Deposit and loan products offered by Bank of the West, Member FDIC.

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1 This offer is valid for new or existing BancWest Investment Services, Inc. (“BWIS”) customers, and is limited to one “Eligible Account” (as defined below) per customer. The maximum cash bonus allowable for an Eligible Account is $2,500 within a six-month period. “Qualifying Assets,” for purposes of this offer, shall mean assets (i.e., cash, securities, fixed and variable annuities, and real estate investments trusts) deposited or transferred into the Eligible Account from outside BWIS or any BWIS affiliate within 60 days of enrollment, minus assets withdrawn or transferred out of Eligible Accounts within such 60-day period. Life insurance holdings and other assets not listed above are not “Qualifying Assets” and are not eligible for this offer. Qualifying Assets will be valued at the time BWIS receives such assets. An “Eligible Account” is a BWIS account that holds Qualifying Assets, and that has been enrolled to receive this offer prior to depositing or transferring any Qualifying Assets. Eligible Accounts do not include any account the inclusion of which is prohibited by law or may result in a breach of any fiduciary duty, law or regulation, including, but not limited to, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”). Customers with Qualifying Assets of $50,000-$74,999.99 may receive a bonus in the amount of $200; customers with Qualifying Assets of $75,000-$249,999.99 may receive $300; customers with Qualifying Assets of $250,000-$499,999.99 may receive $700; customers with Qualifying Assets of $500,000-$999,999.99 may receive $1,250; customers with Qualifying Assets of $1,000,000 or more, may receive $2,500. If all requirements for this offer are met, Qualifying Assets will be calculated as of the 60th day after enrollment and the cash bonus will be credited to the Eligible Account within six weeks. The minimum Qualifying Assets for the applicable bonus amount must be maintained in the Eligible Account for one year from the date on which BWIS receives such assets or BWIS may charge the account the amount of the bonus. Any applicable taxes associated with the cash bonus are the responsibility of the BWIS account holder. To the extent required by law, BWIS will report the total value of this bonus to the IRS on Form 1099-INT for the applicable tax year in which the bonus was paid. Customers should consult a tax professional to determine the appropriate tax treatment for this bonus offer. Employees or associated persons of FINRA, any FINRA member firm (other than BWIS), or a U.S. exchange are not eligible for this offer. Employees, associated persons, and customers of First Hawaiian Bank and First Hawaiian Investment Services are not eligible for this offer. Offer is non-transferrable and only valid in the United States. BWIS reserves the right to modify or cancel this offer at any time. Void where prohibited.

Securities and variable annuities are offered through BancWest Investment Services, a registered broker/dealer, Member FINRA/SIPC. Financial Advisors are Registered Representatives of BancWest Investment Services. Fixed annuities/insurance products are offered through BancWest Insurance Agency in California, (License #0C52321), through BancWest Insurance Agency in Utah and through BancWest Investment Services, Inc. in AZ, CO, IA, ID, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, SD, WA, WI, WY, HI, GUAM and CNMI. Bank of the West and its various affiliates and subsidiaries are not tax or legal advisors.

BancWest Investment Services is a wholly owned subsidiary of Bank of the West and a part of the Wealth Management Group. BancWest Corporation is the holding company for Bank of the West. BancWest Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary of BNP Paribas.

