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January 30, 1933 – Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany a nation with a Jewish population of 566,000.
February 22, 1933 – 40,000 SA and SS men are sworn in as auxiliary police.
February 27, 1933- Nazis burn Reichstag building to create crisis atmosphere.
February 28, 1933 – Emergency powers granted to Hitler as a result of the Reichstag fire.
March 22, 1933 – Nazis open Dachau concentration camp near Munich, to be followed by Buchenwald near Weimar in central Germany, Sachsenhausen near Berlin in northern Germany, and Ravensbrck for women.
March 24, 1933 – German Parliament passes Enabling Act giving Hitler dictatorial powers.
See also: The History Place – Rise of Hitler
April 1, 1933 – Nazis stage boycott of Jewish shops and businesses.
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The History Place – Holocaust Timeline
History of Tluste/Tovste from a Jewish Perspective Quick Navigation – select section The Polish Era Under Austrian Rule The Interwar Years Tluste and the Holocaust The Beginning of the End The End Notes
The following pages give an overview of the history of Tluste/Tovste and of the region in which it is situated from the perspective of the Jewish population, one of three principal ethnic groups that co-existed there. Polish and Ukrainian perspectives each receive their own treatment elsewhere in dedicated overviews; while the section Tluste – Life and Times attempts to give an overall impression of what the town was like between 1880 and 1930.
While their histories are necessarily intertwined, a case can be made for presenting these ethnic perspectives separately. For, although they lived side-by-side for many centuries, persistent tensions among these communities ensured that they maintained distinct identities and separate affiliations throughout their long co-existence.
Each of these overviews is a work in progress. They will be supplemented by additional information as it comes to light. Indeed, there are many rich sources of historical information already at hand, waiting to be translated into English from the original Hebrew, Polish or Ukrainian texts. While no claim is made that the information presented here is comprehensive, it should nonetheless give a fairly good sense of the social interactions, over time, among these three communities.
The Polish Era
From the 14th to 18th centuries, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth expanded to cover a huge territory in northern Europe. During this period, Tluste was part of the fertile province of Podilia (also written as Podole in Polish, Podillia in Ukrainian). Ruthenian (Ukrainian) peasantry made up the vast majority of the populous, while Jews settled in newly created towns and were heavily involved in the administration of large tracts of land granted to noblemen. These formed the basis for the latifundia, vast estates characterised by primitive agriculture and indentured labour.(1).
The existence of a Jewish population in Tluste can be documented at least as far back as the early part of the eighteenth century, and probably much earlier. Though few, if any, Jews live in Tovste today, this belies the fact that from at least the middle of the nineteenth century until well into the first few decades of the twentieth century, Tluste was predominantly a Jewish town.
According to Rosman (2) , the mid-seventeenth century Jewish community of the Commonwealth enjoyed a large measure of freedom in economic, religious and internal communal affairs owing to a tradition of Polish tolerance as well as compelling utilitarian reasons. However, sporadic anti-Jewish violence fostered an undercurrent of insecurity. This was manifested most dramatically in the peasant uprising of 1648, led by the Cossack Bohdan Khmelnytsky, which had profound effects for Podolia and its Jewish population. Although initiated as a protest by Cossacks against their treatment by Polish landlords, it was transformed into a widespread campaign of violence against anyone identified with the establishment, particularly Jews who lived in urban areas (3). Some estimates put the number of Jewish victims in the whole of Ukrainian territory at up to fifty percent of the total population of 40,000 (4).
Though the situation in Podolia eventually stablised, the last three decades of the century saw further economic and social decay, as the territory was ceded to the Ottoman Empire through the 1672 Treaty of Buczacz. It was not until the end of the seventeenth century, when Poland recovered Podolia once again, that prosperity began to return. Magnate latifundia owners solicited Jews and other townspeople to re-establish life in towns; and a modified Jewish-dominated leasing system was revived (5).
