Holocaust is a fictional character in the Milestone and DC Comics universes. Created as part of the Blood Syndicate for Milestone Media, the character has since gone on to become a gangster and supervillain.

Holocaust made his first appearance in Blood Syndicate #1. After leaving the team several issues later, the character became a recurring antagonist throughout the book’s 35 issue run from 1993 to 1996. The character also appeared in several other Milestone titles such as Static #4, Icon,[1] and the My Name is Holocaust mini-series.

Milestone media discontinued its comic book line in the late 1990s but continued on as an entertainment company which is still in existence, creating new properties for screen and comics as well as managing DC Comics use of their various properties including the award-winning Static Shock animated series created with Warner Animation. In 2008 DC and Milestone unveiled an experiment to fold the two comic book universes into one following author Grant Morrison’s Final Crisis series. Contrary to common fan perception, this deal was more akin to a licensing agreement than an acquisition of Milestone’s properties by DC Comics. Moreover, the deal was contingent upon the strict provision that Milestone would continue to have editorial oversight over their trademarked properties.

As a provisional part of DC’s mainstream continuity, Holocaust made his first reappearance in August 2009 as the main villain in issue #24 of The Brave and the Bold, written by Matt Wayne and with art from Howard Porter. Following this, the character appeared as the antagonist in both Milestone Forever (a two issue mini-series published in April and May 2010) and as the main antagonist in a four issue storyline in Teen Titans #79-82 (published from MarchJune 2010).

Leonard Smalls was a small time gangbanger from the city of Dakota, and the bastard child of the city’s mayor. He killed his father at a young age, and engaged in criminal behavior for most of his life.[2] During an event later dubbed “the Big Bang”, most of the city’s gangs showed up for a massive confrontation at Paris Island, only to be attacked by members of the Dakota police department. The majority of the men and women present at Paris Island were exposed to experimental tear gas designed by Edwin Alva, which killed most of those present and granted superhuman abilities upon the survivors.

The exposure to the gas caused Leonard to grow several times his normal size, and granted him with several superpowers, the most notable of which being pyrokinesis. Dubbing himself “Holocaust”, Leonard joined the Blood Syndicate, only to be expelled after a violent duel with the team’s leader, Tech-9. Now on his own, Holocaust used his abilities to muscle his way into Dakota’s organized crime scene, eventually amassing a vast amount of manpower and wealth.[3]

Following Final Crisis, the characters of Milestone Media, Red Circle Comics, and the THUNDER Agents were incorporated into DC’s continuity.

Holocaust appeared at the graduation ceremony at a local Dakota high-school, where he attempted to kill the superhero Black Lightning, blaming the hero for using his status as then-president Lex Luthor’s Secretary of Education to block Leonard’s plans to build a casino. Leonard nearly killed Black Lightning, but was defeated and imprisoned thanks to the timley intervention of Static.

Some time later, Static returned to Dakota (after spending several months as a prisoner in the Dark Side Club) to find the city in a state of chaos due to the spread of a lethal virus. Static eventually tracked the origins of the virus to research facility, where he was ambushed and kidnapped by Holocaust. When several members of the Teen Titans attempted to rescue Static, Holocaust easily defeated them as well, and had them taken to a metahuman prison he dubbed “The Hole”. Smalls informed the heroes that he planned to execute them and weaponize their abilities for sale on the black market, but the remaining members of the Titans arrived at the Hole and attacked him.

Holocaust was able to defeat the would-be rescuers as well, only to be confronted by Cyborg, Superboy, and Kid Flash. The combined might of the three heroes was enough to keep Holocaust at bay long enough for the other Titans to make their escape, and the entire team was soon assembled for a final showdown with the villain. After being bound by Wonder Girl’s lasso, Holocaust was ultimately defeated when Kid Flash ran around him fast enough to open a vacuum, which then sucked Leonard into the Earth’s inner core.[4][5][6][7]

Holocaust’s abilities have never been clearly defined, though his most notable ability is his power to mentally conjure and manipulate fire. In a prior encounter, it required Static bringing down an entire roller coaster structure to incapacitate him.[8] During his battle with the Teen Titans, Holocaust was shown to be able to generate heat blasts powerful enough to render Wonder Girl, Aquagirl, and Bombshell (all three of whom possessed superhuman strength and durability) unconscious with a single impact, as well as direct blasts underground.[5][7] He was also able to create a shield made of fire that was powerful enough to absorb a blow from Blue Beetle’s energy cannon.

