Sunday, November 1 at 5:30 pm
Please join us at Congregation Shaarey Zedek (map) for an elegant evening featuring a strolling buffet and inspiring presentations. Our guest speaker will be Rudy Giuliani, the 107th Mayor of New York City.
The Holocaust Memorial Center was built as a living memorial to the Holocaustone that commemorates the victims, honors the survivors and transforms attitudes each day. Listen to the news and you know that the lessons of the Holocaust have yet to be learned. Person by person, school by school, 65,000 visitors each year take home important messages about the consequences of prejudice and racism; and the price of indifference, apathy and silence.
At our 31st Anniversary Dinner, we will honor Jackie and Larry Kraft. The Kraft familys commitment to the Holocaust Memorial Center began with Larrys parents Mignon and Eugene Kraft, whose $1 million donation in 1999 jumpstarted the campaign to construct our Farmington Hills campus. Jackie and Larry have continued this legacy of generosity as stalwart supporters of the Holocaust Memorial Center and many other organizations in our community. Most recently, they assisted families harmed by last summers flood, providing mattresses to those in need. We recognize these caring community leaders for their devotion to helping others and to combatting hatred, prejudice and indifference.
We have promised our survivors and the world to never be silent again. For more information, click here, call 248.536.9605, or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Michigan’s Holocaust Museum Illuminating the past. Enlightening the future.
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Holocaust Memorial Center
In January 1942, SS official Reinhard Heydrich held a meeting of Nazi government officials to present the Final Solution. At this meeting, known as the Wannsee Conference , the Nazi officials agreed to SS plans for the transport and destruction of all 11 million Jews of Europe. The Nazis would use the latest in twentieth century technology, cost efficient engineering and mass production techniques for the sole purpose of killing off the following racial groups: Jews, Russian prisoners of war, and Gypsies (Sinti-Roma). Their long-range plans, unrealized, included targeting some 30 million Slavs for death.
Wannsee Conference entry from the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust.
Minutes of the Wannsee Conference planning the annihilation of over 11 million European Jews.
Starting early in 1942, the Jewish genocide (sometimes called the Judeocide) went into full operation. Auschwitz 2 (Birkenau), Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibr began operations as death camps. There was no selection process; Jews were destroyed upon arrival.
Ultimately, the Nazis were responsible for the deaths of some 2.7 million Jews in the death camps. These murders were done secretly under the ruse of resettlement. The Germans hid their true plans from citizens and inhabitants of the ghettos by claiming that Jews were being resettled in the East. They went so far as to charge Jews for a one-way train fare and often, just prior to their murder, had the unknowing victims send reassuring postcards back to the ghettos. Thus did millions of Jews go unwittingly to their deaths with little or no resistance.
The total figure for the Jewish genocide, including shootings and the camps, was between 5.2 and 5.8 million, roughly half of Europe’s Jewish population, the highest percentage of loss of any people in the war. About 5 million other victims perished at the hands of Nazi Germany.
View hundreds of archival photographs of camps in the Resource section.
View hundreds of recent photographs of camps in the Resource section.
This table gives the name, location, type, years of operation, closure, and present status of the major concentration camps.
Many photographs of Buchenwald.
History of Buchenwald from the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust.
This site contains photos and maps of tunnels, shelters, and underground production facilities built with forced labor from nearby camps.
Soviet cameramen made the first pictures of the camp Auschwitz-Birkenau with its prisoners’ barracks from the air.
Slideshow of Auschwitz and Birkenau camps by Scott Sakansky.
History of the Auschwitz camp from the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust.
Information about Chelmno, the first Nazi extermination camp.
Notes on the Ravensbrck concentration camp for women.
A collection of 11 articles about the Belzec, Sobibr, and Treblinka extermination camps.
An extensive article about Treblinka from the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust.
Article and photographs of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
This article provides a concise history of the Majdanek camp.
“Majdanek: Cornerstone of Himmler’s SS Empire in the East” by Elizabeth B. White.
This article traces the phases of the Final Solution, from early resettlement plans, through ghettoization, to the death camps.
Nazi correspondence and reports on “medical” experiments carried out on camp inmates.
An extensive bibliography related to Nazi medical experimentation is available at the Wiesenthal Center site.
Nazi correspondence concerning plans to sterilize Jews needed as slave laborers for the Reich.