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Tluste/Tovste, Ukraine – Jewish History
Polish Jews Polscy ydzi Total population est. 1,300,000+ Regions with significant populations Poland 80,000+ (~12,000 in registered communities)[verification needed] Israel 1,250,000 (ancestry, passport eligible); 202,300 (citizenship) Languages Hebrew, Polish, Yiddish Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups Other Ashkenazi Jews: Lithuanian Jews, Russian Jews, Ukrainian Jews, German Jews, also Sephardi.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 800 years. For centuries, Poland was home to the largest and most significant Jewish community in the world. Poland was the centre of Jewish culture thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy. This ended with the Partitions of Poland which began in 1772, in particular, with the discrimination and persecution of Jews in the Russian Empire. During World War II there was a nearly complete genocidal destruction of the Polish Jewish community by Nazi Germany, during the 19391945 German occupation of Poland and the ensuing Holocaust. Since the fall of Communism there has been a Jewish revival in Poland, characterized by the annual Jewish Culture Festival, new study programmes at Polish high schools and universities, the work of synagogues such as the Nozyk, and the Museum of the History of Polish Jews.
From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in 1025 through to the early years of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created in 1569, Poland was the most tolerant country in Europe. Known as paradisus Iudaeorum (Latin for “Paradise for the Jews”), it became a shelter for persecuted and expelled European Jewish communities and the home to the world’s largest Jewish community of the time. According to some sources, about three-quarters of all Jews lived in Poland by the middle of the 16th century. With the weakening of the Commonwealth and growing religious strife (due to the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation), Polands traditional tolerance began to wane from the 17th century onward. After the partitions of Poland in 1795 and the destruction of Poland as a sovereign state, Polish Jews were subject to the laws of the partitioning powers, the increasingly antisemitic Russian Empire, as well as Austro-Hungary and Kingdom of Prussia (later a part of the German Empire). Still, as Poland regained independence in the aftermath of World War I, it was the center of the European Jewish world with one of world’s largest Jewish communities of over 3 million. Antisemitism, however, from both the political establishment and from the general population, common throughout Europe, was a growing problem.
At the start of World War II, Poland was partitioned between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (see MolotovRibbentrop Pact). The war resulted in the death of one-fifth of the Polish population, with 90% or about 3 million of Polish Jewry killed along with approximately 3 million Polish non-Jews. Although the Holocaust occurred largely in German-occupied Poland, there was little collaboration with the Nazis by its citizens. Collaboration by individual Poles has been described as smaller than in other occupied countries. Statistics of the Israeli War Crimes Commission indicate that less than 0.1% of Polish gentiles collaborated with the Nazis. Examples of Polish gentile attitudes to German atrocities varied widely, from actively risking death in order to save Jewish lives, and passive refusal to inform on them; to indifference, blackmail, and in extreme cases, participation in pogroms such as the Jedwabne pogrom. Grouped by nationality, Poles represent the largest number of people who rescued Jews during the Holocaust.
In the postwar period, many of the approximately 200,000 Jewish survivors registered at Central Committee of Polish Jews or CKP (of whom 136,000 arrived from the Soviet Union) left the Communist People’s Republic of Poland for the nascent State of Israel and North or South America. Their departure was hastened by the destruction of Jewish institutions, post-war violence and the hostility of the Communist Party to both religion and private enterprise, but also because in 19461947 Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish aliyah to Israel, without visas or exit permits. Britain demanded Poland to halt the exodus, but their pressure was largely unsuccessful. Most of the remaining Jews left Poland in late 1968 as the result of the Soviet-sponsored “anti-Zionist” campaign. After the fall of the Communist regime in 1989, the situation of Polish Jews became normalized and those who were Polish citizens before World War II were allowed to renew Polish citizenship. Religious institutions were revived, largely through the activities of Jewish foundations from the United States. The contemporary Polish Jewish community is estimated to have approximately 20,000 members, though the actual number of Jews, including those who are not actively connected to Judaism or Jewish culture, may be several times larger.