He displayed near-Kryptonian levels of strength during his battle with Superboy, and was able to withstand a number of direct blows from the young hero, including his trademark heat vision. In addition, while he was able to effortlessly absorb the Boy of Steel’s attacks, Holocaust’s own punches were able to damage the Kryptonian hero.[7] He was also depicted as being powerful enough to lift Beast Boy over his head while in the form of a rhinoceros, and was able to knock Miss Martian, a powerful member of the White Martian race, unconscious with a simple backhand.[6] Despite this, Wonder Girl was able to draw blood from Holocaust after striking him in the jaw, and Static was able to make him cry out in pain after shooting a bolt of electricity at his forehead.

The actual limits of Holocaust’s superhuman durability have not been established, though both Static and Wonder Girl agreed that not even a fall into the molten core of the earth would be powerful enough to kill him.[7]

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Holocaust (DC Comics) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Written on October 3rd, 2015 & filed under Holocaust Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

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A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust

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Israel Galvn is the dance maverick who has reinvented flamenco, pitching it into dark, experimental territory. Will Lo Real, his work about the Holocaust, cause as much outrage at the Edinburgh festival as it did in at its Madrid premiere? And just what is crazy dancing?

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Today in History

in Iraq topped 1,900. Rapidly strengthening Hurricane Rita lashed the Florida Keys and headed into the Gulf of Mexico. Holocaust survivor and Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal died in Vienna, Austria, at age 96. The Sacramento Monarchs won their first championship

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Holocaust News, Photos and Videos – ABC News

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The Timeline section focuses on the history of the Holocaust, chronicling the years from 1918 to the present. Hitler’s rise to power was the initiation of a period that wrought great fear and destruction. Millions were forced to live in ghettos, only to be deported later to the concentration camps. The tragic details remained obscure until the liberation of the death camps and the further revelations during the Nuremberg War Trials. The subsections below offer a simplified outline for thinking about how the Holocaust unfolded. However, it should be kept in mind that many of the categories overlap.

A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust Produced by the Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida 2005.

A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust, Timeline

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A New York anthropologist named Professor Harold Monroe travels to the wild, inhospitable jungles of South America to find out what happened to a documentary film crew that disappeared two months before while filming a documentary about primitive cannibal tribes deep in the rain forest. With the help of two local guides, Professor Monroe encounters two tribes, the Yacumo and the Yanomamo. While under the hospitality of the latter tribe, he finds the remains of the crew and several reels of their undeveloped film. Upon returning to New York City, Professor Monroe views the film in detail, featuring the director Alan Yates, his girlfriend Faye Daniels, and cameramen Jack Anders and Mark Tomaso. After a few days of traveling, the film details how the crew staged all the footage for their documentary by terrorizing and torturing the natives. Despite Monroe’s objections, the television studio Pan American still wishes to air the footage as a legitimate documentary. In order to change their… Written by Helltopay27

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Cannibal Holocaust (1980) – IMDb

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Human Rights

Created by Linda M. Woolf, Ph.D.

Mass violence, torture, violations of fundamental human rights, and the mistreatment of human beings is not a new aspect of humanity; documentation of such events spans the historical record. However, technology has taken these cruelties to new levels.

Click Here for Holocaust and Genocide Studies Recommended Readings concerning Genocide & Democide; The Holocaust; the Armenian genocide; Bosnia-Herzegovina; Burma; Cambodia; East Timor; Rwanda & Burundi; and other texts related to Holocaust and Genocide Studies

Click here for Peace and Conflict Recommended Readings concerning Peace, Conflict, and War; Refugees and Survivor’s Concerns; Human Rights; Children and Adolescents; Women; Torture; Educator Resources; and Journals and Publications

Click here for Aging as a Human Rights Page: Includes information concerning elder abuse, ageism, gay and lesbian aging, nursing home selection, and a facts on aging quiz.

Click here for Women and Global Human Rights Page: Includes information concerning a broad range of womens’ global human rights concerns resources and readings.