A lengthy article (with photographs) on Nazi medical experiments.
“Holocaust Numismatics,” an article by Joel Forman about monetary systems used in concentration camps.
Richard Sufit’s story of his captivity in Auschwitz and Buchenwald contains many details of camp life.
Staff Sgt. Albert J. Kosiek describes the liberation of Mauthausen and Gusen camps.
Article, maps, and photographs of the Stutthof concentration camp.
By the end of 1943 the Germans closed down the death camps built specifically to exterminate Jews. The death tolls for the camps are as follows: Treblinka, (750,000 Jews); Belzec, (550,000 Jews); Sobibr, (200,000 Jews); Chelmno, (150,000 Jews) and Lublin (also called Majdanek, 50,000 Jews). Auschwitz continued to operate through the summer of 1944; its final death total was about 1 million Jews and 1 million non-Jews. Allied encirclement of Germany was nearly complete in the fall of 1944. The Nazis began dismantling the camps, hoping to cover up their crimes. By the late winter/early spring of 1945, they sent prisoners walking to camps in central Germany. Thousands died in what became known as death marches.
Map of major death marches and evacuations, 1944-45.
Fritzie Weiss Fritzshall describes a death march from Auschwitz and her escape into the forest.
Interactive quiz on the camps.
Lesson plans, discussion questions, term paper topics, reproducible handouts, and other resources for teaching about the camps are available here.
A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust Produced by the Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida 2005.
Holocaust Timeline: The Camps – University of South Florida
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Video: The Holocaust | Watch The War Online | PBS Video
The Holocaust Resource Center
The Holocaust Resource Center provides you with easy access to in-depth information about the Holocaust. It can help you integrating the info you already have. The Center has a large collection of sources from the Yad Vashem Archives, including various kinds of original Holocaust-era documentation provided in English including letters and diaries written by Jews during the Holocaust, numerous photographs and original documents. The Holocaust Resource Center serves as a repository for the collection of the testimonies of Holocaust survivors that have been collected at Yad Vashem over the years, as well as excerpts from memoirs written by survivors after the war. The Resource Center supports this collection of primary sources with excerpts from research studies, as well as, works of art, and historical maps and charts and a collection of artifacts from Yad Vashem’s museum collection.
Posted on the homepage of the Resource Center are thirteen main topics, referred to as “Gates.” Upon entering a gate you will find an introduction to the topic and links to various additional sources on the subject. Here you can limit your search by selecting one of the sections within the gate. Once inside a section, you will be offered an introductory summary and links to the relevant items which would be found at the bottom of the page. You can also access the sources in the Resource Center by selecting types of sources (e.g., photographs) or any of a 130 keywords. To refine your search, you can combine these three search methods. In addition, the Holocaust Resource Center offers a list of frequently asked questions (FAQs) about the Holocaust, a comprehensive lexicon about the Holocaust and a detailed time line.
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The Holocaust – Yad Vashem
Holocaust is a fictional character in the Milestone and DC Comics universes. Created as part of the Blood Syndicate for Milestone Media, the character has since gone on to become a gangster and supervillain.
Holocaust made his first appearance in Blood Syndicate #1. After leaving the team several issues later, the character became a recurring antagonist throughout the book’s 35 issue run from 1993 to 1996. The character also appeared in several other Milestone titles such as Static #4, Icon, and the My Name is Holocaust mini-series.
Milestone media discontinued its comic book line in the late 1990s but continued on as an entertainment company which is still in existence, creating new properties for screen and comics as well as managing DC Comics use of their various properties including the award-winning Static Shock animated series created with Warner Animation. In 2008 DC and Milestone unveiled an experiment to fold the two comic book universes into one following author Grant Morrison’s Final Crisis series. Contrary to common fan perception, this deal was more akin to a licensing agreement than an acquisition of Milestone’s properties by DC Comics. Moreover, the deal was contingent upon the strict provision that Milestone would continue to have editorial oversight over their trademarked properties.
As a provisional part of DC’s mainstream continuity, Holocaust made his first reappearance in August 2009 as the main villain in issue #24 of The Brave and the Bold, written by Matt Wayne and with art from Howard Porter. Following this, the character appeared as the antagonist in both Milestone Forever (a two issue mini-series published in April and May 2010) and as the main antagonist in a four issue storyline in Teen Titans #79-82 (published from MarchJune 2010).