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0 2240 Bank Of The West 180 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, CA 94104 January 01, 1874 Full Service Brick and Mortar 1 200851 Campbell Branch 2395 Winchester Boulevard, Campbell, CA 95008 November 18, 1963 Full Service Brick and Mortar 2 200852 Gilroy Branch 7865 Monterey Street, Gilroy, CA 95020 April 17, 1964 Full Service Brick and Mortar 4 200854 Los Gatos Branch 308 North Santa Cruz Avenue, Los Gatos, CA 95030 Febuary 15, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 5 200855 Mountain View Branch 501 Castro Street, Mountain View, CA 94041 December 20, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 6 200856 Palo Alto Branch 414 California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94306 October 12, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 7 200857 Bascom-San Carlos Branch 2210 Business Circle, San Jose, CA 95128 May 03, 1948 Full Service Brick and Mortar 8 200858 First Willow Branch 1010 South First Street, San Jose, CA 95110 May 07, 1951 Full Service Brick and Mortar 9 200859 Civic Center Branch 890 North First Street, San Jose, CA 95112 June 17, 1957 Full Service Brick and Mortar 10 200860 Mayfair Branch 987 East Santa Clara Street, San Jose, CA 95116 January 12, 1950 Full Service Brick and Mortar 11 200861 Stevens Creek – Saratoga Branch 3888 Stevens Creek Boulevard, San Jose, CA 95117 May 03, 1963 Full Service Brick and Mortar 13 200863 Cambrian Branch 14948 Camden Avenue, San Jose, CA 95124 March 25, 1965 Full Service Brick and Mortar 15 200865 Santa Clara Branch 1705 El Camino Real, Santa Clara, CA 95050 March 01, 1955 Full Service Brick and Mortar 16 200866 Hamilton-Meridian Branch 1590 Hamilton Avenue, San Jose, CA 95125 January 06, 1961 Full Service Brick and Mortar 17 200867 Saratoga Branch 18860 Cox Avenue, Saratoga, CA 95070 May 25, 1959 Full Service Brick and Mortar 18 200868 Sunnyvale Branch 380 South Mathilda Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 Febuary 21, 1963 Full Service Brick and Mortar 19 200869 Cupertino Branch 10765 North Wolfe Road, Cupertino, CA 95014 November 15, 1967 Full Service Brick and Mortar 20 200870 Milpitas Branch 1360 East Calaveras Blvd, Milpitas, CA 95035 December 30, 1968 Full Service Brick and Mortar 22 200872 Santa Teresa-Cottle Branch 6213 Santa Teresa Boulevard, San Jose, CA 95119 May 24, 1971 Full Service Brick and Mortar 23 200873 Menlo Park Branch 701 Santa Cruz Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025 December 13, 1971 Full Service Brick and Mortar 24 13134 San Leandro Branch 1601 Washington Avenue, San Leandro, CA 94577 December 18, 1964 Full Service Brick and Mortar 25 247930 San Lorenzo Branch 17833 Hesperian Boulevard, San Lorenzo, CA 94580 November 22, 1968 Full Service Brick and Mortar 27 200875 Oakridge Branch 908 Blossom Hill Road, San Jose, CA 95123 Febuary 16, 1973 Full Service Brick and Mortar 29 200877 Pruneyard Towers Branch 1999 South Bascom Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008 October 15, 1973 Full Service Brick and Mortar 33 12980 Hayward Branch 1058 B Street, Hayward, CA 94541 June 26, 1964 Full Service Brick and Mortar 36 200883 Scott Boulevard Branch 3233 Scott Boulevard, Santa Clara, CA 95054 March 29, 1978 Full Service Brick and Mortar 37 200884 Bollinger Road Branch 965 South De Anza Boulevard, San Jose, CA 95129 May 15, 1979 Full Service Brick and Mortar 39 200886 San Jose Main Branch 50 West San Fernando Street, San Jose, CA 95113 March 18, 1980 Full Service Brick and Mortar 45 200888 Fremont Branch 5120 Mowry Avenue, Fremont, CA 94538 May 05, 1981 Full Service Brick and Mortar 46 200889 Morgan Hill Branch 206 Tennant Station, Morgan Hill, CA 95037 October 15, 1981 Full Service Brick and Mortar 50 200892 Capitola Branch 3820 Capitola Road, Capitola, CA 95010 December 14, 1987 Full Service Brick and Mortar 55 200897 Pleasanton Branch 5452 Sunol Boulevard, Pleasanton, CA 94566 October 10, 1989 Full Service Brick and Mortar 59 189330 Woodland Branch 186 Main Street, Woodland, CA 95695 July 05, 1956 Full Service Brick and Mortar 61 189332 El Cerrito Branch 11100 San Pablo Avenue, El Cerrito, CA 94530 October 29, 1949 Full Service Brick and Mortar 62 189333 Escalon Branch 1633 First Street, Escalon, CA 95320 September 01, 1949 Full Service Brick and Mortar 64 189335 Gridley Branch 34 East Gridley Road, Gridley, CA 95948 January 01, 1892 Full Service Brick and Mortar 65 189336 Hughson Branch 6800 Hughson Avenue, Hughson, CA 95326 September 01, 1949 Full Service Brick and Mortar 69 189340 Newark Branch 35125 Newark Boulevard, Newark, CA 94560 January 06, 1953 Full Service Brick and Mortar 70 189341 Novato Branch 1313 Grant Avenue, Novato, CA 94945 November 20, 1950 Full Service Brick and Mortar 71 189343 Medical Center Hill Branch 3305 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94611 September 27, 1960 Full Service Brick and Mortar 72 189344 Lakeshore Branch 3400 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, CA 94610 August 22, 1958 Full Service Brick and Mortar 73 189345 Oakley Branch 2195 Main Street, Suite D, Oakley, CA 94561 September 01, 1949 Full Service Brick and Mortar 74 189346 Orinda Branch 21 Moraga Way, Orinda, CA 94563 March 31, 1958 Full Service Brick and Mortar 76 189348 Oroville Branch 2626 Oro Dam Boulevard, Oroville, CA 95966 August 05, 1964 Full Service Brick and Mortar 77 189349 Parlier Branch 510 J Street, Parlier, CA 93648 November 18, 1950 Full Service Brick and Mortar 79 189352 Loehmann’s Plaza Branch 2581 Fair Oaks Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95825 November 24, 1958 Full Service Brick and Mortar 81 189354 Washington Manor Branch 15075 Farnsworth Street, San Leandro, CA 94579 November 26, 1956 Full Service Brick and Mortar 83 189356 Weberstown Branch 4932 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95207 March 21, 1963 Full Service Brick and Mortar 84 189357 Waterford Branch 12710 Bentley Street, Waterford, CA 95386 July 19, 1966 Full Service Brick and Mortar 87 189362 Antioch Branch 2507 Somersville Road, Antioch, CA 94509 September 18, 1969 Full Service Brick and Mortar 90 189365 Walnut Creek Branch 2050 North California Boulevard, Walnut Creek, CA 94597 May 14, 1973 Full Service Brick and Mortar 91 189366 Paradise Branch 6405 Clark Road, Paradise, CA 95969 January 02, 1974 Full Service Brick and Mortar 92 12934 Burlingame Branch 149 Park Road, Burlingame, CA 94010 May 01, 1964 Full Service Brick and Mortar 94 245812 Fashion Fair Branch 515 East Shaw Avenue, Fresno, CA 93710 March 12, 1971 Full Service Brick and Mortar 95 245814 Clovis Branch 200 Shaw Avenue, Clovis, CA 93612 March 26, 1976 Full Service Brick and Mortar 96 12927 Livermore Branch 2287 Second Street, Livermore, CA 94550 April 16, 1964 Full Service Brick and Mortar 98 246971 South Tahoe Branch 2161 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, South Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 October 05, 1964 Full Service Brick and Mortar 100 13924 Fairfield Main Branch 800 Jefferson Street, Fairfield, CA 94533 August 31, 1970 Full Service Brick and Mortar 104 15525 Pittsburg Branch 2900 Railroad Avenue, Pittsburg, CA 94565 August 16, 1976 Full Service Brick and Mortar 109 268104 Tulare Branch 333 East Tulare Avenue, Tulare, CA 93274 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 110 268105 Hanford Branch 230 West Seventh Street, Hanford, CA 93230 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 112 268107 Visalia Branch 2301 South Mooney Boulevard, Visalia, CA 93277 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 113 268108 Dinuba Branch 345 East Tulare Street, Dinuba, CA 93618 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 116 268118 Santa Rosa Branch 2801 Fourth Street, Santa Rosa, CA 95405 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 117 268119 Napa Branch 3300 Jefferson Street, Napa, CA 94558 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 118 268120 Sebastopol Branch 100 South Main Street, Sebastopol, CA 95472 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 123 268125 North Beach Branch 480 Columbus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94133 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 125 268127 Portola Branch 2675 San Bruno Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94134 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 126 268128 Serramonte Branch 321 Gellert Blvd, Daly City, CA 94015 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 129 268131 Clement Street Branch 801 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94118 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 130 268132 Lakeside Branch 2606 Ocean Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 January 01, 1926 Full Service Brick and Mortar 135 200898 Mckee-White Branch 3081 Mckee Road, San Jose, CA 95127 April 19, 1991 Full Service Brick and Mortar 138 286923 Larkspur Branch 494 Magnolia Blvd, Larkspur, CA 94939 June 30, 1985 Full Service Brick and Mortar 147 265932 Calistoga Branch 1317 Lincoln Avenue, Calistoga, CA 94515 January 01, 1921 Full Service Brick and Mortar 149 265937 St. Helena Branch 1451 Main Street, St. Helena, CA 94574 January 01, 1921 Full Service Brick and Mortar 151 265954 Lodi Branch 229 South Church Street, Lodi, CA 95240 January 01, 1921 Full Service Brick and Mortar 154 265974 Citrus Heights Branch 7381 Greenback Lane, Citrus Heights, CA 95621 January 01, 1921 Full Service Brick and Mortar 157 265991 Sonoma Branch 201 West Napa Street, Sonoma, CA 95476 January 01, 1921 Full Service Brick and Mortar 160 266000 Brentwood Branch 4540 Balfour Road, Brentwood, CA 94513 January 01, 1921 Full Service Brick and Mortar 162 44317 Petaluma Main Branch 20 Petaluma Boulevard South, Petaluma, CA 94952 May 10, 1965 Full Service Brick and Mortar 163 285081 Healdsburg Branch 450 Center Street, Healdsburg, CA 95448 May 10, 1965 Full Service Brick and Mortar 164 285082 Rohnert Park Branch 6301 State Farm