This chronology covers events related to the Holocaust for the years 1920 through 1945.

ONTOP Handout, Fall 2010: Dancing with Enmity: The Psychology of Hate Groups

Woolf, L. M. (2008). The Holocaust: Lessons not learned. Peace Psychology, 17(2), 1, 16-20.

APS Observer interview (September 2007): Champions of Psychology: Linda Woolf

Woolf, L. M. (2007, Sept. 1). A sad day from psychologists: A sadder day for human rights. OpEdNews.com/CounterPunch. Retrieved from http://www.opednews.com/articles/opedne_linda_m__070901_a_sad_day_for_psycho.htm

Woolf, L. M. (2006). Marketing peace? Peace Psychology, 15(1), 3-4.

Woolf, L. M. (2006). Petrified Wood and Peace. Peace Psychology, 15(2), 3-4.

NITOP Poster Presentation 2006: Elections, Ethnicity, & Extremism: Teaching Political Psychology in the 21st Century.

Woolf, L. M. (2005). Swimming against the tide: Journey of a peace psychology professor. In T. A. Benson, C. Burke, A. Amdstadter, R. Siney, V. Hevern, B. Beins, & B. Buskist (Eds.). The Teaching of Psychology in Autobiography: Perspectives from Exemplary Psychology Teachers (pp. 361-367). Society or the Teaching of Psychology (Div. 2, APA). URL: http://teachpsych.org/resources/e-books/tia2005/html/53.woolf.html.

Woolf, L. M. (2005). Psychologists, coercive interrogations, and torture. Peace Psychology Newsletter, 14(2), 1, 28-29.

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2005). Torture? But this is different! Peace Psychology Newsletter, 14(2), 3-4.

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2005). Psychosocial roots of genocide: risk, prevention, and intervention. Journal of Genocide Research, 7, 101-128.

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). Hate groups for dummies: How to build a successful hate group. Humanity and Society, 28, 40-62.

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2002/2003). Intra- and inter- religious hate and violence: A psychosocial model. Journal of Hate Studies, 2, 5-26.

Woolf, L. M. (2004). Genocide and democide. In J. K. Roth (Ed.), Ethics: Revised Edition. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press.

NITOP Participant Idea Exchange Handout: When International Crisis, Terrorism, and War Hit Home

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). OTRP Curriculum Resource I: Psychology of Peace and Mass violence — Genocide, Torture, and Human Rights: Informational Resources (2004)

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). OTRP Curriculum Resource II: Psychology of Peace and Mass Violence — War, Ethnopolitical Conflict, and Terrorism: Informational Resources (2004)

Woolf, L. M., & Hulsizer, M. R. (2004). OTRP Curriculum Resource III: Psychology of Peace and Mass Violence: Instructional Resources (2004)

War And Peace: Curricular, Classroom, And Lecture Incorporation Strategies, Presentation given at the 111th Annual American Psychological Association Convention

NITOP Poster Presentation: Genocide, Mass Violence, and Human Rights: A Path to Internationalizing the Psychology Curriculum and Promoting Social Responsibility.

USHMM (April 6, 1999) Presentation: Survival and Resistance: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation

Book Review: Henry Greenspan’s On Listening to Holocaust Survivors: Recounting and Life History


The Balkans & Bosnia

Genocide in Bangladesh



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Holocaust, Genocide, and Human Rights – Webster University

Written on September 28th, 2015 & filed under Holocaust Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

Mar. 03, 1941

“The arithmetic that Hitler has taught to Jews in the Third Reich has been the misery of subtraction. From all of them he has taken something: privileges, property, homes, life. Simplest subtraction has been the decrease of the Reich’s Jewish population by emigration, deportation and death…. Within the last fortnight two sardine-packed trains left Vienna, as the Nazis applied themselves again to this problem. Aboard each were more than 1,000 Jews bound for limbothe new barbed-wire ghetto near Lublin in Poland. Elsewhere sealed trains crossed the border with more Jews (mostly very old and very young) for the starved concentration camps of unoccupied France. From Vienna alone the Nazis promised to dump five to twelve more trainloads a month. Hitler’s final solution to his problem in subtraction is zeroto be reached, according to the most sanguine reports from Germany, in just six more weeks.”