Jews originated from the Israelite tribes of the Middle East. Initially, large numbers moved and lived in Greece (including the Greek isles in the Aegean and Crete) as early as the early part of the 3rd century B.C.E. The first recorded mention of Judaism in Greece dates from 300-250 Before Common Era (BCE) on the island of Rhodes. and in Rome at least since the 1st century B.C.E. (Although They may even have established a community there as early as the second century B.C.E, for in the year 139 B.C. the pretor Hispanus issued a decree expelling all Jews who were not Italian citizens). Then by late antiquity Jewish communities were found in modern day France and Germany. Afterwards, due to various pogroms that took place during the Middle Ages, they fled mostly to Poland and Lithuania, and from there spread over the rest of Eastern Europe.
The first Jews arrived in the territory of modern Poland in the 10th century. By travelling along the trade routes leading eastwards to Kiev and Bukhara, Jewish merchants, known as Radhanites, crossed the areas of Silesia. One of them, a diplomat and merchant from the Moorish town of Tortosa in Spanish Al-Andalus, known under his Arabic name of Ibrahim ibn Jakub, was the first chronicler to mention the Polish state under the rule of prince Mieszko I. The first actual mention of Jews in Polish chronicles occurs in the 11th century. It appears that Jews were then living in Gniezno, at that time the capital of the Polish kingdom of the Piast dynasty. The first permanent Jewish community is mentioned in 1085 by a Jewish scholar Jehuda ha-Kohen in the city of Przemyl.
The first extensive Jewish emigration from Western Europe to Poland occurred at the time of the First Crusade in 1098. Under Bolesaw III (11021139), the Jews, encouraged by the tolerant regime of this ruler, settled throughout Poland, including over the border in Lithuanian territory as far as Kiev. Bolesaw III for his part recognized the utility of the Jews in the development of the commercial interests of his country. The Jews came to form the backbone of the Polish economy and the coins minted by Mieszko III even bear Hebraic markings. Jews enjoyed undisturbed peace and prosperity in the many principalities into which the country was then divided; they formed the middle class in a country where the general population consisted of landlords (developing into szlachta, the unique Polish nobility) and peasants, and they were instrumental in promoting the commercial interests of the land.
Another factor for the Jews to emigrate to Poland was the Magdeburg Recht, or Magdeburg Law, a charter given to the Jews, among others, that specifically outlined the rights and privileges that Jews had coming into Poland. For example, they could define their neighborhoods and economic competitors and set up monopolies. This made it very attractive for Jewish communities to pick up and move to Poland.
Gesta principum Polonorum states that Princess Judith of Bohemia, wife of Polish Prince Wadysaw I Herman ransomed many Christians with her own money from the bondage of the Jews.
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History of the Jews in Poland – Wikipedia, the free …
Timeline of Australian Jewish History from 1778 Australia as a Sanctuary 1930-1950 from the Holocaust Timeline Australian involvement with Israel 1855-1955 Timelines of various Jewish Organizations The Ghost Synagogues of Australia 1840-1960
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May, 2015 – Jewish Calendar – Judaism, Torah and Jewish Info
The History of Jewish Human Sacrifice
By Willie Martin
At the dawn of civilization, the blood rite, in which human blood is drunk from the body of a still-living victim, was known to many tribes. However, only one people, that has never progressed beyond the Stone Age, has continued to practice the blood rite and ritual murder. This people are know to the world as Jews. Arnold Toynbee, a noted scholar, has called the Jews “a fossil people.”
In so doing, he must have been aware of the fact that they still practice ritual murder and the drinking of human blood (especially Christian blood). As a scholar, he could not have failed to note the many attested incidents of this practice of the Jews, for hundreds of example of ritual murder by the Jews are cited in official Catholic books, in every European literature, and in the court records of all the European nations.
It is the official historian of the Jews, (Josef Kastein, in his History of the Jews, who gives the underlying reason for this barbaric custom. On page 173, he says, “According to the primeval Jewish view, the blood was the seat of the soul.”