Drive, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 May 10, 1965 Full Service Brick and Mortar 165 285083 Forestville Branch 6661 Front Street, Forestville, CA 95436 May 10, 1965 Full Service Brick and Mortar 166 285084 Petaluma Plaza Branch 311 North Mcdowell Boulevard, Petaluma, CA 94954 May 10, 1965 Full Service Brick and Mortar 170 200900 Concord Branch 1969 Diamond Boulevard, Concord, CA 94520 Febuary 14, 1997 Full Service Brick and Mortar 171 200901 Danville Branch 307 Diablo Road, Danville, CA 94526 April 28, 1997 Full Service Brick and Mortar 172 284993 Pebble Beach Branch 17 Mile Drive At Cypress, Pebble Beach, CA 93953 May 05, 1965 Full Service Brick and Mortar 173 200902 Berkeley Branch 1480 Shattuck Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709 October 06, 1997 Full Service Brick and Mortar 175 197605 Clearlake Branch 15050 Olympic Drive, Clearlake, CA 95422 September 17, 1962 Full Service Brick and Mortar 219 200907 San Mateo Branch 195 East 4th Avenue, San Mateo, CA 94401 May 10, 1999 Full Service Brick and Mortar 220 200908 Coddingtown Branch 200 Coddingtown Mall, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 June 11, 1999 Full Service Brick and Mortar 222 256203 Tahoe City Branch 150 West Lake Boulevard, Tahoe City, CA 96145 July 31, 1982 Full Service Brick and Mortar 224 256209 Truckee Gateway Branch 11202 Donner Pass Road, Truckee, CA 96161 Febuary 14, 1983 Full Service Brick and Mortar 225 256210 Kings Beach Branch 200 Bear Street, Kings Beach, CA 96143 October 16, 1989 Full Service Brick and Mortar 226 256211 Grass Valley Branch 460 Brunswick Road, Grass Valley, CA 95945 January 22, 1991 Full Service Brick and Mortar 227 256213 South Grass Valley Branch 736d Taylorville Road, Grass Valley, CA 95949 April 17, 1995 Full Service Brick and Mortar 228 256214 Auburn Branch 13422 Lincoln Way, Auburn, CA 95603 April 17, 1995 Full Service Brick and Mortar 229 256215 Arden Branch 1651 Response Road, Sacramento, CA 95815 July 17, 1995 Full Service Brick and Mortar 233 17204 Vacaville Main Branch 330 Davis Street, Vacaville, CA 95688 November 14, 1983 Full Service Brick and Mortar 235 257663 Benicia Branch 1001 First Street, Benicia, CA 94510 March 18, 1987 Full Service Brick and Mortar 236 246237 Vallejo Downtown Branch 303 Sacramento Street, Vallejo, CA 94590 March 22, 1968 Full Service Brick and Mortar 237 257664 Park Place Branch 4300 Sonoma Boulevard Suite 300, Vallejo, CA 94589 August 14, 1990 Full Service Brick and Mortar 238 257665 Oliver Road Branch 1300 Oliver Road,, Fairfield, CA 94533 September 07, 1993 Full Service Brick and Mortar 239 257666 Power Plaza Branch 1011 Helen Power Drive, Vacaville, CA 95687 May 02, 1994 Full Service Brick and Mortar 273 14207 L.A. Main Branch 915 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 100, Los Angeles, CA 90017 January 05, 1972 Full Service Brick and Mortar 274 12800 Culver City Branch 9735 Washington Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90232 November 25, 1963 Full Service Brick and Mortar 275 246890 Redondo Beach Branch 3500 Aviation Boulevard, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 October 02, 1970 Full Service Brick and Mortar 277 251301 Oakland Main Branch 2127 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612 July 01, 1975 Full Service Brick and Mortar 278 10715 Downey Branch 10230 South Paramount Boulevard, Downey, CA 90241 April 29, 1947 Full Service Brick and Mortar 279 238363 Bell Gardens Branch 7000 A Eastern Avenue, Bell Gardens, CA 90201 July 08, 1955 Full Service Brick and Mortar 280 238364 Santa Fe Springs Branch 11955 East Slauson Avenue, Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670 May 15, 1962 Full Service Brick and Mortar 281 238365 South Gate Branch 12135 South Garfield Avenue, South Gate, CA 90280 April 04, 1952 Full Service Brick and Mortar 282 238366 Pico Rivera Branch 9001 East Whittier Boulevard, Pico Rivera, CA 90660 July 18, 1966 Full Service Brick and Mortar 283 12815 West Covina Branch 401 South Glendora Avenue, West Covina, CA 91790 December 13, 1963 Full Service Brick and Mortar 284 238369 Baldwin Park Branch 14220 Ramona Boulevard, Baldwin Park, CA 91706 October 12, 1973 Full Service Brick and Mortar 285 238370 Anaheim Branch 619 South Brookhurst Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92804 May 03, 1974 Full Service Brick and Mortar 287 3842 Rosemead Branch 9000 East Valley Boulevard, Rosemead, CA 91770 January 01, 1929 Full Service Brick and Mortar 288 207940 South El Monte Branch 2041 Durfee Avenue, South El Monte, CA 91733 November 25, 1964 Full Service Brick and Mortar 289 207941 South Pasadena Branch 1833 North Atlantic Boulevard, South Pasadena, CA 91030 August 04, 1969 Full Service Brick and Mortar 290 251307 San Diego Branch 701 B Street, San Diego, CA 92101 January 21, 1982 Full Service Brick and Mortar 291 251308 Gardena Branch 1800 West Redondo Beach Boulevard, Gardena, CA 90247 July 18, 1984 Full Service Brick and Mortar 292 244993 Alhambra Branch 100 South Garfield Avenue, Alhambra, CA 91801 October 17, 1955 Full Service Brick and Mortar 293 244994 Ninth And Valley Branch 855 West Valley Boulevard, Alhambra, CA 91803 May 02, 1949 Full Service Brick and Mortar 294 244996 Arcadia Branch 1155 West Huntington Drive, Arcadia, CA 91006 October 01, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 295 244997 Westminster Branch 7751 Westminster Avenue, Westminster, CA 92683 Febuary 27, 1961 Full Service Brick and Mortar 296 244999 Bakersfield Branch 5201 California Avenue, Bakersfield, CA 93309 March 22, 1957 Full Service Brick and Mortar 297 245001 Bellflower Branch 16824 South Bellflower Boulevard, Bellflower, CA 90706 December 01, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 298 245002 Castro Valley Branch 3396 Castro Valley Boulevard, Castro Valley, CA 94546 June 28, 1957 Full Service Brick and Mortar 299 245003 City Of Commerce Branch 6055 East Washington Boulevard, City Of Commerce, CA 90040 June 05, 1964 Full Service Brick and Mortar 300 245004 Compton Branch 1701 North Long Beach Boulevard, Compton, CA 90221 June 12, 1959 Full Service Brick and Mortar 301 245005 Corcoran Branch 1045 Whitley Avenue, Corcoran, CA 93212 December 01, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 302 245006 Covina Branch 770 South Citrus Avenue, Covina, CA 91723 December 14, 1956 Full Service Brick and Mortar 303 245007 Crockett Branch 891 Loring Avenue, Crockett, CA 94525 December 01, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 305 245009 Westlake Branch 239 Westlake Center, Daly City, CA 94015 March 05, 1956 Full Service Brick and Mortar 307 245012 Paseo Padre Branch 39533 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94538 Febuary 27, 1961 Full Service Brick and Mortar 308 245015 Garden Grove Branch 12976 Main Street, Garden Grove, CA 92840 December 01, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 309 245017 Lafayette Branch 3583 Mt. Diablo Boulevard, Lafayette, CA 94549 August 01, 1946 Full Service Brick and Mortar 310 245018 Lakewood Branch 5240 Clark Avenue, Lakewood, CA 90712 June 05, 1959 Full Service Brick and Mortar 311 245019 Long Beach City Place Branch 496 Long Beach Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90802 December 01, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 313 245021 Los Altos Branch 176 Main Street, Los Altos, CA 94022 December 01, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 314 245027 Woodland Hills Branch 19858 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 December 20, 1957 Full Service Brick and Mortar 315 245028 Westwood Branch 10929 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90024 December 02, 1957 Full Service Brick and Mortar 316 245032 Newman Branch 945 Fresno Street, Newman, CA 95360 December 01, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 317 245034 Montclair Branch 2023 Mountain Boulevard, Oakland, CA 94611 April 21, 1947 Full Service Brick and Mortar 318 245035 Temescal Branch 4900 Telegraph, Oakland, CA 94609 Febuary 27, 1961 Full Service Brick and Mortar 319 245037 Orosi Branch 12790 Avenue 416, Orosi, CA 93647 May 07, 1956 Full Service Brick and Mortar 320 245039 Pasadena Main Branch 587 East Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 Febuary 27, 1961 Full Service Brick and Mortar 321 245041 Pasadena East Branch 2500 East Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 August 14, 1944 Full Service Brick and Mortar 322 245042 Patterson Branch 5 Plaza, Patterson, CA 95363 Febuary 27, 1961 Full Service Brick and Mortar 323 245043 Pinole Branch 777 Tennent Avenue, Pinole, CA 94564 August 14, 1944 Full Service Brick and Mortar 324 245045 Riverdale Branch 3494 Mt. Whitney Avenue, Riverdale, CA 93656 April 01, 1955 Full Service Brick and Mortar 325 245046 Country Club Branch 3509 El Camino Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95821 August 29, 1959 Full Service Brick and Mortar 326 245047 Sacramento Main Branch 500 Capital Mall, Suite 100, Sacramento, CA 95814 June 20, 1955 Full Service Brick and Mortar 327 245050 S.F. Mission Branch 2812 Mission Street, San Francisco, CA 94110 Febuary 27, 1961 Full Service Brick and Mortar 328 245053 Sanger Branch 1321 Jensen Avenue, Sanger, CA 93657 May 10, 1957 Full Service Brick and Mortar 330 245055 San Marino Branch 2395 Huntington Drive, San Marino, CA 91108 April 05, 1952 Full Service Brick and Mortar 331 245058 Santa Ana Branch 103 East Memory Lane, Santa Ana, CA 92701 Febuary 02, 1953 Full Service Brick and Mortar 332 245059 Santa Barbara North Branch 3780 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 November 15, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 333 245060 Santa Barbara Main Branch 1036 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93101 December 01, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 334 245061 Sierra Madre Branch 100 West Sierra Madre Boulevard, Sierra Madre, CA 91024 April 09, 1956 Full Service Brick and Mortar 335 245062 Stanton Branch 