By Alissa Greenberg August 12, 2015

Well known medic makes the remarks on live TV

By Tanya Basu August 11, 2015

Dave Driskell has deleted the post and apologized

By Yoav J. Tenembaum / History News Network August 10, 2015

It was Denmark. The Danes’ remarkable story of heroism is worth remembering in this the 70th year since the end of the war

By Jonathon Dornbush / Entertainment Weekly July 28, 2015


By Rabbi David Wolpe July 27, 2015

No one with a strong argument has to reach for rhetorical nuclear weapons

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Holocaust – TIME – News, pictures, quotes, archive


The Holocaust is generally regarded as the systematic, state-sponsored persecution and slaughter of approximately 6 million Jews ~ez_mdash~ two thirds of the total European Jewish population, and two-fifths of the Jews in the entire world ~ez_mdash~ but also millions of other victims, by the Nazi regime and its collaborators under Adolf Hitler.

While the Jews were the primary target, there were many other ethnic, secular, religious, and national groups that suffered during the Holocaust, including Poles, Czechs, Greeks, Gypsies, Serbs, Ukranians, and Russians, as well as homosexuals, mentally and physically handicapped persons, trade unionists, prisoners of war, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and uncounted others. All were targeted because of their perceived “racial inferiority.”

The roots of Hitler’s hatred

Disagreements persist about the precise origins of Hitler’s anti-semitism. His hatred of the Jews was so unrelenting that the political testament he signed on April 29, 1945 ~ez_mdash~ just one day before his suicide and fewer than 10 days before German surrender ~ez_mdash~ ended by ordering “the government and the people to uphold the race laws … and to resist mercilessly the poisoner of all nations, international Jewry.” As early as 1919, in his first definite anti-Jewish writing, Hitler stated that “rational anti-semitism must lead to a systematic legal opposition and elimination of the special privileges which Jews hold… Its final objective must unswervingly be the removal of the Jews altogether.”

Modern anti-semitism in Germany was boosted in the 1880s when an influential nationalist historian, Heinrich von Trietschke, published a series of articles in which he wrote, “The Jews are our misfortune.” That slogan would later be written on banners at Nazi rallies. Another anti-Jewish German writer, Wilhelm Marr, coined the term anti-semitism.

Anti-semitism was not unique to Germany. Hitler was only exploiting anti-semitic feelings that had been endemic in Europe for centuries. Germany was in terrible shape economically after World War I, and Hitler and his ideals made it easy for the German people to lay the blame on one particular group. Hitler led many to believe that the Jews had been the source of defeat during the war, as well as for the economic depression during the 1930s.

At the heart of Hitler’s political creed stood the ideal of racial purity. Above all else, German, or “Aryan,” blood must be kept vital and strong. Neither Hitler nor any of his contemporaries was the first to practice what has sometimes been called “the longest hatred.” Hitler was born into a world, and into an environment, in which anti-semitism was already present. His time spent in Vienna, Austria, as a young man, fueled his notions of racial superiority.

Hitler joined, and soon became the leader of, a small right-wing political group that called itself the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi). The Nazis attempted to take over the German government in November 1923, but were unsuccessful, and Hitler received a five-year prison sentence for his involvement in the uprising. He served nine months of his sentence in a suite of rooms at the prison, during which time he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle), which declared that some races create civilization and others corrupt it. By 1945, his book had sold more than 6,000,000 copies.

The Nazis gained in popularity as Hitler promised a better life for the German people. By 1932 the Nazis were the largest political party in Germany. They soon gained total control, and called their state the Third Reich. Hitler’s speeches ~ez_mdash~ typically delivered from rough notes and sometimes lasting two hours ~ez_mdash~ drew crowds that often numbered in the tens of thousands.

Hell on Earth

In 1933, the Jewish population of Europe was more than 9 million. Most European Jews lived in countries that the Third Reich would occupy, or at least influence, during World War II. By 1945, close to two out of every three European Jews had been killed as part of the “Final Solution,” or the policy to slay all the Jews of Europe.

The Holocaust had essentially been underway since the enactment of the 1935 Nuremberg Race Laws, which proclaimed Jews to be second-class citizens and excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship, as well as prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of “German or related blood.” German Jewish athletes were not allowed to participate in the 1936 Olympics.