Leonard Smalls was a small time gangbanger from the city of Dakota, and the bastard child of the city’s mayor. He killed his father at a young age, and engaged in criminal behavior for most of his life. During an event later dubbed “the Big Bang”, most of the city’s gangs showed up for a massive confrontation at Paris Island, only to be attacked by members of the Dakota police department. The majority of the men and women present at Paris Island were exposed to experimental tear gas designed by Edwin Alva, which killed most of those present and granted superhuman abilities upon the survivors.
The exposure to the gas caused Leonard to grow several times his normal size, and granted him with several superpowers, the most notable of which being pyrokinesis. Dubbing himself “Holocaust”, Leonard joined the Blood Syndicate, only to be expelled after a violent duel with the team’s leader, Tech-9. Now on his own, Holocaust used his abilities to muscle his way into Dakota’s organized crime scene, eventually amassing a vast amount of manpower and wealth.
Following Final Crisis, the characters of Milestone Media, Red Circle Comics, and the THUNDER Agents were incorporated into DC’s continuity.
Holocaust appeared at the graduation ceremony at a local Dakota high-school, where he attempted to kill the superhero Black Lightning, blaming the hero for using his status as then-president Lex Luthor’s Secretary of Education to block Leonard’s plans to build a casino. Leonard nearly killed Black Lightning, but was defeated and imprisoned thanks to the timley intervention of Static.
Some time later, Static returned to Dakota (after spending several months as a prisoner in the Dark Side Club) to find the city in a state of chaos due to the spread of a lethal virus. Static eventually tracked the origins of the virus to research facility, where he was ambushed and kidnapped by Holocaust. When several members of the Teen Titans attempted to rescue Static, Holocaust easily defeated them as well, and had them taken to a metahuman prison he dubbed “The Hole”. Smalls informed the heroes that he planned to execute them and weaponize their abilities for sale on the black market, but the remaining members of the Titans arrived at the Hole and attacked him.
Holocaust was able to defeat the would-be rescuers as well, only to be confronted by Cyborg, Superboy, and Kid Flash. The combined might of the three heroes was enough to keep Holocaust at bay long enough for the other Titans to make their escape, and the entire team was soon assembled for a final showdown with the villain. After being bound by Wonder Girl’s lasso, Holocaust was ultimately defeated when Kid Flash ran around him fast enough to open a vacuum, which then sucked Leonard into the Earth’s inner core.
Holocaust’s abilities have never been clearly defined, though his most notable ability is his power to mentally conjure and manipulate fire. In a prior encounter, it required Static bringing down an entire roller coaster structure to incapacitate him. During his battle with the Teen Titans, Holocaust was shown to be able to generate heat blasts powerful enough to render Wonder Girl, Aquagirl, and Bombshell (all three of whom possessed superhuman strength and durability) unconscious with a single impact, as well as direct blasts underground. He was also able to create a shield made of fire that was powerful enough to absorb a blow from Blue Beetle’s energy cannon.
He displayed near-Kryptonian levels of strength during his battle with Superboy, and was able to withstand a number of direct blows from the young hero, including his trademark heat vision. In addition, while he was able to effortlessly absorb the Boy of Steel’s attacks, Holocaust’s own punches were able to damage the Kryptonian hero. He was also depicted as being powerful enough to lift Beast Boy over his head while in the form of a rhinoceros, and was able to knock Miss Martian, a powerful member of the White Martian race, unconscious with a simple backhand. Despite this, Wonder Girl was able to draw blood from Holocaust after striking him in the jaw, and Static was able to make him cry out in pain after shooting a bolt of electricity at his forehead.
The actual limits of Holocaust’s superhuman durability have not been established, though both Static and Wonder Girl agreed that not even a fall into the molten core of the earth would be powerful enough to kill him.
Holocaust (DC Comics) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Created by Linda M. Woolf, Ph.D.
Mass violence, torture, violations of fundamental human rights, and the mistreatment of human beings is not a new aspect of humanity; documentation of such events spans the historical record. However, technology has taken these cruelties to new levels.