Thus it was not the heart which was the seat of the soul, according to the stone-age Jews, but the blood itself. They believed that by drinking the blood of a Christian victim who was perfect in every way, they could overcome their physical short comings and become as powerful as the intelligent civilized beings among whom they had formed their parasitic communities. Because of this belief, the Jews are known to have practiced drinking blood since they made their first appearance in history. Jewish Murder Plan Against White Christians Exposed The Murderous People: The Jews are under a terrible suspicion the world over, and for good reason. Anyone who does not know this, does not understand the Jewish problem. Anyone who merely see the Jews as “a tribe which secures its existence with exchange and old trousers, and whose uniforms are the long noses,” is being misled. But anyone who knows the monstrous accusation which has been raised against the jews since the beginning of time, will view these people in a different light. He will begin to see not only a peculiar, strangely fascinating nation; but criminals, murderers, and devils in human form. He will be filled with holy anger and hatred against these people of Satan. (John 8:44)
The suspicion under which the Jews are held is murder. They are charged with enticing White Christian Children (and sometimes blacks to keep them under control – and if necessary they will run black children down in the streets with automobiles to show the blacks their power, and that the blacks had better mind their manners or the same will happen again and again. We all witnessed this a few years ago in New York city when the car of Rabbi Shneerson ran over a black child. And as usual the Jews bought off the blacks who were inciting the mobs against them; if they had been unsuccessful in this they would have had the blacks who dared not be controlled murdered) and at time White Christian adults, butchering them, and draining their blood. They are charged with mixing this blood into their masses (unleaven bread) and using it to practice superstitious magic. They are charged with torturing their victims, especially the children; and during this torture they shout threats, curses, and cast spells against non-Jews. This systematic murder has a special name, it is called,
The knowledge of Jewish ritual murder is thousands of years old. It is as old as the Jews themselves. Non-Jews have passed the knowledge of it from generation to generation, and it has been passed down to us thorough writings. It is known of throughout the nation. Knowledge of ritual murder can be found in even the most secluded rural villages. The grand-father told his grand children, who passed it on to his children, and his children’s children, until we have inherited the knowledge today from them.
It is also befalling other nations. The accusation is loudly raised immediately, anywhere in te world, where a body is found which bears the marks of ritual murder. This accusation is raised only against the Jews. Hundreds and hundreds of nations, tribes, and races live on this earth, but no one ever thought to accuse them of the planned murdering of children, or to call them murderers. All nations have hurled this accusation only against the Jews.
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The History of Jewish Human Sacrifice – The Watcher Files
Excerpt from: Natures Eternal Religion by Ben Klassen (1973)
Masters of Deceit A Short History of the Jews
Nature in her infinite wisdom has put the highest premium on survival of the species. In her profuse variety Nature has brought forth creatures of all kinds, fish and fowl, animal and vegetable, insect and bacteria. Some creatures like the cardinal and bluebird are beautiful to behold. Others like the scorpion fish and the lizard are not. Some creatures are flesh eating. Others are herbivorous. Some animals, like cows, forage on the grass of the meadows. Others like the coyote, the wolf and the tiger are predatory. Other creatures like cockroaches, mosquitoes and maggots are parasitic. Each creature has its means of existence and survival and its means of perpetuating its species. In all, the will to live and perpetuate its own kind is intensely strong. If it were not, the species would soon have died out.
In the human species there is one race that stands out above all others in the intensity and fierceness in its will to survive that is the Jewish race. How this one race has survived and stayed intact through all the convulsions and upheavals of history for 5,000 years is something remarkable to behold.
Whereas some of the ancient races of recorded history such as the Babylonians, the Romans, the Phoenicians, the Egyptians, as a race, have all gone down the sinkhole of history the Jew has survived. Not only has he survived, but he has become the slave- master of all the other races of the world, although he only numbers a small percentage of the worlds population.