11051 Beach Boulevard, Stanton, CA 90680 August 23, 1957 Full Service Brick and Mortar 336 245063 Tehachapi Branch 758 Tucker Road, Tehachapi, CA 93561 December 01, 1954 Full Service Brick and Mortar 338 245065 Torrance Branch 23865 Hawthorne Boulevard, Torrance, CA 90505 October 04, 1957 Full Service Brick and Mortar 339 245066 Tustin Branch 701 East First Street, Tustin, CA 92780 November 02, 1959 Full Service Brick and Mortar 340 245067 Union City Branch 33301 Alvarado Niles Road, Union City, CA 94587 Febuary 27, 1961 Full Service Brick and Mortar 341 245069 Irvine Branch 18022 Culver Drive, Irvine, CA 92612 October 07, 1966 Full Service Brick and Mortar 342 245070 South Coast Branch 3931 South Bristol Street, Santa Ana, CA 92704 October 07, 1966 Full Service Brick and Mortar 343 245071 Fresno Branch 2035 Fresno Street, Fresno, CA 93721 October 07, 1966 Full Service Brick and Mortar 344 245072 Shaw-West Branch 2110 West Shaw Avenue, Fresno, CA 93711 October 07, 1966 Full Service Brick and Mortar 345 245073 Glendale Branch 400 North Glendale Avenue, Glendale, CA 91206 Febuary 03, 1967 Full Service Brick and Mortar 346 245075 Santa Monica Branch 407 Colorado Avenue, Santa Monica, CA 90401 December 08, 1967 Full Service Brick and Mortar 347 245077 Wilshire Square Branch 3347 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90010 March 22, 1968 Full Service Brick and Mortar 348 245079 Beverly Hills Branch 9401 Wilshire Boulevard, Beverly Hills, CA 90212 December 02, 1968 Full Service Brick and Mortar 349 245080 Huntington Beach Branch 6881 Warner Avenue, Huntington Beach, CA 92647 May 02, 1969 Full Service Brick and Mortar 350 245082 La Mirada Branch 12709 Valley View Avenue, La Mirada, CA 90638 April 11, 1969 Full Service Brick and Mortar 351 245083 South San Francisco Branch 2288 Westborough Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 July 11, 1969 Full Service Brick and Mortar 352 245084 La Habra Branch 1330 S. Beach Boulevard, Suite A, La Habra, CA 90631 August 08, 1969 Full Service Brick and Mortar 353 245085 Fullerton Branch 3021 Yorba Linda Boulevard, Fullerton, CA 92831 September 19, 1969 Full Service Brick and Mortar 354 245086 Cerritos Branch 17303 Carmenita Road, Cerritos, CA 90703 June 19, 1970 Full Service Brick and Mortar 357 245453 Hayward Southland Branch 24299 Southland Drive, Hayward, CA 94545 April 22, 1968 Full Service Brick and Mortar 358 245089 Chino Branch 12545 Central Avenue, Chino, CA 91710 August 22, 1977 Full Service Brick and Mortar 360 245091 1st And Herndon Branch 7062 North First Street, Fresno, CA 93720 August 14, 1978 Full Service Brick and Mortar 361 245093 Dublin Branch 7533 Dublin Boulevard, Dublin, CA 94568 October 22, 1979 Full Service Brick and Mortar 362 245094 Mission Viejo Branch 26941 Crown Valley Parkway, Mission Viejo, CA 92691 November 26, 1979 Full Service Brick and Mortar 363 245096 Newport Beach Branch 4400 Macarthur Boulevard, Newport Beach, CA 92660 December 15, 1980 Full Service Brick and Mortar 365 245098 Modesto Mchenry Branch 3600 Mchenry Avenue, Modesto, CA 95356 October 15, 1982 Full Service Brick and Mortar 367 251321 Anaheim Hills Branch 4501 East La Palma Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92807 April 10, 1989 Full Service Brick and Mortar 368 251322 Monterey Park Branch 331 North Atlantic Boulevard, Monterey Park, CA 91754 April 02, 1990 Full Service Brick and Mortar 369 251323 Rancho Cucamonga Branch 8311 Haven Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730 August 13, 1990 Full Service Brick and Mortar 370 251324 Sherman Oaks Branch 15165 Ventura Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 May 07, 1990 Full Service Brick and Mortar 373 286610 Northridge Branch 16900 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91343 January 01, 1979 Full Service Brick and Mortar 374 251329 Rowland Heights Branch 19005 East Colima Road, Rowland Heights, CA 91748 April 13, 1995 Full Service Brick and Mortar 376 251331 One Front Street Branch One Front Street, San Francisco, CA 94111 January 14, 1991 Full Service Brick and Mortar 378 251333 San Clemente Branch 641 Camino De Los Mares, San Clemente, CA 92673 October 14, 1997 Full Service Brick and Mortar 379 251334 Thousand Oaks Branch 180 North Moorpark Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 March 23, 1998 Full Service Brick and Mortar 380 291944 Central Irvine Branch 14477 Culver Drive, Irvine, CA 92604 Febuary 01, 2000 Full Service Brick and Mortar 381 359388 Foothill Ranch Branch 26696 Portola Parkway, Unit C, Foothill Ranch, CA 92610 October 30, 2000 Full Service Retail 382 359537 San Ramon Branch 140 Sunset Drive, San Ramon, CA 94583 March 13, 2001 Full Service Brick and Mortar 383 12682 L.A. Bunker Hill Branch 300 South Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90071 July 08, 1963 Full Service Brick and Mortar 384 246554 South Huntington Beach Branch 19006 Brookhurst Street, Huntington Beach, CA 92646 May 19, 1973 Full Service Brick and Mortar 385 246556 Montgomery Street Branch 505 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, CA 94111 May 12, 1978 Full Service Brick and Mortar 387 251707 Temple City Branch 9934 East Las Tunas Drive, Temple City, CA 91780 Febuary 01, 1978 Full Service Brick and Mortar 389 246559 Little Tokyo Branch 123 Onizuka Street, Suite 101, Los Angeles, CA 90012 April 28, 1986 Full Service Brick and Mortar 390 246560 South Bay Branch 19191 South Vermont Avenue, Torrance, CA 90502 July 01, 1988 Full Service Brick and Mortar 391 246562 Encino Branch 16027 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 December 10, 1990 Full Service Brick and Mortar 396 365568 Porter Ranch Branch 19953 Rinaldi Street, Northridge, CA 91326 September 16, 2002 Full Service Brick and Mortar 397 365569 Valencia Branch 27011 Mcbean Parkway,suite 101, Valencia, CA 91355 September 16, 2002 Full Service Brick and Mortar 399 418690 Ventura Branch 1794 South Victoria Avenue, # A, Ventura, CA 93003 December 02, 2002 Full Service Brick and Mortar 400 419929 Oxnard Branch 371 West Esplanade Drive, Oxnard, CA 93036 April 07, 2003 Full Service Brick and Mortar 403 425123 Fruitvale Station Branch 3062 East 9th Street, Oakland, CA 94601 December 15, 2003 Full Service Brick and Mortar 404 425124 Roseville Branch 1112 Galleria Boulevard, Suite 170, Roseville, CA 95678 January 27, 2004 Full Service Brick and Mortar 434 16966 Casa De Oro Branch 9832 Campo Road, Spring Valley, CA 91977 March 07, 1983 Full Service Brick and Mortar 436 255346 Grossmont Center Branch 8690 Center Drive, La Mesa, CA 91942 May 23, 1983 Full Service Brick and Mortar 437 257312 El Cajon Branch 1234 East Main Street, El Cajon, CA 92021 November 01, 1994 Full Service Brick and Mortar 438 257313 Santee Branch 8867 Cuyamaca Street, Santee, CA 92071 March 17, 1997 Full Service Brick and Mortar 574 218563 Lockeford Branch 13299 East Highway 88, Lockeford, CA 95237 January 01, 1907 Full Service Brick and Mortar 575 218564 Stockton Main Branch 540 N El Dorado Street, Stockton, CA 95202 April 28, 1969 Full Service Brick and Mortar 576 218565 Pershing Branch 5555 North Pershing Avenue, Stockton, CA 95207 June 01, 1976 Full Service Brick and Mortar 577 218566 Hammer Branch 1440 East Hammer Lane, Stockton, CA 95210 April 27, 1981 Full Service Brick and Mortar 578 12225 Modesto Main Branch 901 H Street, Modesto, CA 95354 November 14, 1960 Full Service Brick and Mortar 580 244753 Ripon Branch 411 West Main Street, Ripon, CA 95366 April 18, 1966 Full Service Brick and Mortar 581 218569 Brookside Branch 3255 West March Lane, Suite 100, Stockton, CA 95219 July 31, 1991 Full Service Brick and Mortar 582 16673 Wilson Way 560 N Wilson Way, Stockton, CA 95205 July 01, 1982 Full Service Brick and Mortar 583 256774 North Stockton Branch 7810 Thornton Road, Stockton, CA 95207 January 09, 1984 Full Service Brick and Mortar 584 218571 Eastridge Branch 1401 Oakdale Road, Modesto, CA 95355 March 09, 1992 Full Service Brick and Mortar 585 15627 Ceres Branch 2501 East Whitmore Avenue, Ceres, CA 95307 March 09, 1977 Full Service Brick and Mortar 587 254576 Oakdale Branch 134 Maag Avenue, Oakdale, CA 95361 July 09, 1990 Full Service Brick and Mortar 589 218581 Tracy Branch 810 West Schulte Road, Tracy, CA 95376 July 13, 1999 Full Service Brick and Mortar 590 360027 Turlock Branch 2101 Fulkerth Road, Turlock, CA 95380 May 16, 2001 Full Service Brick and Mortar 591 362799 Pelandale Branch 3801 Pelandale Avenue, Suite C, Modesto, CA 95356 January 14, 2002 Full Service Brick and Mortar 593 419375 Weston Ranch Branch 520 Carolyn Weston Blvd., Ste. D, Stockton, CA 95206 August 12, 2002 Full Service Brick and Mortar 835 462255 El Dorado Hills 2211 Francisco Drive #100, El Dorado Hills, CA 95762 April 02, 2007 Full Service Brick and Mortar 836 462786 Manteca Branch 150 Commerce Avenue, Manteca, CA 95336 April 30, 2007 Full Service Brick and Mortar 841 466645 Lone Tree Landing Branch 5009 Lone Tree Way Ste D, Antioch, CA 94531 June 18, 2007 Full Service Brick and Mortar 843 468551 Cbo Pasadena Branch 911 E. Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91106 July 27, 2007 Limited Service Administrative 845 469759 Elk Grove Branch 8426 Elk Grove Florin Road, Elk Grove, CA 95624 December 10, 2007 Full Service Brick and Mortar 848 480617 Carmichael Branch 4001 Manzanita Avenue, Carmichael, CA 95608 January 28, 2008 Full Service Brick and Mortar 849 506052 Monterey – Del Monte 1050 Del Monte Circle, Monterey, CA 93940 January 16, 2010 Full Service Brick and Mortar 850 506053 Santa Cruz Branch 1551 Pacific Avenue, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 January 26, 2010 Full Service Brick and Mortar 856 510850 Folsom Branch 1000 East Bidwell Street, Folsom, CA 95630 August 03, 2009 Full Service Brick and Mortar 857 521788 Bishop Ranch 7 Branch 2527 Camino Ramon, San Ramon, CA 94583 October 25, 2010 Full Service Brick and Mortar 858 522057 Napa Main Street Branch 700 Main Street, Napa, CA 94559 August 01, 2011 Full Service Brick and Mortar