Click Here for Holocaust and Genocide Studies Recommended Readings concerning Genocide & Democide; The Holocaust; the Armenian genocide; Bosnia-Herzegovina; Burma; Cambodia; East Timor; Rwanda & Burundi; and other texts related to Holocaust and Genocide Studies
Click here for Peace and Conflict Recommended Readings concerning Peace, Conflict, and War; Refugees and Survivor’s Concerns; Human Rights; Children and Adolescents; Women; Torture; Educator Resources; and Journals and Publications
Click here for Aging as a Human Rights Page: Includes information concerning elder abuse, ageism, gay and lesbian aging, nursing home selection, and a facts on aging quiz.
Click here for Women and Global Human Rights Page: Includes information concerning a broad range of womens’ global human rights concerns resources and readings.
This chronology covers events related to the Holocaust for the years 1920 through 1945.
ONTOP Handout, Fall 2010: Dancing with Enmity: The Psychology of Hate Groups
Woolf, L. M. (2008). The Holocaust: Lessons not learned. Peace Psychology, 17(2), 1, 16-20.
APS Observer interview (September 2007): Champions of Psychology: Linda Woolf
Woolf, L. M. (2007, Sept. 1). A sad day from psychologists: A sadder day for human rights. OpEdNews.com/CounterPunch. Retrieved from http://www.opednews.com/articles/opedne_linda_m__070901_a_sad_day_for_psycho.htm
Woolf, L. M. (2006). Marketing peace? Peace Psychology, 15(1), 3-4.
Woolf, L. M. (2006). Petrified Wood and Peace. Peace Psychology, 15(2), 3-4.
NITOP Poster Presentation 2006: Elections, Ethnicity, & Extremism: Teaching Political Psychology in the 21st Century.
Woolf, L. M. (2005). Swimming against the tide: Journey of a peace psychology professor. In T. A. Benson, C. Burke, A. Amdstadter, R. Siney, V. Hevern, B. Beins, & B. Buskist (Eds.). The Teaching of Psychology in Autobiography: Perspectives from Exemplary Psychology Teachers (pp. 361-367). Society or the Teaching of Psychology (Div. 2, APA). URL: http://teachpsych.org/resources/e-books/tia2005/html/53.woolf.html.
Woolf, L. M. (2005). Psychologists, coercive interrogations, and torture. Peace Psychology Newsletter, 14(2), 1, 28-29.
Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2005). Torture? But this is different! Peace Psychology Newsletter, 14(2), 3-4.
Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2005). Psychosocial roots of genocide: risk, prevention, and intervention. Journal of Genocide Research, 7, 101-128.
Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). Hate groups for dummies: How to build a successful hate group. Humanity and Society, 28, 40-62.
Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2002/2003). Intra- and inter- religious hate and violence: A psychosocial model. Journal of Hate Studies, 2, 5-26.
Woolf, L. M. (2004). Genocide and democide. In J. K. Roth (Ed.), Ethics: Revised Edition. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press.
NITOP Participant Idea Exchange Handout: When International Crisis, Terrorism, and War Hit Home
Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). OTRP Curriculum Resource I: Psychology of Peace and Mass violence — Genocide, Torture, and Human Rights: Informational Resources (2004)
Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). OTRP Curriculum Resource II: Psychology of Peace and Mass Violence — War, Ethnopolitical Conflict, and Terrorism: Informational Resources (2004)
Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). OTRP Curriculum Resource III: Psychology of Peace and Mass Violence: Instructional Resources (2004)
War And Peace: Curricular, Classroom, And Lecture Incorporation Strategies, Presentation given at the 111th Annual American Psychological Association Convention
NITOP Poster Presentation: Genocide, Mass Violence, and Human Rights: A Path to Internationalizing the Psychology Curriculum and Promoting Social Responsibility.
USHMM (April 6, 1999) Presentation: Survival and Resistance: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation
Book Review: Henry Greenspan’s On Listening to Holocaust Survivors: Recounting and Life History
The Balkans & Bosnia
Genocide in Bangladesh
Genocide & Democide – Includes Links
Human Rights – Includes Links
Peace and Conflict – Includes Links
Rwanda & Burundi
Additional Teaching Resources
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Holocaust, Genocide, and Human Rights – Webster University
Mar. 03, 1941
“The arithmetic that Hitler has taught to Jews in the Third Reich has been the misery of subtraction. From all of them he has taken something: privileges, property, homes, life. Simplest subtraction has been the decrease of the Reich’s Jewish population by emigration, deportation and death…. Within the last fortnight two sardine-packed trains left Vienna, as the Nazis applied themselves again to this problem. Aboard each were more than 1,000 Jews bound for limbothe new barbed-wire ghetto near Lublin in Poland. Elsewhere sealed trains crossed the border with more Jews (mostly very old and very young) for the starved concentration camps of unoccupied France. From Vienna alone the Nazis promised to dump five to twelve more trainloads a month. Hitler’s final solution to his problem in subtraction is zeroto be reached, according to the most sanguine reports from Germany, in just six more weeks.”