Whereas the glorious White Race has been a builder, explorer and creator of civilizations, of governments and nations, the Jew has been none of these. On the contrary, he has been the very antithesis of the noble White Man. Throughout his history, which goes back more than 5,000 years, during which he has remained united as a race, the Jew has been the parasite and predator on the backs of those nations who have been his unwilling hosts. The Jew has never been a creator, nor a builder, nor a producer, like the members of the White Race. On the contrary, he has been a destroyer of civilizations, a plunderer of nations, and a killer who invented the very idea of genocide in the earliest stages of his own history. All we have to do is read their own Old Testament to find that in page after page after page they slew, killed and plundered one tribe after another. One nation after another was put to the sword, man, woman and child.
Yes, indeed, the Jews are a blood-thirsty race. They have survived over a long period of time, although they have been scattered throughout the other nations of the world. They have been a plague on the body of mankind from the earliest dawn of recorded history. Nor has that plague abated in modern times. In fact, today it is more deadly than ever, and since we, the White Race, are the chief target and the chief victims marked for destruction, it behooves us to take a close look, and study our destroyer.
It is a fascinating and horror-filled history. It is an ugly story. But study it we must, and understand it we must, if we are to extricate ourselves from our plight and fulfill the obligation that Nature has placed upon us: namely, the survival of our very own species, the noblest creation on the face of the earth: the White Race.
The history of mankind is filled with wars and conflict, but of all the conflicts that have ensued between the different nations and the different races, there is only one race that has aroused the most violent antagonisms no matter where they settled that race is the Jewish race.
Throughout all the turmoil of history and all the wars, conflicts and massacres, sooner or later the two conflicting parties settled down and either reconciled their differences, and lived peacefully together, or they went elsewhere to live. Not so with the Jews, however. The Jew has never been reconciled with the host nation upon whose back he feeds. Nor have the Jews peacefully migrated to other countries. The history of the Jews demonstrates two things: first, that there has never been a reconciliation between them and their hosts, and second, that no nation has ever succeeded in barring them permanently. Furthermore, as the Jews bored into their host nations and became more and more reprehensible and intolerable, the host nation generally has turned on them and tried to expel them from their national body. However, in no case has a victimized nation been successful in expelling them permanently. In fact, it is surprising that in every case where Jews were expelled from a nation, often under conditions of humiliation and suffering, within a few years the Jews have returned. Not only have they usually returned, but they then set about with increased viciousness to destroy the host nation upon whom they had previously fed like a parasite. The Jews have since time immemorial been culture destroyers and civilization destroyers. The Jewish problem has been on the back of all nations for at least the past 5,000 years.
A Short History of the Jews Ben Klassen – The End of Zion
Find out about exhibits and special events at this center dedicated to collecting, preserving, and interpreting artifacts pertaining to the American Jewish experience.
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Founded in 1892, the mission of the American Jewish Historical Society is to foster awareness and appreciation of the American Jewish heritage and to serve as a national scholarly resource for research through the collection, preservation and dissemination of materials relating to American Jewish history.
Center for Jewish History – Official Site
Leo Frank taken from the Tower to the Coroner’s Inquest, Atlanta, Georgian, Monday, May 5, 1913, on the left is Chief of Detectives Lanford and on the right (image cut out) is Chief BeaversThe procedural machinations of the official Mary Phagan murder investigation, wasted no time in efforts regarding uncovering the material circumstances of the crime.
The Coroner’s Inquest
Presided over by the Fulton County Coroner Paul V. Donehoo were a half-petite Jury of prominent White men from the community, who opened the Coroner’s Inquest investigation on Wednesday morning, April 30, 1913.
The coroner’s inquest began shortly after nine o’clock after the Jury was sworn under oath. The empaneled tribunal in total consisted of 7 men (1 + 6), the Coroner and six inquest Jurymen: 1. H. Ashford, foreman, 2. Glenn Dewberry, 3. J. Hood, 4. C. Langford, 5. John Miller 6. C. Sheats 7. Judge of the Inquest Jury, The Fulton County Coroner, Paul Donehoo.