As soon as Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, he implemented his scheme to conclude the struggle between the “master race” and the “inferior races.” Anything in the media that opposed the Nazi Party was censored and removed. All forms of communication, whether newspapers, magazines, books, art, music, or radio, were controlled by the Nazis.

Soon, laws were instituted against Jews that forced them out of public life ~ez_mdash~ civil service jobs, university positions, and numerous others. Jewish businesses were boycotted, and all Jews were compelled to label their exterior clothing with a yellow Star of David with the word “Juden” (Jew).

Eventually, Jews were more and more segregated, until finally, they couldn’t go to public schools, theaters, or resorts, and were even banned from walking in certain parts of Germany.

When World War II erupted on September 1, 1939 and Germany gained victory over Poland, the Nazis began to enslave the Poles and destroy their culture. The first step was to eliminate the leaders and intelligensia. Many university professors, politicians, writers, and Catholic priests were murdered. Polish people were dislocated to make room for the “superior” Germans.

Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Einsatzgruppen, or mobile killing units, carried out mass-murder operations. On September 29 and 30, 1941, for example, more than half of the 60,000 Jews living in the Ukrainian capital of Kiev were marched into a ravine and shot.

More than 1.3 million men, women, and children were murdered in such outdoor massacres. Hitler also authorized an order to exterminate institutionalized, handicapped patients deemed incurable. The practice went on throughout the war.

During the war, the Nazis created ghettos, or city districts (often enclosed), in which the Germans forced the Jewish population to live under miserable conditions. More than 400 ghettos were established, the largest of which was the one in Warsaw, Poland, where approximately 450,000 Jews were crowded into an area of 1.3 square miles.

By the middle of 1941, 4-5,000 Warsaw Jews perished every month from hunger and disease brought on by malnutrition. Between 1942 and 1944, Germans decided to eliminate the ghettos and deport their populations to “extermination camps,” or killing centers equipped with gassing facilities, in Poland. That was known as the “Final Solution to the Jewish Question” ~ez_mdash~ implemented after a meeting with senior Nazi officials in January 1942.

Between September 1939, when Nazi troops invaded Poland, and Germany’s surrender in May 1945, Hitler and his army essentially waged two wars. One was against Allied forces on three continents and the other was against the Jews and other unfortunate civilians.


Deportations of Jews from the ghettos commenced from west to east. Jews by the trainloads arrived in Poland from Germany, Holland, and Belgium. A lucky few managed to jump from the “death trains.” People were deposited directly into the death camps, and one ghetto after another was destroyed. By the beginning of 1945, Jewish communities, in continuous existence for nearly a thousand years, ceased to exist.

Six “killing centers,” or extermination camps, were organized in Poland: Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka, and the most infamous, Auschwitz. The camps were chosen according to their proximity to rail lines, which was essential for transporting the victims.

Railroad freight cars and passenger trains brought in the victims. Upon arrival, men and women were immediately separated. Prisoners were stripped of their clothing and valuables, then they were divided into two groups. Those too weak for work were forced naked into the gas chambers, disguised as showers, where carbon monoxide or hydrogen cyanide asphyxiated them.

The bodies were then stripped of hair (used for rugs, socks, and mattresses), gold fillings, and teeth, and burned in crematoriums or buried in mass graves. Those who were allowed to live were chosen for medical experiments or slave labor.

Camp living conditions were wretched. Inmates were crammed into windowless, non-insulated barracks ~ez_mdash~ up to 55 in one building. There were no bathrooms available ~ez_mdash~ a bucket served as the only waste control. Food was scarce, malnutrition made prisoners easy targets of disease and dehydration.

Besides the “extermination camps”, whose sole purpose was to annihilate the Jewish population and all other enemies of the Nazis, there also were “concentration camps” established throughout Germany, where inmates were placed under harsh working conditions and starvation.

An end to the nightmare

In late 1944, the tide of war had turned and Allied forces moved across Europe in a series of offensives on Germany. The Nazis decided to evacuate outlying concentration camps. In the final months of the war, SS guards forced inmates on death marches in an attempt to prevent the Allied liberation of large numbers of prisoners.