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Bank of the West in city_name, state_name – Detailed …

Written on July 18th, 2015 & filed under West Bank Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Israeli settlements[1] are Israeli civilian communities[i] built on lands occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War. Such settlements currently exist in the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and in the Golan Heights. Settlements previously existed in the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip until Israel evacuated the Sinai settlements following the 1979 Israel-Egypt peace agreement and from the Gaza Strip in 2005 under Israel’s unilateral disengagement plan. Israel dismantled 18 settlements in the Sinai Peninsula in 1982, and all 21 in the Gaza Strip and 4 in the West Bank in 2005,[2] but continues to both expand its settlements and settle new areas in the West Bank,[3][4][5][6][7] despite pressure to desist from the international community.

The international community considers the settlements in occupied territory to be illegal,[8] and the United Nations has repeatedly upheld the view that Israel’s construction of settlements constitutes a violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention.[9][10] Israeli neighborhoods in East Jerusalem and communities in the Golan Heights, the latter of which has been annexed by Israel, are also considered settlements by the international community, which does not recognise Israel’s annexations of these territories.[11] The International Court of Justice also says these settlements are illegal in a 2004 advisory opinion.[12][13][14] In April 2012, UN secretary general Ban Ki-Moon, in response to moves by Israel to legalise Israeli outposts, reiterated that all settlement activity is illegal, and “runs contrary to Israel’s obligations under the Road Map and repeated Quartet calls for the parties to refrain from provocations.”[15] Similar criticism was advanced by the EU and the US.[16][17] Israel disputes the position of the international community and the legal arguments that were used to declare the settlements illegal.[18]

The presence and ongoing expansion of existing settlements by Israel and the construction of settlement outposts is frequently criticized as an obstacle to the peace process by the Palestinians,[19] and third parties such as the OIC,[20] the United Nations,[21]Russia,[22] the United Kingdom,[23]France,[24] the European Union,[25] and the United States have echoed those criticisms.[21]

Settlement has an economic dimension, much of it driven by the significantly lower costs of housing in Jewish settlements compared to the cost of housing and living in Israel.[26] Government subsidies to settlers are double those to Israelis in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, while settlers in isolated areas receive three times the Israeli national average.[27] On 30 June 2014, according to the Yesha Council, 382,031 Jewish settlers lived in the 121 officially recognised settlements in the West Bank, over 300,000 Israelis lived in settlements in East Jerusalem and over 20,000 lived in settlements in the Golan Heights.[28][29][30] In January 2015 the Israeli Interior Ministry gave figures of 389,250 Israelis living in the West Bank and a further 375,000 Israelis living in East Jerusalem.[31] Settlements range in character from farming communities and frontier villages to urban suburbs and neighborhoods. The four largest settlements, Modi’in Illit, Ma’ale Adumim, Beitar Illit and Ariel, have achieved city status. Ariel has 18,000 residents, while the rest have around 37,000 to 55,500 each.

The 1967 Six-Day War left Israel in control of [32]

As early as 1967, Israeli settlement policy was started by the Labor government of Levi Eshkol. The basis for Israeli settlement in the West Bank became the Allon Plan,[33] named after its inventor Yigal Allon. It implied Israeli annexation of major parts of the Israeli-occupied territories, especially East Jerusalem, Gush Etzion and the Jordan Valley.[34] Yigal Allon became Levi Eshkol’s successor as Prime Minister in 1969. The settlement policy of the next government, led by Yitzhak Rabin, was also derived from the Allon Plan.[35]

The first settlement was Kfar Etzion, in the southern West Bank,[33][36] although that location was outside the Allon Plan. Many settlements began as Nahal settlements. They were established as military outposts and later expanded and populated with civilian inhabitants.

The Likud government of Menahem Begin, from 1977, was more supportive to settlement in other parts of the West Bank, by organizations like Gush Emunim and the Jewish Agency/World Zionist Organization, and intensified the settlement activities.[35][37][38] In a government statement, Likud declared that the entire historic Land of Israel is the inalienable heritage of the Jewish people, and that no part of the West Bank should be handed over to foreign rule.[39] The government abrogated the prohibition from purchasing occupied land by Israelis; the “Drobles Plan”, a plan for large-scale settlement in the West Bank meant to prevent a Palestinian state under the pretext of security became the framework for its policy.[40][A] The “Drobles Plan” from the World Zionist Organization, dated October 1978 and named “Master Plan for the Development of Settlements in Judea and Samaria, 1979-1983″, was written by the Jewish Agency director and former Knesset member Matityahu Drobles. In January 1981, the government adopted a follow up-plan from Drobles, dated September 1980 and named “The current state of the settlements in Judea and Samaria”, with more details about settlement strategy and policy.[41][B]

Since 1967, government-funded settlement projects in the West Bank are implemented by the “Settlement Division” of the World Zionist Organization.[42] Though formally a non-governmental organization, it is funded by the Israeli government and leases lands from the Civil Administration to settle in the West Bank. It is authorized to create settlements in the West Bank on lands licensed to it by the Civil Administration.[33] Traditionally, the Settlement Division has been under the responsibility of the Agriculture Ministry. Since the Olso Accords, it was always housed within the Prime Ministers Office (PMO). In 2007, it was moved back to the Agriculture Ministry. In 2009, the Netanyahu Government decided to subject all settlement activities to additional approval of the Prime Minister and the Defense Minister. In 2011, Netanyahu sought to move the Settlement Division again under the direct control of (his own) PMO, and to curtail Defense Minister Ehud Baraks authority.[42]

At the presentation of the Oslo II Accord on 5 October 1995 in the Knesset, PM Yitzhak Rabin expounded the Israeli settlement policy in connection with the permanent solution to the conflict. Israel wanted “a Palestinian entity, less than a state, which will be a home to most of the Palestinian residents living in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank”. It wanted to keep settlements beyond the Green Line including Ma’ale Adumim and Givat Ze’ev in East Jerusalem. Blocs of settlements should be established in the West Bank. Rabin promised not to return to the 4 June 1967 lines.[43]

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Israeli settlement – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Deposit and loan products offered by Bank of the West, Member FDIC.