Within the two cross examination sessions of Leo Frank, he was very specific that he did not use the 2nd floor bathroom ALL DAY
when he testified under oath at the Coroner’s Inquest – not that he didn’t remember – but that he DID NOT USE the bathroom on April 26, 1913. It appeared as if he was distancing himself (verbally and mentally) from the bathroom area of the second floor which was located in the metal room. There were no other bathrooms on the second floor of the National Pencil Company, except in the metal room (Defendent’s Exhibit 61). This was thought of as a throw away detail, until it became a link in the case.
Caught in a Lie: The Perjury of Lemmie A. Quinn
A controversial new development occurred concerning Leo M. Frank’s murder timeline alibi about him never leaving his office on April 26, 1913, between noon and 12:45pm. Leo Frank said he had forgotten for the first week of the murder investigation to bring forward Lemmie A Quinn, foreman of the metal room, a key witness at the coroner’s inquest and later at the Leo Frank trial who was criminally impeached during the appeals when it was discovered he was offering bribes to witnesses to change their stories. At the Coroners Inquest, Lemmie Quinn, came forward to provide testimony that sounded contrived and did not pass the common sense test.
Quinn told the Coroner’s Inquest Jury, he had went back to the pencil factory and specifically into Leo M. Frank’s office at 12:20 to 12:25 for the purpose of talking about a baseball bet with Mr. Herbert George Schiff, but Schiff was not supposed to be at the factory at all that day, because it was a State holiday, and everyone was given the day off.
Herbert G. Schiff later prided himself at the Leo Frank trial for never missing a day of work in 5 years (BOE, Herbert Schiff, 1913) except once unintentionally during a disastrous flood. Leo Frank gave the false impression that Schiff missed work that day to support the Quinn appearance.
Several employees close to Leo Frank would later provide a cacophony of contradictory information about Schiff.The young Herbert G. Schiff, became the Superintendent at the NPCo after Leo Frank.If Lemmie Quinn was at the NPCo factory on Confederate Memorial Day, Saturday, April 26, 1913, at 12:20 PM, asking Leo Frank “Where is Herbert G. Schiff?”, and intimating he had not come to work yet, the average person in 1913 was sarcastically asking why was Herbert Schiff NOT at work on a State Holiday in the shuttered factory?
The Coroner’s Inquest Jury saw right through it and ostensibly the falsified testimony of Quinn was meant to shrink the plausible time Leo M. Frank would have to bludgeon, rape and strangle Mary Phagan by 15 minutes from formerly 12:02 PM to 12:35 PM, to 12:02 PM to 12:19 PM. However the importance of Lemmie A Quinn’s artificially manufactured testimony was it added eye witness testimony strength to Leo Frank’s alibi that he never left his office from at least noon to 12:35 pm.
Lemmie Quinn’s perjury, shrunk Leo M. Frank’s unaccounted time on that fateful Saturday, but it still left wide open and unaccounted for, the time frame Mary Phagan arrived at Leo M. Frank’s office.
Three Separate and Distinct Mary Phagan Arrival Times Would Later Become Four
According to Leo Frank:
1. Mary Phagan arrived in his second floor business office at 12:03 pm on April 26, 1913, this information was given to detectives on Sunday, April 27, 1913, in Leo Frank’s office.
2. Mary Phagan arrived in his second floor business office at “12:05 pm and 12:10 pm, maybe 12:07 pm” according to Leo Frank in State’s Exhibit B, given to the police on Monday, April 28, 1913.
3. Mary Phagan arrived in his second floor business office at 12:10pm on April 26, 1913, this information was given at the Coroner’s Inquest.
At the time of the Coroner’s Inquest, Leo Frank had provided three different and separate time frames Mary Phagan had arrived in his office.
Conclusion of the Coroners’ Inquest and Jury
Coroner Paul Donehoo and his Inquest Jury of six men empaneled, questioned over 100 factory employees and dozens of other various associated people.
The Coroner’s Inquest combed through the factory to examine the layout and permutations of the murder.