By Alissa Greenberg August 12, 2015
Well known medic makes the remarks on live TV
By Tanya Basu August 11, 2015
Dave Driskell has deleted the post and apologized
By Yoav J. Tenembaum / History News Network August 10, 2015
It was Denmark. The Danes’ remarkable story of heroism is worth remembering in this the 70th year since the end of the war
By Jonathon Dornbush / Entertainment Weekly July 28, 2015
By Rabbi David Wolpe July 27, 2015
No one with a strong argument has to reach for rhetorical nuclear weapons
See more Time.com Articles
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Holocaust – TIME – News, pictures, quotes, archive
The Holocaust is generally regarded as the systematic, state-sponsored persecution and slaughter of approximately 6 million Jews ~ez_mdash~ two thirds of the total European Jewish population, and two-fifths of the Jews in the entire world ~ez_mdash~ but also millions of other victims, by the Nazi regime and its collaborators under Adolf Hitler.
While the Jews were the primary target, there were many other ethnic, secular, religious, and national groups that suffered during the Holocaust, including Poles, Czechs, Greeks, Gypsies, Serbs, Ukranians, and Russians, as well as homosexuals, mentally and physically handicapped persons, trade unionists, prisoners of war, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and uncounted others. All were targeted because of their perceived “racial inferiority.”
The roots of Hitler’s hatred
Disagreements persist about the precise origins of Hitler’s anti-semitism. His hatred of the Jews was so unrelenting that the political testament he signed on April 29, 1945 ~ez_mdash~ just one day before his suicide and fewer than 10 days before German surrender ~ez_mdash~ ended by ordering “the government and the people to uphold the race laws … and to resist mercilessly the poisoner of all nations, international Jewry.” As early as 1919, in his first definite anti-Jewish writing, Hitler stated that “rational anti-semitism must lead to a systematic legal opposition and elimination of the special privileges which Jews hold… Its final objective must unswervingly be the removal of the Jews altogether.”
Modern anti-semitism in Germany was boosted in the 1880s when an influential nationalist historian, Heinrich von Trietschke, published a series of articles in which he wrote, “The Jews are our misfortune.” That slogan would later be written on banners at Nazi rallies. Another anti-Jewish German writer, Wilhelm Marr, coined the term anti-semitism.
Anti-semitism was not unique to Germany. Hitler was only exploiting anti-semitic feelings that had been endemic in Europe for centuries. Germany was in terrible shape economically after World War I, and Hitler and his ideals made it easy for the German people to lay the blame on one particular group. Hitler led many to believe that the Jews had been the source of defeat during the war, as well as for the economic depression during the 1930s.
At the heart of Hitler’s political creed stood the ideal of racial purity. Above all else, German, or “Aryan,” blood must be kept vital and strong. Neither Hitler nor any of his contemporaries was the first to practice what has sometimes been called “the longest hatred.” Hitler was born into a world, and into an environment, in which anti-semitism was already present. His time spent in Vienna, Austria, as a young man, fueled his notions of racial superiority.
Hitler joined, and soon became the leader of, a small right-wing political group that called itself the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi). The Nazis attempted to take over the German government in November 1923, but were unsuccessful, and Hitler received a five-year prison sentence for his involvement in the uprising. He served nine months of his sentence in a suite of rooms at the prison, during which time he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle), which declared that some races create civilization and others corrupt it. By 1945, his book had sold more than 6,000,000 copies.
The Nazis gained in popularity as Hitler promised a better life for the German people. By 1932 the Nazis were the largest political party in Germany. They soon gained total control, and called their state the Third Reich. Hitler’s speeches ~ez_mdash~ typically delivered from rough notes and sometimes lasting two hours ~ez_mdash~ drew crowds that often numbered in the tens of thousands.