Wireless carriers may charge fees for text transmissions or data usage. Message frequency depends on account settings. Text HELP to BKWST for help. Availability of Mobile Banking may be affected by your mobile device’s coverage area.

1 This offer is valid for new or existing BancWest Investment Services, Inc. (“BWIS”) customers, and is limited to one “Eligible Account” (as defined below) per customer. The maximum cash bonus allowable for an Eligible Account is $2,500 within a six-month period. “Qualifying Assets,” for purposes of this offer, shall mean assets (i.e., cash, securities, fixed and variable annuities, and real estate investments trusts) deposited or transferred into the Eligible Account from outside BWIS or any BWIS affiliate within 60 days of enrollment, minus assets withdrawn or transferred out of Eligible Accounts within such 60-day period. Life insurance holdings and other assets not listed above are not “Qualifying Assets” and are not eligible for this offer. Qualifying Assets will be valued at the time BWIS receives such assets. An “Eligible Account” is a BWIS account that holds Qualifying Assets, and that has been enrolled to receive this offer prior to depositing or transferring any Qualifying Assets. Eligible Accounts do not include any account the inclusion of which is prohibited by law or may result in a breach of any fiduciary duty, law or regulation, including, but not limited to, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”). Customers with Qualifying Assets of $50,000-$74,999.99 may receive a bonus in the amount of $200; customers with Qualifying Assets of $75,000-$249,999.99 may receive $300; customers with Qualifying Assets of $250,000-$499,999.99 may receive $700; customers with Qualifying Assets of $500,000-$999,999.99 may receive $1,250; customers with Qualifying Assets of $1,000,000 or more, may receive $2,500. If all requirements for this offer are met, Qualifying Assets will be calculated as of the 60th day after enrollment and the cash bonus will be credited to the Eligible Account within six weeks. The minimum Qualifying Assets for the applicable bonus amount must be maintained in the Eligible Account for one year from the date on which BWIS receives such assets or BWIS may charge the account the amount of the bonus. Any applicable taxes associated with the cash bonus are the responsibility of the BWIS account holder. To the extent required by law, BWIS will report the total value of this bonus to the IRS on Form 1099-INT for the applicable tax year in which the bonus was paid. Customers should consult a tax professional to determine the appropriate tax treatment for this bonus offer. Employees or associated persons of FINRA, any FINRA member firm (other than BWIS), or a U.S. exchange are not eligible for this offer. Employees, associated persons, and customers of First Hawaiian Bank and First Hawaiian Investment Services are not eligible for this offer. Offer is non-transferrable and only valid in the United States. BWIS reserves the right to modify or cancel this offer at any time. Void where prohibited.

Securities and variable annuities are offered through BancWest Investment Services, a registered broker/dealer, Member FINRA/SIPC. Financial Advisors are Registered Representatives of BancWest Investment Services. Fixed annuities/insurance products are offered through BancWest Insurance Agency in California, (License #0C52321), through BancWest Insurance Agency in Utah and through BancWest Investment Services, Inc. in AZ, CO, IA, ID, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, SD, WA, WI, WY, HI, GUAM and CNMI. Bank of the West and its various affiliates and subsidiaries are not tax or legal advisors.

BancWest Investment Services is a wholly owned subsidiary of Bank of the West and a part of the Wealth Management Group. BancWest Corporation is the holding company for Bank of the West. BancWest Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary of BNP Paribas.

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Written on July 16th, 2015 & filed under West Bank Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

West Africa Area 5,112,903 km2 (7th) Population 340,000,000 (2013 est.) (4th) Density 49.2/km2 (127.5/sq mi) Demonym West African Countries Time zones UTC+0 to UTC+1 Major Regional Organizations Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS; established 1975) Total GDP (PPP) $ 752.983 Billion (2013) (23rd)[2] GDP (PPP) per capita $ 2,500 (2013)[3] Total GDP (nominal) $ 655.93485 Billion (2013)[4][5] Total GDP (nominal) per capita $ 1,929.22 (2013)[4] Currency Largest cities Lagos,Nigeria Abidjan,Ivory Coast Accra,Ghana Abuja,Nigeria Kumasi,Ghana Port Harcourt,Nigeria

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost subregion of the African continent. West Africa has been defined in Africa as including the 18 countries Benin, Burkina Faso, the island of Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, the island of Saint Helena, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sao Tome and Principe and Togo.[6]

The history of West Africa can be divided into five major periods: first, its prehistory, in which the first human settlers arrived, developed agriculture, and made contact with peoples to the north; the second, the Iron Age empires that consolidated both intra-African, and extra-African trade, and developed centralized states; third, Major polities flourished, which would undergo an extensive history of contact with non-Africans; fourth, the colonial period, in which Great Britain and France controlled nearly the whole of the region; fifth, the post-independence era, in which the current nations were formed.

Early human settlers from northern Holocene societies arrived in West Africa around 12,000 B.C.[dubious discuss] Sedentary farming began in, or around the fifth millennium B.C, as well as the domestication of cattle. By 1500 B.C, ironworking technology allowed an expansion of agricultural productivity, and the first city-states later formed. Northern tribes developed walled settlements and non-walled settlements that numbered at 400. In the forest region, Iron Age cultures began to flourish, and an inter-region trade began to appear.The desertification of the Sahara and the climatic change of the coast cause trade with upper Mediterranean peoples to be seen.

The domestication of the camel allowed the development of a trans-Saharan trade with cultures across the Sahara, including Carthage and the Berbers; major exports included gold, cotton cloth, metal ornaments and leather goods, which were then exchanged for salt, horses, textiles, and other such materials. Local leather, cloth, and gold also contributed to the abundance of prosperity for many of the following empires.

The development of the region’s economy allowed more centralized states and civilizations to form, beginning with the Nok culture that began in 1000 B.C. and the Ghana Empire that first flourished between the 1st and 3rd centuries, which later gave way to the Mali Empire. In current-day Mauritania, there exist archaeological sites in the towns of Tichit and Oualata that were initially constructed around 2000 B.C., and were found to have originated from the Soninke branch of the Mand peoples. Also, based on the archaeology of city of Kumbi Saleh in modern-day Mauritania, the Mali empire came to dominate much of the region until its defeat by Almoravid invaders in 1052.

The Sosso Empire sought to fill the void, but was defeated (c. 1240) by the Mandinka forces of Sundiata Keita, founder of the new Mali Empire. The Mali Empire continued to flourish for several centuries, most particularly under Sundiata’s grandnephew Musa I, before a succession of weak rulers led to its collapse under Mossi, Tuareg and Songhai invaders. In the 15th century, the Songhai would form a new dominant state based on Gao, in the Songhai Empire, under the leadership of Sonni Ali and Askia Mohammed.

Meanwhile, south of the Sudan, strong city states arose in Igboland, such as the 10th-century Kingdom of Nri, which helped birth the arts and customs of the Igbo people, Bono in the 12th century, which eventually culminated in the formation the all-powerful Akan Empire of Ashanti, while Ife and Benin City rose to prominence around the 14th century. Further east, Oyo arose as the dominant Yoruba state and the Aro Confederacy as a dominant Igbo state in modern-day Nigeria.

Portuguese traders began establishing settlements along the coast in 1445, followed by the French and English; the African slave trade began not long after, which over the following centuries would debilitate the region’s economy and population. The slave trade also encouraged the formation of states such as the Asante Empire, Bambara Empire and Dahomey, whose economic activities include but not limited to exchanging slaves for European firearms.

In the early 19th century, a series of Fulani reformist jihads swept across Western Africa. The most notable include Usman dan Fodio’s Fulani Empire, which replaced the Hausa city-states, Seku Amadu’s Massina Empire, which defeated the Bambara, and El Hadj Umar Tall’s Toucouleur Empire, which briefly conquered much of modern-day Mali.

