated further by a grand jury of twenty-three men, which ironically included four Jews.
Coroner Paul Donehoo ordered that Leo Frank be bound over for murder and Newt Lee was to be held as a material witness.
Still yet to be uncovered was who wrote the murder notes that appeared to be written by a Negro in Ebonics.
Police Delivered the News to Leo Frank and Newt Lee
Deputy Plennie Minor delivered the unanimous verdict of the coroner’s inquest jury to Leo M. Frank, who was being held in the infamous Atlanta Police Tower. Frank was sitting perusing a local daily newspaper, Atlanta Constitution, May 8, 1913, at the time at the time of the message. When Deputy Plennie Minor approached Leo M. Frank and told him about the unanimous verdict of the inquest jury, which had ordered that Frank be held for murder and for a more thorough investigation by the grand jury.
Newt Lee slumped his head dejectedly when the bad news was delivered to him. However, Leo Frank insolently replied that it was no more than he had expected and continued crackling away and folding the big sheets of his newspaper.
In total, more than two hundred witnesses, factory workers, and affiliates had been subpoenaed providing sworn testimony at the Inquest.
What stood out the most from all the inquest testimony was that Leo Frank specified he never went to the bathroom that day, and he held onto that position for 3.5 months until he made a startling revelation during his trial on August 18, 1913.Left Detective John R. Black, on the Right Pinkerton Detective Harry K. Scott, Center Bottom Newton “Newt” Lee
One can’t help but wonder if the grand jury transcript was also purged in an effort to expunge some interesting testimony that led to the unanimous indictment of Leo Frank by twenty-one jurors, including four Jews.
The ace up Dorsey’s sleeve for the grand jury investigation, Monteen Stover.
NEXT: Leo Frank Grand Jury Indictment on Saturday, May 24, 1913.
Atlanta Georgian Newspaper Coverage of the Mary Phagan Murder Investigation, Coroner’s Inquest Testimony of Leo Frank, May, 5, 8, 1913: http://leofrank.org/library/atlanta-georgian/.
The Frank Case (1913). The Inside Story of Georgia’s Greatest Murder Mystery. Atlanta Publishing Company, Atlanta, GA. The first book ever published on the Leo Frank case. http://leofrank.org/library/frank-case.pdf.
May 1, 1913, Mary Phagan and Leo Frank Coroner’s Inquest, Atlanta Constitution: http://www.leofrank.org/library/atlanta-journal-constitution/frank-tried-to-flirt-with-murdered-girl-says-her-boy-chum-may-1-1913.pdf.
May 9, 1913, Atlanta Constitution.
Atlanta Constitution, The Second Coroner’s Inquest Session,