Hell on Earth
In 1933, the Jewish population of Europe was more than 9 million. Most European Jews lived in countries that the Third Reich would occupy, or at least influence, during World War II. By 1945, close to two out of every three European Jews had been killed as part of the “Final Solution,” or the policy to slay all the Jews of Europe.
The Holocaust had essentially been underway since the enactment of the 1935 Nuremberg Race Laws, which proclaimed Jews to be second-class citizens and excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship, as well as prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of “German or related blood.” German Jewish athletes were not allowed to participate in the 1936 Olympics.
As soon as Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, he implemented his scheme to conclude the struggle between the “master race” and the “inferior races.” Anything in the media that opposed the Nazi Party was censored and removed. All forms of communication, whether newspapers, magazines, books, art, music, or radio, were controlled by the Nazis.
Soon, laws were instituted against Jews that forced them out of public life ~ez_mdash~ civil service jobs, university positions, and numerous others. Jewish businesses were boycotted, and all Jews were compelled to label their exterior clothing with a yellow Star of David with the word “Juden” (Jew).
Eventually, Jews were more and more segregated, until finally, they couldn’t go to public schools, theaters, or resorts, and were even banned from walking in certain parts of Germany.
When World War II erupted on September 1, 1939 and Germany gained victory over Poland, the Nazis began to enslave the Poles and destroy their culture. The first step was to eliminate the leaders and intelligensia. Many university professors, politicians, writers, and Catholic priests were murdered. Polish people were dislocated to make room for the “superior” Germans.
Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Einsatzgruppen, or mobile killing units, carried out mass-murder operations. On September 29 and 30, 1941, for example, more than half of the 60,000 Jews living in the Ukrainian capital of Kiev were marched into a ravine and shot.
More than 1.3 million men, women, and children were murdered in such outdoor massacres. Hitler also authorized an order to exterminate institutionalized, handicapped patients deemed incurable. The practice went on throughout the war.
During the war, the Nazis created ghettos, or city districts (often enclosed), in which the Germans forced the Jewish population to live under miserable conditions. More than 400 ghettos were established, the largest of which was the one in Warsaw, Poland, where approximately 450,000 Jews were crowded into an area of 1.3 square miles.
By the middle of 1941, 4-5,000 Warsaw Jews perished every month from hunger and disease brought on by malnutrition. Between 1942 and 1944, Germans decided to eliminate the ghettos and deport their populations to “extermination camps,” or killing centers equipped with gassing facilities, in Poland. That was known as the “Final Solution to the Jewish Question” ~ez_mdash~ implemented after a meeting with senior Nazi officials in January 1942.
Between September 1939, when Nazi troops invaded Poland, and Germany’s surrender in May 1945, Hitler and his army essentially waged two wars. One was against Allied forces on three continents and the other was against the Jews and other unfortunate civilians.
Deportations of Jews from the ghettos commenced from west to east. Jews by the trainloads arrived in Poland from Germany, Holland, and Belgium. A lucky few managed to jump from the “death trains.” People were deposited directly into the death camps, and one ghetto after another was destroyed. By the beginning of 1945, Jewish communities, in continuous existence for nearly a thousand years, ceased to exist.
Six “killing centers,” or extermination camps, were organized in Poland: Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka, and the most infamous, Auschwitz. The camps were chosen according to their proximity to rail lines, which was essential for transporting the victims.
Railroad freight cars and passenger trains brought in the victims. Upon arrival, men and women were immediately separated. Prisoners were stripped of their clothing and valuables, then they were divided into two groups. Those too weak for work were forced naked into the gas chambers, disguised as showers, where carbon monoxide or hydrogen cyanide asphyxiated them.
The bodies were then stripped of hair (used for rugs, socks, and mattresses), gold fillings, and teeth, and burned in crematoriums or buried in mass graves. Those who were allowed to live were chosen for medical experiments or slave labor.
Camp living conditions were wretched. Inmates were crammed into windowless, non-insulated barracks ~ez_mdash~ up to 55 in one building. There were no bathrooms available ~ez_mdash~ a bucket served as the only waste control. Food was scarce, malnutrition made prisoners easy targets of disease and dehydration.
Besides the “extermination camps”, whose sole purpose was to annihilate the Jewish population and all other enemies of the Nazis, there also were “concentration camps” established throughout Germany, where inmates were placed under harsh working conditions and starvation.