Those death marches passed directly through many towns, and many died literally at the front doors of townspeople. Many died from starvation, disease, exhaustion, and cold, and thousands more were shot along the way. It is estimated that 250,000 concentration camp prisoners were murdered or died in the forced death marches that were conducted during the last 10 months of World War II.

Allied forces began to encounter and liberate concentration camp prisoners in the late spring and early summer of 1945. Many of the freed prisoners were so weak that they couldn’t eat or digest the food they were given and died shortly after liberation.

The Third Reich collapsed in May 1945. SS guards fled and many of the concentration camps were turned into displaced person camps. Between 1948 and 1951, nearly 700,000 Jews emigrated to the new state of Israel. Approximately 140,000 Holocaust survivors came to America after 1948, most settling in New York.

Many Nazis were put on trial at Nuremberg, and found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Nazi medical doctors were accused of involvement in the horrors of human experimentation. One such doctor was Karl Brandt, Hitler’s personal physician. He was sentenced to death, along with dozens of other Nazi leaders.

Current estimates, based on Nazi war records and official government documents from various countries, place the death toll of the Holocaust at anywhere from 10 million (a conservative figure) to 26 million people.

The sobering fact about the Holocaust is how close the Nazis came to total victory. In such countries as Poland, which, before World War II, still included parts of the Ukraine and Belarus, the Jewish death toll surpassed 90 percent.

It is important to note, however, when looking at this atrocious event in world history, that the Jews were by no means the only victims of the Holocaust. Other ethnic groups suffered heavy losses. For instance, there were nearly as many non-Jewish Poles killed (approximately 3 million) as there were Jewish Poles.

Many survivors have expressed disgust that the Holocaust happened in full public view, and reached its awful results because people were content to be bystanders and look the other way. Although the full extent of what was happening in German-controlled areas was not known until after the war, there were many rumors and eye-witness accounts throughout Europe that indicated that a great number of Jews were being killed.

The German Rail Company, which was used to transport prisoners to various concentration camps, had more than 1 million employees, and had to be fully aware of the reality of life in the camps. British historian Ian Kershaw has written: “The road to Auschwitz was built by hate, and paved by indifference.”

Some also have questioned why the prisoners didn’t revolt, since the inmates vastly outnumbered the soldiers stationed at the camps. There were uprisings, but one has to remember that the prisoners, for the most part, lacked any kind of organizational or military experience. They came from various European countries and therefore spoke different languages. Most importantly, they were extremely weak because of their living conditions.

The 1961 trial in Jerusalem of Adolf Eichmann, the coordinator of the Final Solution, set off an angry debate about Jewish honor and resistance. Why didn’t victims put up more of a fight? The real mystery is not why the Jews failed to resist, but how anyone managed to survive at all.

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The Holocaust – U-S-History.com

Written on September 28th, 2015 & filed under Holocaust Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

The Holocaust is woven into the very existence of those who lived during that time some seven decades ago. Today, young peoples knowledge of this horrific chapter of history is limited by educators choices in planning their classroom curriculum. Although the mandate of Never Again has proved difficult to achieve, the lessons of the Holocaust remain relevant and significant in the lives of youth, including the dangers of silence, the consequences of indifference, and the responsibility to protect the vulnerable.Through programs and curriculum, ADL helps educators bring these lessons to life for students.

ADL Holocaust Programs

Nearly 70 years after the end of World War II, awareness of the Holocaust is alarmingly low in many parts of the world. Even more disturbing is the percentage of people who have heard of the Holocaust but think it is either a myth or that the number of Jews who died has been greatly exaggerated. Learn more about this and other interesting facts found in the ADL GLobal 100 Index- a groundbreaking survey of 100 countries and the anti-Semitic attitudes around the world.

Read the Global Study

Echoes and Reflections provides middle and high school teachers with print and online resources that address academic standards in a comprehensive curriculum. The program integrates visual history testimony from Holocaust survivors and other witnesses and primary source materials into conveniently packaged lessons.

About Echoes and Reflections Resources

The 8th Annual Charlotte and Jacques Wolf Educators Conference on Echoes and Reflections was held July 13-17, 2015. Twenty-three educators convened from across the United States for a week of in-depth training on integrating Echoes and Reflections resources into their classrooms. Participants learned from Holocaust and genocide experts, survivors and other witnesses, and from one another

Learnabout Echoes and Reflections

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