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West Africa – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Written on July 14th, 2015 & filed under West Bank Tags: , , , , , , , ,

West Bank Area Total 5,640km2 (2,180sqmi) Population Total 2,345,107 Demonym Palestinians, Arabs, Samaritans, Israeli Settlers

The West Bank (Arabic: a-affah l-arbiyyah; Hebrew: , HaGadah HaMa’aravit or Cisjordan[2][3] is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, forming the bulk of the Palestinian territories. The West Bank shares boundaries (demarcated by the Jordanian-Israeli armistice of 1949) to the west, north, and south with the state of Israel, and to the east, across the Jordan River, with Jordan. The West Bank also contains a significant coastline along the western bank of the Dead Sea.[4]

The West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640km2 and 220km2 water, the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea.[4] It has an estimated population of 2,676,740 (July 2013).[5] More than 80%, about 2,100,000,[4] are Palestinian Arabs, and approximately 500,000 are Jewish Israelis living in the West Bank,[4] including about 192,000 in East Jerusalem,[6] in Israeli settlements. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this.[7][8][9][10] The International Court of Justice advisory ruling (2004) concluded that events that came after the 1967 occupation of the West Bank by Israel, including the Jerusalem Law, Israel’s peace treaty with Jordan and the Oslo Accords, did not change the status of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) as occupied territory with Israel as the occupying power.[11][12]

The name West Bank is a translation of the Arabic term ad-Daffah I-Garbiyyah, given to the territory west of the Jordan River that fell, in 1948, under occupation and administration by Jordan, which claimed subsequently to have annexed it in 1950. This annexation was recognized only by Britain, Iraq and Pakistan.[13] The term was chosen to differentiate the west bank of the River Jordan from the “East Bank” of this river.

The neo-Latin name Cisjordan or Cis-Jordan (literally “on this side of the River Jordan”) is the usual name for the territory in the Romance languages and Hungarian. The name West Bank, however, has become the standard usage for this geopolitical entity in English and some of the other Germanic languages since its creation following the Jordanian army’s conquest.

In English, the name Cisjordan is occasionally used to designate the entire region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean, particularly in the historical context of the British Mandate and earlier times.[citation needed] The analogous Transjordan (literally “on the other side of the River Jordan”) has historically been used to designate the region now roughly comprising the state of Jordan, which lies to the east of the Jordan River.

From 1517 through 1917, the area now known as the West Bank was under Ottoman rule as part of the provinces of Syria.

At the 1920 San Remo conference, the victorious Allied powers (France, UK, USA, etc.) allocated the area to the British Mandate of Palestine (192047). The San Remo Resolution adopted on 25 April 1920 incorporated the Balfour Declaration of 1917. It and Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations were the basic documents upon which the British Mandate for Palestine was constructed.

In 1947, it was subsequently designated as part of a proposed Arab state by the United Nations (UN) partition plan for Palestine. The resolution recommended partition of the British Mandate into a Jewish State, an Arab State, and an internationally administered enclave of Jerusalem,[14] a more broad region of the modern-day West Bank was assigned to the Arab State. The resolution designated the territory described as “the hill country of Samaria and Judea” (including what is now also known as the “West Bank”) as part of the proposed Arab state, but following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War this area was captured by Transjordan (renamed Jordan two years after independence in 1946).

1949 Armistice Agreements defined the interim boundary between Israel and Jordan.[15] In 1950, Transjordan annexed the area west of the Jordan River, naming it “West Bank” or “Cisjordan”, as “East Bank” or “Transjordan” designated the area east of the river. Jordan ruled over the West Bank from 1948 until 1967. Jordan’s annexation was never formally recognized by the international community, with the exception of the United Kingdom.[16][17]

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West Bank – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Written on July 9th, 2015 & filed under West Bank Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; Arabic: as-Sula al-Waanya al-Filasnya) was the interim self-government body[4] established to govern Areas A and B of the West Bank and Gaza Strip as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.[5][6] Following elections in 2006 and the subsequent Gaza conflict between the Fatah and Hamas parties, its authority had extended only as far as the West Bank. Since January 2013, the Fatah-controlled Palestinian Authority rebranded itself as the State of Palestine in official documents,[7][8][9] after the United Nations voted to recognize Palestine as a non-member UN observer state.[10][11][12]

The Palestinian Authority was formed in 1994, pursuant to the Oslo Accords between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the government of Israel, as a five-year interim body. Further negotiations were then meant to take place between the two parties regarding its final status. As of 2013[update], more than eighteen years following the formulation of the Authority, this status has yet to be reached.[citation needed]

According to the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian Authority was designated to have exclusive control over both security-related and civilian issues in Palestinian urban areas (referred to as “Area A”) and only civilian control over Palestinian rural areas (“Area B”). The remainder of the territories, including Israeli settlements, the Jordan Valley region and bypass roads between Palestinian communities, were to remain under Israeli control (“Area C”). East Jerusalem was excluded from the Accords. Over time, political change has meant that the areas governed by the Authority have also changed. Negotiations with several Israeli governments had resulted in the Authority gaining further control of some areas, but control was then lost in some areas when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) retook several strategic positions during the Second (“Al-Aqsa”) Intifada. In 2005, after the Second Intifada, Israel withdrew unilaterally from its settlements in the Gaza Strip, thereby expanding Palestinian Authority control to the entire strip.[clarification needed]

In the Palestinian legislative elections on 25 January 2006, Hamas emerged victorious and nominated Ismail Haniyeh as the Authority’s Prime Minister. However, the national unity Palestinian government effectively collapsed when a violent conflict between Hamas and Fatah erupted, mainly in the Gaza Strip. After the Gaza Strip was taken over by Hamas on 14 June 2007, the Authority’s Chairman Mahmoud Abbas dismissed the Hamas-led government and appointed Salam Fayyad as Prime Minister.

Though the PA claims authority over all Palestinian territories, Hamas’ control of the Gaza Strip means its authority is de facto limited to the West Bank. The Authority’s budget derives mainly from various aid programs and the Arab League, while the Hamas government in Gaza was mostly dependent on Iran until the onset of the Arab Spring.[clarification needed]

Since 2007, the Palestinian Authority has continued to oversee the Palestinian territories in the West Bank, while the Hamas government has continued to control the Gaza Strip. A reconciliation agreement to unite their governments, signed in Cairo in 2011, was ratified by the 2012 HamasFatah Doha agreement. Renewed tensions between them, however, plus the effects of the Arab Spring (especially the crisis in Syria) have postponed its implementation. In 2011, representatives of the Authority failed to have their United Nations (UN) status upgraded, although their UNESCO status was upgraded to state representation. In July 2012, the Hamas government in Gaza was reported as considering a declaration of the independence of the Gaza Strip, with the support of neighboring Egypt.[13]

The Palestinian Authority (PA) is an interim administrative body established in accordance with the GazaJericho Agreement[14] after the Oslo Accords to assume the responsibilities of the Israeli military administration in populated Palestinian centers (Area A) in the West Bank and Gaza Strip until final status negotiations with Israel are concluded.[15][16] The administrative responsibilities accorded to the PA are limited to civil matters and internal security and do not include external security or foreign affairs.[16] Palestinians in the diaspora and inside Israel do not vote in elections for the offices of the Palestinian Authority.[17] The PA should not be confused with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) who continues to enjoy international recognition as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people, representing them at the United Nations under the name “Palestine”.[18][19]

The PA has received financial assistance from the European Union and the United States (approximately US$1 billion combined in 2005). All direct aid was suspended on 7 April 2006 as a result of the Hamas victory in parliamentary elections.[20][21] Shortly thereafter, aid payments resumed, but were channeled directly to the offices of Mahmoud Abbas in the West Bank.[22]Conflict between Hamas and Fatah later in 2006 resulted in Hamas taking exclusive control over the administration of all PA institutions in the Gaza Strip. Since 9 January 2009, when Mahmoud Abbas’ term as President was supposed to have ended and elections were to have been called, Hamas supporters and many in the Gaza Strip have withdrawn recognition for his Presidency and instead consider Aziz Dweik, who served as the speaker of the house in the Palestinian Legislative Council, to be the acting President until new elections can be held.[23][24] No Western financial assistance is given to the PA authorities in Gaza and Western governments do not recognize anyone but Abbas to be the President.

The Gaza International Airport was built by the PA in the city of Rafah, but operated for only a brief period before being destroyed by Israel following the outbreak of Al-Aqsa Intifada in 2000. A sea port was also being constructed in Gaza but was never completed (see below).