An end to the nightmare
In late 1944, the tide of war had turned and Allied forces moved across Europe in a series of offensives on Germany. The Nazis decided to evacuate outlying concentration camps. In the final months of the war, SS guards forced inmates on death marches in an attempt to prevent the Allied liberation of large numbers of prisoners.
Those death marches passed directly through many towns, and many died literally at the front doors of townspeople. Many died from starvation, disease, exhaustion, and cold, and thousands more were shot along the way. It is estimated that 250,000 concentration camp prisoners were murdered or died in the forced death marches that were conducted during the last 10 months of World War II.
Allied forces began to encounter and liberate concentration camp prisoners in the late spring and early summer of 1945. Many of the freed prisoners were so weak that they couldn’t eat or digest the food they were given and died shortly after liberation.
The Third Reich collapsed in May 1945. SS guards fled and many of the concentration camps were turned into displaced person camps. Between 1948 and 1951, nearly 700,000 Jews emigrated to the new state of Israel. Approximately 140,000 Holocaust survivors came to America after 1948, most settling in New York.
Many Nazis were put on trial at Nuremberg, and found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Nazi medical doctors were accused of involvement in the horrors of human experimentation. One such doctor was Karl Brandt, Hitler’s personal physician. He was sentenced to death, along with dozens of other Nazi leaders.
Current estimates, based on Nazi war records and official government documents from various countries, place the death toll of the Holocaust at anywhere from 10 million (a conservative figure) to 26 million people.
The sobering fact about the Holocaust is how close the Nazis came to total victory. In such countries as Poland, which, before World War II, still included parts of the Ukraine and Belarus, the Jewish death toll surpassed 90 percent.
It is important to note, however, when looking at this atrocious event in world history, that the Jews were by no means the only victims of the Holocaust. Other ethnic groups suffered heavy losses. For instance, there were nearly as many non-Jewish Poles killed (approximately 3 million) as there were Jewish Poles.
Many survivors have expressed disgust that the Holocaust happened in full public view, and reached its awful results because people were content to be bystanders and look the other way. Although the full extent of what was happening in German-controlled areas was not known until after the war, there were many rumors and eye-witness accounts throughout Europe that indicated that a great number of Jews were being killed.
The German Rail Company, which was used to transport prisoners to various concentration camps, had more than 1 million employees, and had to be fully aware of the reality of life in the camps. British historian Ian Kershaw has written: “The road to Auschwitz was built by hate, and paved by indifference.”
Some also have questioned why the prisoners didn’t revolt, since the inmates vastly outnumbered the soldiers stationed at the camps. There were uprisings, but one has to remember that the prisoners, for the most part, lacked any kind of organizational or military experience. They came from various European countries and therefore spoke different languages. Most importantly, they were extremely weak because of their living conditions.
The 1961 trial in Jerusalem of Adolf Eichmann, the coordinator of the Final Solution, set off an angry debate about Jewish honor and resistance. Why didn’t victims put up more of a fight? The real mystery is not why the Jews failed to resist, but how anyone managed to survive at all.
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The Holocaust – U-S-History.com
The Holocaust is woven into the very existence of those who lived during that time some seven decades ago. Today, young peoples knowledge of this horrific chapter of history is limited by educators choices in planning their classroom curriculum. Although the mandate of Never Again has proved difficult to achieve, the lessons of the Holocaust remain relevant and significant in the lives of youth, including the dangers of silence, the consequences of indifference, and the responsibility to protect the vulnerable.Through programs and curriculum, ADL helps educators bring these lessons to life for students.
ADL Holocaust Programs
Nearly 70 years after the end of World War II, awareness of the Holocaust is alarmingly low in many parts of the world. Even more disturbing is the percentage of people who have heard of the Holocaust but think it is either a myth or that the number of Jews who died has been greatly exaggerated. Learn more about this and other interesting facts found in the ADL GLobal 100 Index- a groundbreaking survey of 100 countries and the anti-Semitic attitudes around the world.
Read the Global Study
Echoes and Reflections provides middle and high school teachers with print and online resources that address academic standards in a comprehensive curriculum. The program integrates visual history testimony from Holocaust survivors and other witnesses and primary source materials into conveniently packaged lessons.