The week long inquest and testimony provided under oath, left very strong suspicion directed upon Leo M. Frank when Thursday, May 8th 1913, the Mary Phagan Inquest drew to a close.
At 6:30 pm, the jury went into executive session to hear the testimony of Dr. J. W. Hurt, county physician, on the what had happened to Mary Phagan shortly before her death and what was the likely cause of her death. The doctor addressed the Inquest Jury for twenty minutes.
Donehoo convened to hear the jury findings:
“We, the coroner’s jury, empaneled and sworn by Paul Donehoo, coroner of Fulton County, to inquire into the death of Mary Phagan, whose dead body now lies before us, after having heard the evidence of sworn witnesses, and the statement of Dr. J. W. Hurt, County Physician, find that the deceased came to her death from strangulation. We recommend that Leo M. Frank and Newt Lee be
held under charges of murder for further investigation by the Fulton County grand jury.
Homer C. Ashford, Foreman
Dr. J. W. Hurt, County Physician”
Coroner and Inquest Jury Verdict: The Coroner Approved the Unanimous Finding of the Inquest Jury
The Coroner and his Inquest Jury of six jurymen together voted unanimously 7 to 0 recommending Leo M. Frank be bound over for murder and investigated further by a Grand Jury of 23 men which ironically included 4 Jews.
Coroner Paul Donehoo ordered that Leo Frank be bound over for murder and Newt Lee was to be held as a material witness.
Still yet to be uncovered is who wrote the murder notes that appear written by a Negro in Ebonics?
Police Delivered the News to Leo Frank and Newt Lee
Deputy Plennie Minor delivered the unanimous verdict of the Coroner’s Inquest Jury to Leo M. Frank who was being held in the infamous Atlanta Police Tower. Frank was sitting perusing a local daily newspaper, Atlanta Constitution, May 8, 1913, at the time at the time of the message. When Deputy Plennie Minor approached Leo M. Frank and told him about the unanimous verdict of the Inquest Jury, which had ordered that Frank be held for murder and for a more thorough investigation by the Grand Jury!
Newt Lee slumped his head dejectedly when the bad news was delivered to him. However, Leo Frank insolently replied that it was no more than he had expected and continued crackling away and folding the big sheets of his newspaper.
In total more than two hundred witnesses, factory workers and affiliates had been subpoenaed providing sworn testimony at the Inquest.
What stood out the most from all the inquest testimony is that Leo Frank said specified he never went to the bathroom that day and he held onto that position for 3.5 months until he made a startling revelation during his trial on August 18, 1913.Left Detective John R. Black, on the Right Pinkerton Detective Harry K. Scott, Center Bottom Newton “Newt” Lee
One can’t help but wonder if the Grand Jury transcript was also purged in an effort to expunge from history some very interesting testimony that lead to the unanimous indictment of Leo Frank by 21 Jurors including 4 Jews.
The ace up Dorsey’s sleeve for the Grand Jury Investigation, Monteen Stover.
NEXT: Leo Frank Grand Jury Indictment on Saturday, May 24, 1913.
Atlanta Georgian Newspaper Coverage of the Mary Phagan Murder Investigation, Coroner’s Inquest Testimony of Leo Frank, May, 5, 8, 1913: http://leofrank.org/library/atlanta-georgian/
The Frank Case (1913). The Inside Story of Georgia’s Greatest Murder Mystery. Atlanta Publishing Company, Atlanta, GA. The first book ever published on the Leo Frank case. http://leofrank.org/library/frank-case.pdf
May 1, 1913, Mary Phagan and Leo Frank Coroner’s Inquest, Atlanta Constitution: http://www.leofrank.org/library/atlanta-journal-constitution/frank-tried-to-flirt-with-murdered-girl-says-her-boy-chum-may-1-1913.pdf
May 9, 1913, Atlanta Constitution
Atlanta Constitution, The second Coroner’s Inquest Session.
Last Updated: May 8, 2012