The creation of a Palestinian police force was called for under the Oslo Accords.[16] The first Palestinian police force of 9,000 was deployed in Jericho in 1994, and later in Gaza.[16] These forces initially struggled to control security in the areas in which it had partial controlled and because of this Israel delayed expansion of the area to be administered by the PA.[16] By 1996, the PA security forces were estimated to include anywhere from 40,000 to 80,000 recruits.[25] PA security forces employ some armored cars, and a limited number carry automatic weapons.[26] Some Palestinians opposed to or critical of the peace process perceive the Palestinian security forces to be little more than a proxy of the State of Israel.[16]

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Palestinian National Authority – Wikipedia, the free …

Written on May 22nd, 2015 & filed under West Bank Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

Nicols Fox moved to the Radio Quiet Zone to escape electromagnetic forces

Courtesy of Christine Fitzpatrick

You can turn your phone on in Green Bank, W.Va., but you wont get a trace of a signal. If you hit scan on your cars radio, itll cycle through the dial endlessly, never pausing on a station. This remote mountainous town is inside the U.S. National Radio Quiet Zone, a 13,000square-mile area where most types of electromagnetic radiation on the radio spectrum (which includes radio and TV broadcasts, Wi-Fi networks, cell signals, Bluetooth, and the signals used by virtually every other wireless device) are banned to minimize disturbance around the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, home to the worlds largest steerable radio telescope.

For most people, this restriction is a nuisance. But a few dozen people have moved to Green Bank (population: 147) specifically because of it. They say they suffer from electromagnetic hypersensitivity, or EHSa disease not recognized by the scientific community in which these frequencies can trigger acute symptoms like dizziness, nausea, rashes, irregular heartbeat, weakness, and chest pains. Diane Schou came here with her husband in 2007 because radio-frequency exposure anywhere else she went gave her constant headaches. Life isnt perfect here. Theres no grocery store, no restaurants, no hospital nearby, she told me when I visited her house last month. But here, at least, I’m healthy. I can do things. I’m not in bed with a headache all the time.

The idea that radio frequencies can cause harm to the human body isnt entirely absurd. Some research has suggested that long-term exposure to power lines and cellphones is associated with an increased chance of cancer, although most evidence says otherwise. But what these people claimthat exposure to electromagnetic frequencies can immediately cause pain and ill healthis relatively novel, has little medical research to support it, and is treated with deep skepticism by the scientific mainstream.

That hasnt stopped them from seeking to publicize the dangers of wireless technology. One of the most prominent activists in the field, Arthur Firstenberg, gained notoriety in 2010 for suing his Santa Fe neighbor for the effects of her Wi-Fi network. But he began organizing EHS-sufferers way back in 1996when digital cellular networks were initially installed across the countryforming the Cellular Phone Task Force and publishing Microwaving Our Planet, one of the first books on the topic. In the years since, a fringe movement has grown around the idea, with some 30 support groups worldwide for those affected by radiation. The purported epidemic is particularly concentrated in the United Kingdom and Sweden, where surveys have found that 1 to 4 percent of the population believes theyre affected.

Here in the United States, West Virginias Radio Quiet Zone has become a gathering place for the hypersensitive since the mid-2000s, when they first began arriving. Most find out about the area through EHS groups, at conferences, or by reading about it in the handful of news reports published over the last few years. Diane Schou estimates that, so far, 36 people like her have settled in and around the tiny town to escape radiation.

When you walk in the Schous two-story brick house, 4 miles up a forested road from the Green Bank post office, the first item you see might be a radiation meter they keep in their living room. She and her husband, Bert, moved here from Cedar Falls, Iowa, because they believe Diane is sensitive to very specific radio frequencies. She first began noticing her sensitivity in 2002, she says, when U.S. Cellular, a wireless provider based in the Midwest, built a tower near their farm. I was extremely tired, but I couldn’t sleep at night, she said. I got a rash, I had hair loss, my skin was wrinkled, and I just thought it was something I ate, or getting older.” After she started getting severe headaches, she heard about EHS from a friend and did some reading online, and eventually came to believe the tower had triggered her latent sensitivity. She went for a consultation at the Mayo Clinic, but doctors refused to consider the possibility, and when she wrote to the FCC complaining about the tower, they simply replied by saying it was safe.

Over the next four years, she repeatedly left the farm to search for a safe place, traveling through Scandinavia (where their son was studying abroad) and logging more than 75,000 miles driving across the United States in their RV. Shed find relatively safe spots but still got pounding headaches and chest pains from a range of triggers: if someone nearby turned on his phone, if she drove past a signal tower, if a neighbor next door used a coffee maker. It would be like a sledgehammer on top of my head, she said. Initially, only U.S. Cellular phones had harmed her, but eventually, being near any electrical device was a risk. (Virtually all devices that use electricity, even if they dont rely on wireless signals, emit a low level of radiation.)

Then, in 2007, she learned about the Radio Quiet Zone. When she visited, she finally started to feel better. She and Bert sold half of their Iowa farmland and bought the house in West Virginia, unfinished, and have since installed wiring with thick insulation to reduce radiation. (Bertwho gets much milder symptoms of EHS, including tinnitusstill goes back to their farm every summer to conduct corn research.) Over time, living without exposure reduced Dianes sensitivity, and she can now tolerate many devices without pain. The Schous use a landline and an Internet-connected computer (without Wi-Fi). But they still havent found a refrigerator with low enough radiation emissions, so Diane manually fills an icebox with ice each day. Even now, if she leaves the Radio Quiet Zone, exposure can set her off: I’ll say, Oh, I have a headache, and then someone’s cellphone will ring, she said. This happens time and time again.

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Green Bank, W.V., where the electrosensitive can escape …

Written on May 22nd, 2015 & filed under West Bank Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

West Bank harvesters: Economic reforms and donor support will help sow the seeds of West Bank and Gazas future growth (photo: Mohamed Torokman/Reuters)

MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

IMF Survey

May 19, 2015

The West Bank and Gaza will need policy discipline and donor support in the short run, but a new financing model will be essential over the medium term for sustained private-sector-led growth, the IMF says.

The Gazan economy is struggling to rebuild in the wake of the violent conflict last summer that resulted in losses of over $4 billion. The war also affected confidence in the West Bank, where Israeli restrictions on the movement of labor, access to resources, and trade continue to undermine growth prospects.

The IMF has issued its latest report on the economy of the West Bank and Gaza in advance of the May 27 meeting of the Ad Hoc Liaison Committee, a coordination mechanism chaired by Norway for development assistance to the Palestinian people.

IMF mission chief Christoph Duenwald spoke to the IMF Survey about the reports findings, outlining what the Palestinian Authority can do to turn the economy around and how the international community can assist.

IMF Survey: The Gaza-Israel conflict dealt a harsh blow to the Palestinians in the summer of 2014. What was the impact on the economy of West Bank and Gaza?

Duenwald: Gaza, where the war played out, saw real GDP decline by 15 percent last year. According to official estimates, the losses from the war are over $4 billion, about 35 percent of West Bank and Gazas GDP. Tens of thousands of homes and enterprises were destroyed or damaged, businesses shut down, and utilities and infrastructure were severely damaged.

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Donor Support Crucial to West Bank and Gazas Recovery

Written on May 20th, 2015 & filed under West Bank Tags: , , , , , , , ,

It was a large house with three floors and freshly painted pale blue shutters that had just been built for a family of 17.

But within a few hours of work by a pair of Israeli bulldozers, all that was left was a mountain of rubble and twisted metal.

Like more than half of the homes in Ad Deirat-Rifaiyya a village of 1,800 residents on a windswept hillside in the southern West Bank the house was built on land owned by the villagers but without Israels approval.

Left without a roof over their heads and unwilling to try building again, the family moved away to rented accommodation in a nearby town.

It is a scenario that Palestinians say plays out hundreds of times a year across part of the West Bank, where Israel has been accused of making it all-but-impossible for Palestinians to obtain building permits.

The result is wide-scale illegal construction, which is then demolished by Israel in a policy that has drawn widespread condemnation.

The question of Israels iron grip on all planning matters in what is known as Area C which covers more than 60 percent of the West Bank is now being debated by the Israeli Supreme Court.

Palestinian women walk in a field on April 21, 2015 in the West Bank village of Ad-Deirat Rifaiyya, where more than half of the homes are built on land owned by the villagers but without Israels approval leaving them under threat of demolition by Israeli bulldozers. (Photo credit: Hazem Bader/AFP)

In a landmark appeal, Ad-Deirat village, Israeli NGO Rabbis for Human Rights and three other organizations are demanding the state end its discriminatory housing policies and return local planning rights to Palestinians.

Giving Palestinians control over their own planning would curb the need for illegal building, thereby halting house demolitions, say the petitioners, who have made their case before the Supreme Court and are now waiting for a final ruling.

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West Bank village challenges Israeli planning policy in …