About Echoes and Reflections Resources
The 8th Annual Charlotte and Jacques Wolf Educators Conference on Echoes and Reflections was held July 13-17, 2015. Twenty-three educators convened from across the United States for a week of in-depth training on integrating Echoes and Reflections resources into their classrooms. Participants learned from Holocaust and genocide experts, survivors and other witnesses, and from one another
Learnabout Echoes and Reflections
Education & Outreach HOLOCAUST EDUCATION
Did you know that the following article was an elaborate hoax perpetrated by the Zionist elites who control the world? 99 subhuman Jews in the row, 99 subhuman Jews! Shoot one down, kick it around, 98 subhuman Jews in the row!
~ Concentration camp worker on holocaust
~ Adolf Eichmann at the Nuremberg Trials
The Holocaust is an important mathematical structure in political algebraic topology and physics. It is the colimit in the category of fields of infinite tragic characteristic with natural logical morphisms, as is the nineleven in the category of fields of infinite tragic attributes with unnatural quantum functions.
A holocaust as displayed by in a three-dimensional field with Legos.
A political field is a set with two binary operations, addition and multiplication, that satisfies the following axioms:
A topological political field has also a topological structure. This determines open and closed issues on the political field. Multiplication is of course a continuous map under this topology.
Some political fields have a tragic characteristic, which is the smallest negative element n of the tragic numbers such that when acting upon the political field, 0 is attained. Political fields of finite tragic characteristic include the Schiavo field, the Chandra-Levy field, the Elysian field, the Natalee Holloway field, and the Phillip-Bustert field. Some political fields have no non-trivial nilpotent elements under tragedy. No action will reduce the open issues in these fields to 0. Such political fields have infinite tragic characteristic.
Classic political fields of infinite tragic characteristic include the Orwell field and the Alderaan field. In 1905, Bertrand Russell proved the existence of a universal political field of tragic infinite characteristic. However, it was not until 1941 that Wilhelm Sss, a German politicomathematician, explicitly constructed this field, which was later termed the Holocaust. Sss constructed the Holocaust using J-transport theory, which allows one to concentrate certain difficult degenerate maps into nilpotent elements.
The most important feature of the Holocaust is that it is universal for all political fields of infinite tragic characteristic. This is a priori a simple property from its definition as a colimit. However there appear to be no natural maps from any open issue in any other political field into the Holocaust. It was conjectured by American politicomathematician Asimov that it is impossible to construct a comparison of an open issue in any political field to the Holocaust. Many attempts to disprove this conjecture have failed, including attempts by politicomathematicians Santorum and Durbin, who respectively attempted to compare the Phillip-Bustert field and the Gitmo field to the Holocaust.
Most applications of the Holocaust depend upon the Asimov Conjecture. In this way, the Asimov Conjecture plays the same role in political field theory that the Riemann hypothesis plays in number theory.
Much work in the early 2000s has focused on the connection between the Asimov Conjecture and the Axiom of Choice. Many politicomathematicians, trying to extend earlier work of Paul Cohen, have tried to show that the Stewart Conjecture is incompatible with the Axiom of Choice. Most of the work in this field focuses on Ab-Torsion using elliptical maps. Still, despite years of work by the politicomathematicians Ralph Reed and Pat Robertson, no natural maps between Ab-Torsion groups and the Holocaust have been discovered.
Teaching kids about the Holocaust.
All Jews loved the holocaust. All of them.
Speculation is still open as to whether the Asimov Conjecture will be proven. If it can be successfully proven, then the energy focused on trying to construct a comparison between an open issue and the Holocaust will have been wasted. Current efforts are focused on the discovery of a hypothetical particle, the Joo particle, and a hypothetical second particle, the Nutsy particle. It is hypothesized that if the two particles should collide, then a very energetic reaction should take place.
This image shows (or resembles) a symbol that was used by the National Socialist (NSDAP/Nazi) government of Germany or an organization closely associated to it, or another party which has been banned by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany.
The use of insignia of organizations that have been banned in Germany (like the Nazi swastika or the arrow cross) may also be illegal in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, France, Brazil, Israel, Canada and other countries, depending on context. In Germany, the applicable law is paragraph 86a of the criminal code (StGB), in Poland Art. 256 of the criminal code (Dz.U. 1997 nr 88 poz. 553).
Therefore, if you are in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, France, Brazil, Israel, or Canada, fuck off, you’re not allowed to read this or the government will get you.
Seriously. GTFO. This article might just call you a god-damn ni-*gets arrested*
Holocaust – Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia