Palestine ( PAL-e-steen) is a city in Anderson County, Texas, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 18,712. It is the county seat. Palestine was named for Palestine, Illinois, by Daniel Parker.
The largest employer is the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, which employs more than 3,900. Another 1,600 work at two Wal-Mart distribution centers. Other significant employers include a thriving medical and healthcare sector that tends to the large population of retirees.
Palestine entered the news in February 2003, as one of the East Texas towns that received much of the debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, where seven astronauts were killed.
Palestine is also home to the NASA Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (renamed after the shuttle crash), which has flown 1,700 high-altitude balloons for universities and research agencies.
In 1846, the Texas Legislature created Palestine to serve as seat for the newly established Anderson County. James R. Fulton, Johnston Shelton and William Bigelow were hired by the first Anderson County commissioners to survey the surrounding land and lay out a town site, consisting of a central courthouse square and the surrounding 24 blocks. Predating the town was a temporary trading post in operation since at least 1843. It grew significantly following the arrival of the railroad in the 1870s. It had a population of over 10,000 by 1898.
Palestine is located near the center of Anderson County at 314529N 953819W / 31.75806N 95.63861W / 31.75806; -95.63861 (31.757925, -95.638473). Several numbered highways converge on the city, including U.S. Highways 79, 84, and 287, plus Texas State Highways 19 and 155. Dallas is 110 miles (180km) to the northwest, and Houston is 150 miles (240km) to the south. Tyler is 47 miles (76km) to the northeast.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.6 square miles (50.7km2), of which 19.4 square miles (50.2km2) is land and 0.19 square miles (0.5km2), or 1.06%, is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 17,598 people, 6,641 households, and 4,582 families residing in the city. The population density was 994.3 people per square mile (383.9/km). There were 7,668 housing units at an average density of 433.2 per square mile (167.3/km). The racial makeup of the city was 64.60% White, 24.77% African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.79% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 7.90% from other races, and 1.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.88% of the population.
There were 6,641 households out of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.0% were non-families. 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.13.
In the city the population was spread out with 29.1% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 84.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,497, and the median income for a family was $36,806. Males had a median income of $28,331 versus $20,662 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,514. About 16.6% of families and 20.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.7% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over.
According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $12.6 million in revenues, $11.8 million in expenditures, $6.2 million in total assets, $0.7 million in total liabilities, and $4.2 million in cash in investments.
Palestine is represented in the Texas Senate by Republican Robert Nichols, District 3, and in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Byron Cook, District 8.
At the national level, the two U.S. senators from Texas are Republicans John Cornyn and Ted Cruz; Palestine is part of Texas’ US Congressional 5th District, currently represented by Republican Jeb Hensarling.
With almost 3,500 students the Palestine Independent School District is the largest school district in Palestine. The district comprises:
Located on the western edge of the city is the Westwood Independent School District. It is home to approximately 1,700 students. It consists of a primary, elementary, junior high and high school campus.
Westwood Independent School District
Landmark School, a 9-12 charter school of Honors Academy, is in Palestine.
Innovation Academy, charter school of The University of Texas at Tyler, began in 2012 with grades 3-6. Grades 7-12 will be added at the rate of one per year. Location: NW Loop 256 @ Highway 287N.
A small portion of remote area of the City is also within the Elkhart ISD.
Trinity Valley Community College operates TVCC-Palestine just north of the city limits at the intersection of US 287 and State Highway 19. In addition to offering academic transfer courses the Palestine campus offers vocational-technical programs in vocational nursing, cosmetology, mid-management, computer science, criminal justice, business and office technology, fire science, legal assistant, emergency medical technician and paramedic programs and also trains correctional officers for the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Continuing education and adult education courses are also offered.
The University of Texas at Tyler also operates a campus in the city. A new $9.6 million 50-acre (200,000m2) campus opened in 2010, fall semester. The UT Tyler Palestine Campus currently offers courses in Nursing, Business, Education, Health and Kinesiology and History.
The Dogwood Trails Festival occurs each spring over the last two weekends of March and the first weekend in April.
The Dogwood Jamboree is held every two months at the Palestine Civic Center. The country and western concert is hosted by Pastor Dan Manuel and a variety of country and western artists. Each performance always features new talent, young, older and in between. The newest addition to the Dogwood Jamboree features talent competition developing young artists under the age of eighteen. Attendees come from all over the nation and from foreign countries to see the performances.
The Palestine Visitor Information Center at the entrance to the downtown district is located in a former railroad depot.
A glimpse of downtown Palestine
The Texas Theatre hosts community events.
Sacred Heart Catholic Church at 503 North Queen Street in downtown Palestine
The rest is here:
Palestine, Texas – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Symbols are powerful communication tools. They convey considerable meaning in an immediately recognizable form, and the power they can have is tremendous. Consider the reverence or passion that the American flag, the Star of David, and the Christian cross evoke, and the impact of symbols is readily apparent.
Unfortunately, symbols can convey negative connotations as well as positive ones. Some symbols are meant to evoke feelings of hate or anger, or to spark fear and insecurity. Hate symbols, for instance, can be found scrawled on the outside walls of synagogues, churches and schools; tattooed on the bodies of white supremacists; or displayed on jewelry and clothing. Extremists use these symbols because it gives them a sense of power and belonging, as well as a quick way of identifying others who share their beliefs.
This database provides an overview of many of the symbols most frequently used by a variety of white supremacist groups and movements, as well as some other types of hate groups.
All the symbols depicted here must be evaluated in the context in which they appear. Few symbols ever represent just one idea or are used exclusively by one group. For example, the Confederate Flag is a symbol that is frequently used by white supremacists but which also has been used by people and groups that are not racist. Similarly, other symbols in this database may be significant to people who are not extreme or racist. The descriptions here point out significant multiple meanings but may not be able to relay every possible meaning of a particular symbol.
Hate on Display Hate Symbols Database – ADLs Hate …
Country Profiles Select a Country or Other Area Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cabo Verde Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria North Korea Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Territories Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russia Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Korea South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
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Israel – State
Official Name: Medinat Yisra’el short form: Yisra’el int’l long form: State of Israel int’l short form: Israel
ISO Country Code: il
Time: Actual Time: Fri-Aug-21 08:42 Local Time = UTC +2h Daylight Saving Time (DST) April – Oktober (UTC +3).
Country Calling Code: +972
Capital City: Jerusalem (Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950. But nearly all countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv)
Other Cities: Haifa, Nazareth, Tel Aviv
Government: Type: Parliamentary democracy Independence: 14 May 1948 Constitution: no formal constitution
Geography: Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon. Area: 22,000 km (8,494 sq. mi.); including the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem. Terrain: Plains, mountains, desert, and coast.
Climate: Temperate, except in desert areas.
People: Nationality: Israeli(s) Population: 7.9 million (2012) Ethnic groups: Jewish and non Arab Christians: 80%; Arabs 20%. Religions: Judaism, Islam, Christianity, Druze Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic (official), Russian, English Literacy: total population 95% (female 93%; male 97%).
Natural resources: Timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand.
Agriculture products: Citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products.
Industries: High-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, diamond cutting.
Currency: (New) Israeli Sheqel (ILS)
Israel – Nations Online
Israel has a technologically advanced market economy. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and pharmaceuticals are among the leading exports. Its major imports include crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are covered by tourism and other service exports, as well as significant foreign investment inflows. Between 2004 and 2011, growth averaged nearly 5% per year, led by exports. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid fundamentals, following years of prudent fiscal policy and a resilient banking sector. In 2010, Israel formally acceded to the OECD. Israel’s economy also has weathered the Arab Spring because strong trade ties outside the Middle East have insulated the economy from spillover effects. The economy has recovered better than most advanced, comparably sized economies, but slowing demand domestically and internationally, and a strong shekel, have reduced forecasts for the next decade to the 3% level. Natural gas fields discovered off Israel’s coast since 2009 have brightened Israel’s energy security outlook. The Tamar and Leviathan fields were some of the world’s largest offshore natural gas finds this past decade. The massive Leviathan field is not due to come online until 2018, but production from Tamar provided a one percentage point boost to Israel’s GDP in 2013 and is expected to contribute 0.5% growth in 2014. In mid-2011, public protests arose around income inequality and rising housing and commodity prices. Israel’s income inequality and poverty rates are among the highest of OECD countries and there is a broad perception among the public that a small number of “tycoons” have a cartel-like grip over the major parts of the economy. The government formed committees to address some of the grievances but has maintained that it will not engage in deficit spending to satisfy populist demands. In May 2013 the Israeli government, in a politically difficult process, passed an austerity budget to reign in the deficit and restore confidence in the government’s fiscal position. Over the long term, Israel faces structural issues, including low labor participation rates for its fastest growing social segments – the ultra-orthodox and Arab-Israeli communities. Also, Israel’s progressive, globally competitive, knowledge-based technology sector employs only 9% of the workforce, with the rest employed in manufacturing and services – sectors which face downward wage pressures from global competition. More
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Israel – Forbes
While claiming to represent “the interests of the worldwide Jewish Community” the B’nai B’rith http://www.bbidirect.org/ is in fact a Masonic Order that represents British Freemasonry, and shifts blame for its Luciferian “world government” agenda onto Jews in general. Thus while pretending to fight anti- Semitism, it actually puts Jews in jeopardy. The B’nai B’rith has no mandate to represent the Jewish people. But by equating opposition to the globalist agenda with anti-Semitism, it ensures that Jews are blamed for the emerging New World Order. For example, recently an Internet forum posted an item about B’nai B’rith advocacy of “Hate Laws” and Internet censorship. A member responded, “Those Jews are setting themselves up for extermination again.” Thus “Jews” become the scapegoat for the Freemason agenda despite the fact that about 50 per cent of American Jews have nothing to do with Jewish organizations or religion, and in fact intermarry. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=526039 Yes, many other Jews who are ignorant of the Masonic plan naively subscribe to Zionism and the phony “War on Terror.” They might be surprised to learn that the Star of David featured on the Israeli flag was an occult symbol and not a Jewish symbol in the Old Testament; that most Israeli leaders, like American Presidents, are Freemasons; and that the new Israeli Supreme Court is loaded with Masonic symbolism and is located along Satanic “ley-lines.” Financed and designed by the Rothschilds, it is the court of the New World Order. http://www.planetquo.com/Illuminati-Design-And -Symbolism-In-The-Israeli-Supreme-Court-Building The B’nai B’rith-ADL is probably active in your city. It approaches schools, private companies, and professional associations offering indoctrination in “diversity” and “hate crimes.” It trains the local police to recognize political crimes. “Hate” is anything or anyone that interferes with the world government agenda, partly listed on the ADL website (appropriately in the left column). http://www.adl.org/ The B’nai B’rith is part of the Masonic Scottish Rite Order established in 1843. It’s militant arm, the “Anti Defamation League” (ADL) was formed in 1913, the same year as the US Federal Reserve. According to a book, “The Ugly Truth About the ADL” (1992) http://www.truthinstitute.org/TEI_Book_AnalysisUTA.htm by the Executive Intelligence Review, the B’nai B’rith has always played a leading role in returning the US to the Masonic control of the British “Crown” (a.k.a The New World Order.) (See “The Jewish Conspiracy is British Imperialism” http://www.savethemales.ca/000447.html) “Not only is the ADL emphatically not a Jewish civil rights lobby; the ADL and its parent agency B’nai B’rith have been from their inception, arms of the British secret intelligence services and secret societies that are sworn enemies of the United States. The B’nai B’rith and the ADL have used their nominal Jewishness to conceal their actual allegiance and agenda.” (“Ugly Truth” p. 3) The B’nai B’rith/ Scottish Rite was instrumental in starting the Ku Klux Klan and causing the US Civil War, which destroyed the flower of American manhood. A B’nai B’rith leader, Simon Wolf, was a Confederate spy and was implicated in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the first of many such coup d’etats (i.e. the assassinations of Presidents Garfield, McKinley, Kennedy.) The book goes on to detail ADL links to organized crime, drugs and prostitution, domestic spying, the purchase of the US Congress and the removal of Christianity from public institutions. It says the ADL fought Texas legislation to prosecute satanic ritual crimes and lost numerous libel suits for defaming critics as “anti-Semites.” http://www.americanfreepress.net/Censored/17_02 %20Victims%20Persevere-%20Court%20.htm ADL SHILLS FOR ELITE AGENDA As I have said, the mainspring of the New World Order is the private central bankers’ need to translate their unlimited financial power, derived from their control of your government’s credit, into permanent world institutions of political and social control. Millions of non-Jews and a disproportionate number of Jews have sold their souls to these Lucifer-loving bankers. Led by the Rothschilds and Rockefellers, the banking cartel is behind the Sept. 11 attacks, the Iraq war and the phony “War on Terror. They are behind the B’nai B’rith-ADL. Take their “Diversity” program for example.You cannot work for a large corporation or government today without receiving this insulting Stalinist indoctrination which forces us to accept differences regardless of their merit. A measure of the Masonic control of Western society is that “Diversity” was never debated or put to a vote. It became the official ideology as if by magic. Particularly distasteful is the ADL’s “early childhood initiative” which targets 3-5 year-olds for indoctrination. They hide behind a smokescreen of platitudes but the net effect is that youngsters of European origin do not learn pride in their national or cultural heritage. The ADL boasts that 375,000 teachers and 12 million students have participated in these programs. http://www.adl.org/education/miller/”>” In the workplace, “Diversity” discriminates against Europeans, and particularly white heterosexual males in favor of women, coloreds and homosexuals. People are chosen on the basis of this political profile instead of their competence, which would be truly non-discriminatory and fair, not-to-mention efficient. The purpose is to fragment society and destabilize the family so there is no coherent basis for resistance to world government. At the same time, the ADL actively promotes Zionist education and consciousness, including free trips to Israel for Jewish youth. Thus Jews are indoctrinated to promote the Masonic agenda and to take the fall when the time comes. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=526039 CONCLUSION: THE TRAP Recently President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran told a student conference “Israel must be wiped off the map.” He then joined a million-strong demonstration shouting “Death to Israel, Death to America” and recalled three ambassadors who apologized for his original statement. It is inconceivable that he would play into the Zionist hand by making such a rash statement, right on cue, unless he was also controlled by the Illuminati (i.e. the highest rank of Freemasonry.) The stated goal of the Illuminati is to foment a Third World War between the “political Zionists and the leaders of the Islamic world.” Presumably Iran backed by Russia and China would face off against Israel, the US and the UK. http://www.halturnershow.com/ChineseDefenseMinisterTalksWarAgainstUS.html Albert Pike, the Head of the Scottish Rite in the 19th Century, continued: “The [third] war must be conducted in such a way that Islam (the Moslem Arabic World) and political Zionism (the State of Israel) mutually destroy each other.” The rest of the world will be drawn in. “Meanwhile the other nations, once more divided on this issue will be constrained to fight to the point of complete physical, moral, spiritual and economical exhaustion…” At this point they will be constrained to accept the Luciferian one-world government. See my “Countdown to World War Three” http://www.savethemales.ca/000546.html Thus we are all pawns in a diabolical game from which no one, certainly not Jews or Israelis, will emerge victorious. We need to unite to resist those who lead us into this deadly trap. The B’nai B’rith-ADL doesn’t represent Jews. It represents Freemasonry, which casts a morbid spell over the Anglo-American establishment and plots the demise of Western Civilization.
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Makow – B’nai B’rith/ADL Does Not Represent Jews Jews …
De Holocaust, ook wel Shoah, Shoa of Sjoa (Hebreeuws: Ha-Shoah) genoemd, was de systematische Jodenvervolging door de nazi’s en hun bondgenoten voor en tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Tijdens de overheersing door nazi-Duitsland werden er tussen de 5,1 en 6 miljoen Europese Joden vermoord. De moorden vonden grotendeels plaats in concentratie- en vernietigingskampen.
Het woord Holocaust betekent brandoffer en is afgeleid van het Oud-Griekse woord (holokauston), wat letterlijk ‘geheel verbrand’ betekent. Dit was een aanduiding voor een brandoffer aan een godheid. De term Holocaust als synoniem voor de Sjoa is in zwang gekomen vanuit de Verenigde Staten, waar eind jaren zeventig de gelijknamige televisieserie grote aandacht trok.
Omdat de term Holocaust oorspronkelijk de naam was van een vrijwillig brandoffer aan God, en er bij de Jodenvervolging in de Tweede Wereldoorlog geen vrijwillige offers aan een godheid werden gebracht, gebruiken sommigen liever de term Sjoa ( = vernietiging).
Volgens de betrouwbaarste schattingen ligt het totaal aantal vermoorde Joden tussen de 5,1 en iets meer dan zes miljoen.
Naoorlogse schattingen per land (grenzen van voor de oorlog):
Per jaar zijn de slachtofferaantallen als volgt in te delen:
Naast Joden werden ook andere groepen al dan niet systematisch vermoord, zoals homoseksuelen, Esperantisten, zigeuners, “economisch onwaardigen”, Russen, etnische Polen, gehandicapten, Jehova’s getuigen, Vrije Bijbelonderzoekers, vakbondsleden, vrijmetselaars, communisten, Spaanse republikeinen, Serven, Quakers en mensen die zich verzetten tegen de nazi’s.
Waarom de nazi’s overgingen tot het op grote schaal vermoorden van Joden, homoseksuelen, zigeuners en ‘economisch onwaardigen’ als fysiek en mentaal gehandicapten is nog steeds onduidelijk. Het debat hierover werd onder meer gevoerd door Daniel Goldhagen met zijn boek Hitlers gewillige beulen. Duidelijk is wel dat Adolf Hitlers felle antisemitisme de ‘motor’ was die het nationaalsocialisme schuldig maakte aan etnische zuivering of volkerenmoord.
Hermann Gring verklaarde tijdens het proces te Neurenberg (Nrnberg) (1945-’46) dat “de kampen” voor hen uiteindelijk de strop zouden betekenen.
Een genocide op zo grote schaal was slechts mogelijk doordat een aantal factoren gelijktijdig speelden in delen van Europa, en met name Duitsland:
Antisemitisme en antiziganisme hadden altijd al onderdeel uitgemaakt van het NSDAP-partijprogramma. Dit antisemitisme vond onder het Duitse volk, dat leed onder de gevolgen van een hyperinflatie, gretig aftrek vanwege de gedachte dat Joden zich vaak in de bankiers- en zakenwereld bevonden. Niet alleen Hitler, maar ook vele kopstukken van zijn partij waren antisemiet. Julius Streicher spande met zijn radicale partijblad “Der Strmer” de kroon: soms waren zijn ideen zelfs de nazi’s wat te gortig. De nazi’s zagen de Joden als “bacillen”, die de Duitse natie “ziek maakten” en “ondermijnden”. Al ver voordat Hitler aan de macht kwam, heeft hij onder meer in “Mein Kampf” beweerd dat de Eerste Wereldoorlog niet zou zijn verloren als de Duitsers “tien- of twaalfduizend van deze volksverraders onder het gifgas hadden gehouden”.
Toen Adolf Hitler in 1933 aan de macht kwam, was er wel zeker latent antisemitisme, dat door de NSDAP en de SA werd uitgebuit. Toch was dit zeker niet hetzelfde antisemitisme als dat van de NSDAP. Het antisemitisme in Duitsland was eerder economisch van aard en ging beslist niet zo ver dat men de Joden wilde uitroeien of verwijderen. Veel Joden integreerden in de Duitse samenleving en werden dan ook niet meer als Jood gezien. Het antisemitisme van de NSDAP was hoofdzakelijk benvloed door het antisemitisme in Oostenrijk en Sudetenland, dat veel radicaler was. Hitler had zelf jaren in Wenen gewoond, waar de Duitssprekenden zich bedreigd voelden door de groeiende aanwezigheid van de niet-Duitssprekenden en Joden. Hier kwamen groeperingen op die betoogden dat er een “joods ras” bestond dat inferieur was aan het “Germaanse ras” en dat dit ras en diens zuiverheid “ondermijnde”. Dit was het antisemitisme dat de NSDAP propageerde, en dat al in de 19e eeuw radicalere oplossingen voorstond.
De weg naar de Holocaust/Shoa begon met door de regering en partij aangemoedigde pesterijen door radicale elementen. Deze pesterijen omvatten onder andere uitschelden, belachelijk maken, molestaties en zo nu en dan ook moord. Wanneer het te gortig werd, werd van bovenaf “ingegrepen”, waarna de regering de radicalen “tevreden stelde” met antisemitische maatregelen om “verder geweld te voorkomen”. Dit culmineerde uiteindelijk in de “Neurenberger wetten” van 1935. Dit omvatte een pakket discriminerende maatregelen alsmede regelgeving die bepaalde wie er wel en wie niet een Duitser of Jood was. Door die nieuwe wetgeving raakten Joden hun burgerrechten kwijt en werden huwelijken tussen Joden en niet-Joden verboden. In de jaren dertig was de nazipartij zeer populair en werd het antisemitisme “op de koop toe genomen”, ook door degenen die niet antisemiet waren. Men veronderstelde bovendien dat de ideologie mettertijd zou verzwakken nu de NSDAP regeerde, wat tijdens de Olympische Spelen van 1936 ook werkelijk leek te gebeuren. De NSDAP had echter de pesterijen doelbewust tegengehouden om de schone schijn tijdens de Spelen op te houden. Na 1936 gingen de maatregelen en pesterijen weer door.
Op 10 november 1938 vond na de moord op Vom Rath de Reichskristallnacht of kortweg Kristallnacht plaats. Duizenden SA-mannen in burger overvielen Joodse huizen en winkels, stichtten brand in synagogen en sloegen Joden in elkaar. Dit leidde tot het buiten de economie plaatsen van de Joden en het opleggen van een boete van 1 miljard mark aan de Joodse gemeenschap, aangezien volgens de regering de Joden de aanstichters waren. Buitenlandse kritiek werd gepareerd met de mededeling dat dit een uiting was van het gezonde volksoordeel, het “Gesundes Volksempfinden”.
In de jaren 1938-1941 werd gewerkt aan een “oplossing” waarbij Joden naar een bepaald gebied gezonden zouden worden. En optie was Brits Palestina, een andere was Madagaskar. Met name na de overwinning op Frankrijk zouden veel nazi’s het Madagaskarplan aanhangen, maar dit was zolang de oorlog duurde niet haalbaar. De Britse marine beheerste de zee en de Duitsers durfden niet te veel druk op de Fransen uit te oefenen om ze hun kolonie te laten afstaan. De uiteindelijke bezetting van het eiland door geallieerde troepen zorgde dat dit plan definitief van de agenda verdween. Een verdere stap in de richting van genocide was het idee Joden als gijzelaars te gebruiken om de Verenigde Staten buiten de oorlog te houden.
In bezet Polen begonnen ondertussen de Gauleiters van oostelijke Gouwen als Wartheland en Danzig-Westpruisen hun Gaue “Judenrein” te maken door Joden naar het Generalgouvernment (de door de Duitsers genitieerde Poolse rompstaat) te deporteren. De nieuwe Gaue werden gezien als mogelijkheid om een ideale nazi-samenleving te creren. Daarbij hoorde uiteraard het “verwijderen” van “ongewenste elementen”, waaronder Joden. Tussen de Gauleiters ontstond een zekere concurrentie: wie had de meest genazificeerde Gau? In de Poolse grote steden ontstonden hierdoor getto’s: overvolle afgebakende woonwijken waar de Joden onder de meest onhyginische omstandigheden moesten wonen.
De aanval op de Sovjet-Unie opende nieuwe “mogelijkheden” voor de nazifilosofen. Nu konden ze alle Joden uit Groot-Duitsland en zijn satellieten naar Siberi sturen, waar ze “zouden creperen”. Immers, wanneer ze het “te gemakkelijk” hadden, zouden de Joden in een nieuwe Joodse staat wellicht een bedreiging vormen. Daarom konden ze volgens de nazi’s maar beter creperen. In het oosten ontstonden de eerste kampen voor Joden, maar na de nederlaag bij Moskou bleek dat de optie om de Joden naar Sovjetgebied te deporteren voorlopig niet haalbaar was. Uitroeiing of vernietiging werd meer en meer als de beste optie gezien, bovendien kostte het deporteren en opsluiten van de Joden geld en voedsel.
Verschillende manieren werden overwogen. Doodschieten “kostte te veel kogels”, en bovendien was het voor de beulen “geestelijk te belastend”. Ook het gebruik van explosieven werd overwogen, maar dit leidde ertoe dat de lichaamsdelen her en der verspreid raakten, wat eveneens tot zenuwziektes bij het kamppersoneel kon leiden. Vergassing zag men als oplossing. Aanvankelijk geschiedde dit nog met koolmonoxide. Speciale gaswagens werden ingezet. De Joden werd verteld dat ze “op transport” gingen per vrachtwagen, en vervolgens werden de uitlaatgassen de laadruimte ingeleid. De wagen reed nadien door naar een massabegraafplaats. Eind augustus of begin september 1941 werd in Auschwitz de eerste proef gedaan met Zyklon B. In een kelder van Blok 11 werden Russische krijgsgevangenen bijeen gedreven en blootgesteld aan Zyklon B. De dag erna werd de effectiviteit ervan gecontroleerd, waarbij bleek dat een groot deel van de gevangenen nog in leven was. Men verhoogde daarop de dosis. De SS liet gevangenen de lijken opruimen en verbranden in het crematorium. Na dit eerste experiment werd een tweede vergassing met Zyklon B uitgevoerd op een transport met Russische krijgsgevangenen. Zyklon B werd al gebruikt voor ontluizing (het middel was dan ook ontworpen als insectenbestrijdingsmiddel), maar de extreme giftigheid van het middel bracht waarnemend commandant van Auschwitz Karl Fritzsch op het idee om het te gebruiken voor het vergassen van gevangenen.
Hitler nam het besluit tot vernietiging van het Europese Jodendom (de zogeheten Endlsung der Judenfrage, ofwel de Eindoplossing van het Jodenprobleem) naar alle waarschijnlijkheid in september 1941. Tijdens de Wannseeconferentie in een villa aan de Wannsee nabij Berlijn in januari 1942 werd de logistieke uitvoering van het besluit besproken. Adolf Eichmann, een van de beruchtste betrokkenen bij de Holocaust, was een van de aanwezigen. Vanaf dat moment kon gesproken worden van een van tevoren beraamde en systematisch uitgevoerde genocide, voor zover deze feitelijk al niet aan de gang was.
De nazi’s hielden hun krijgsgevangenen al in het begin van de jaren dertig in concentratiekampen. In januari 1939 liet Hitler in een toespraak weten dat het “joodse ras” in de komende oorlog vernietigd zou worden. Voor dit doel, de zogenaamde Endlsung (Duits voor “eindoplossing”), werden vernietigingskampen ofwel Vernichtungslager ingericht. Deze kampen waren bedoeld om doelbewust en systematisch groepen te vermoorden, die door de nazi’s Untermenschen (Duits voor “ondermensen”) genoemd werden. Naast Joden waren dit onder andere zigeuners, gehandicapten, communisten en homoseksuelen. In totaal kregen zeven kampen de functie van vernietigingskamp, waarvan zes in Polen en n in Wit-Rusland. Deze zeven kampen waren:
Een vernietigingskamp is een kamp waar de meeste gevangenen onmiddellijk na aankomst vergast werden. Dit lot trof sowieso de zieken, ouderen en kinderen. De gevangenen die in leven gehouden werden, kregen verscheidene taken met als doel het kamp draaiende te houden. Die werkzaamheden varieerden van zware arbeid tot dienst in bijvoorbeeld de keukens. Uiteindelijk zouden ook deze gevangenen vergast worden. Deze kampen bevonden zich in het oosten van het Reich (in het huidige Polen met als belangrijkste Auschwitz) en werden bijgevolg ook door het Rode Leger bevrijd.
Naast vernietigingskampen hadden de nazi’s een groot aantal concentratiekampen, zoals Dachau (bij Mnchen) en Buchenwald (bij Weimar). Een concentratiekamp is niet hetzelfde als een vernietigingskamp. Zoals de naam impliceert is een concentratiekamp een werkkamp waar gevangenen geconcentreerd werden. De meeste doden vielen daar door het zware werk, ondervoeding, ziekten en mishandeling. Deze werkkampen kan men bijvoorbeeld vergelijken met de zogenoemde “Goelags” in Sovjet-Russisch Siberi. In de jaren veertig werden veel concentratiekampen ook van gaskamers voorzien, waarna ook daar gevangenen vergast werden.
Naast de concentratie- en vernietigingskampen bestonden er ook nog de zogenoemde doorgangskampen. Dit zijn kampen die opgezet werden om de mensen als het ware in op te slaan. Vanuit deze doorgangskampen reed er elke week een trein naar de vernietigingskampen. Westerbork is een voorbeeld van een doorgangskamp in Nederland. In Belgi werd hiervoor de oude bestaande Dossinkazerne te Mechelen gebruikt. Deze kazerne is nu deels ingericht als “Joods Museum van Deportatie en Verzet”. In het Franse kamp Drancy ten noorden van Parijs, werden tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog circa 65 duizend Joden vastgehouden, vooraleer zij naar het vernietigingskamp Auschwitz werden getransporteerd. Ook Theresienstadt was een doorgangskamp.
Het oude fort Breendonk bij Willebroek op 20km ten zuiden van de stad Antwerpen valt eerder onder de categorie werkkamp. Er waren ook Vlaamse SS’ers als beulen aan het werk. Hier werden vooral politieke gevangenen als slaven aan het werk gezet, gemarteld en gexecuteerd. Breendonk is als museum ingericht en staat open voor bezoek.
Verzet tegen de Jodenvervolging leidde meestal tot aanzienlijke vertragingen of zelfs afstel. Soms was verzet een individuele actie of een actie van een kleinere groep, maar er zijn voorbeelden bekend van collectief verzet tegen de Jodenvervolgingen, zoals de Amsterdamse Februaristaking.
De Joden zelf zijn een aantal malen in opstand gekomen. In 1943 kwam het getto van Warschau in opstand. In Auschwitz bliezen in oktober 1944 Joodse gevangenen een crematorium op met binnengesmokkelde explosieven. In oktober 1943 was er een geslaagde opstand in Sobibr: 11 Duitse SS-officieren, onder wie de ondercommandant, werden gedood en ongeveer 300 van de 600 gevangen ontsnapten. Ongeveer 60 daarvan hebben de oorlog overleefd. De ontsnapping bracht de nazi’s ertoe het kamp te sluiten, waarschijnlijk uit angst voor bekendmaking. In Nederland zaten nogal wat politiek links-georinteerde (socialistische en communistische) Joden in het verzet. Zij weigerden ook vaak de gehate Jodenster te dragen.
Op 19 april 1943, dezelfde dag waarop ook het getto van Warschau in opstand kwam, werd in Belgi het twintigste treinkonvooi aangevallen door drie Jonge verzetslieden. Dit Jodentransport was vertrokken vanuit Mechelen met bestemming Auschwitz. Gewapend met n revolver, een stormlamp en rood papier dwongen drie studenten (Georges Livschitz, Robert Maistriau en Jean Franklemon) van het atheneum te Ukkel de trein te stoppen op de spoorlijn MechelenLeuven tussen Boortmeerbeek en Haacht. Dit is een uniek feit in de geschiedenis van de Holocaust. Nergens in Europa is tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog een bevrijdingsactie uitgevoerd op een Jodentransport.
In Itali weigerden de meeste legerbevelhebbers en politiebeambten de Joden te vervolgen. Toen men in Denemarken de kleine Joodse gemeenschap trachtte te vervolgen, werd deze beschermd en uiteindelijk naar Zweden getransporteerd. Finland, bondgenoot van Duitsland uit opportunistische overwegingen, weigerde Joden te vervolgen of uit te leveren. Japan beschermde de weinige Joden die op Japans of bezet grondgebied waren. Toen de Duitsers de Bulgaarse Joden sterren wilden laten dragen, ging de gehele bevolking deze trots dragen. Ook latere pogingen van de Duitsers en Bulgaarse antisemieten werden geblokkeerd.
Enkele bekende personen die zich actief tegen de Holocaust hebben verzet:
Over de motieven van degenen die actief of passief in verzet kwamen werd en wordt druk gespeculeerd. Oprechte sympathie met de Joodse medemensen en verontwaardiging over hun behandeling zal in de meeste gevallen in meerdere of mindere mate een rol hebben gespeeld. Anderen probeerden hun eigen straatje schoon te houden en wilden niet na de oorlog als oorlogsmisdadiger worden berecht. Weer anderen maakten misbruik van de situatie en verrijkten zich aan de vluchtelingen. Hoe dan ook, de hulp van (al) deze personen aan de Joden was uiterst belangrijk.
Waar de Duitsers actief of passief verzet ontmoetten, mislukte de Jodenvervolging of werd deze aanzienlijk vertraagd. Waar de bevolking echter actief meewerkte, werd een zeer groot percentage van de Joden uitgeroeid. De Nederlandse ambtenaren stelden de bevolkingsregisters aan de bezetter ter beschikking, terwijl slechts sporadisch verzet voorkwam. Voorafgaand aan de analyse van de bevolkingsregisters door de nazi’s is door het toenmalige Nederlandse Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken een uitgebreid onderzoek gedaan naar de historische herkomst van Nederlandse geslachtsnamen. Familienamen van Nederlandse Joden werden daarin in een aparte sectie opgenomen en verklaard. Van dit onderzoek is nog tijdens de bezetting een samenvatting van de hand van de onderzoekende rijksambtenaar in boekvorm gepubliceerd. Het boek zelf geeft geen duidelijk uitsluitsel over de aanleiding van het onderzoek. Rond de 75% van de Nederlandse Joden overleefde de oorlog niet, mede door het overdragen van de bevolkingsregisters. De precieze ambtenaren van de burgerlijke stand noteerden hen zelfs als “gemigreerd”. Een belangrijke factor die in dit verband meespeelde, kwam hierop neer dat Nederland tijdens de oorlogsjaren een Zivilverwaltung (een burgerlijk bestuur) had en geen Militrverwaltung (militair bestuur), dit in tegenstelling tot onder andere Belgi tijdens het grootste deel van de bezetting. Dit vloeide voort uit het machtsvacum veroorzaakt door de vlucht van de koninklijke familie.
In Roemeni vormde de radicaal antisemitische IJzeren Garde in 1940 samen met het leger een regering. Dit bewind werd gekenmerkt door geweld tegen Joden, soms met dodelijke afloop. De ordeverstoringen waren zo ernstig dat legerleider maarschalk Ion Antonescu de Garde in 1941 uit de regering zette. Roemeni verbond zich met Duitsland, maar de toestand leek voor de Roemeense Joden te verbeteren, en antisemitische maatregelen werden in Walachije slechts zeer sporadisch ingevoerd. Deze gematigdheid was echter schijn. Antonescu wilde wel degelijk de Joden uit de Roemeense samenleving verwijderen, maar was tegen de gewelddadige plunderingen van de IJzeren Garde die het land ontwrichtte. Hiertoe werkte hij met onder anderen Adolf Eichmann samen. Hoewel Antonescu soms de Duitse transporten tegenhield, stond hij eveneens toe dat honderdduizenden andere Joden wel naar de concentratiekampen werden gestuurd. Met name in het verarmde Moldavi werkte de bevolking bovendien enthousiast mee aan de Jodenvervolging.
In de Baltische staten nam de bevolking wraak voor de steun van veel Joden aan de Russische, en dus communistische, bezetters. In zowel Roemeni als de Baltische Staten was men zich bovendien bewust van de grote aantallen Joodse leden van de communistische partijen.
In Kroati waren de Joden nog het slechtst af. Velen konden echter in de eerste twee bezettingsmaanden ontsnappen, doordat de Kroaten zich eerst concentreerden op de uitroeiing en assimilatie van de Servirs, van wie er meer dan een half miljoen verdwenen. De Joden die bleven, vielen echter ten prooi aan Kroatisch geweld, waarna ze met Duitse efficintie naar de kampen werden gestuurd.
In Denemarken was het verzet tegen de deportatie van de Joden het sterkst. Nadat in september 1943 bekend werd dat de deportatie van de Joodse bevolking in Denemarken werd voorbereid, kwam er spontaan een grootscheepse reddingsactie op gang waar alle lagen van de bevolking aan meewerkten. Er werd groot alarm geslagen via synagogen, artsen, pastoors en studenten die weer de Joden inlichtten. De Joden werden verzameld en met alles wat maar wielen had naar de Deense kusten vervoerd. De Joden werden vervolgens door vissers met boten over de Sont naar het neutrale Zweden overgebracht, waarmee de Denen al hadden afgesproken dat zij de Deense Joden op zouden vangen. De Deens-joodse gemeenschap bestond voor de oorlog uit 8.200 mensen, hiervan overleefde ruim 95% de nazi’s. Na de oorlog keerden de Deense Joden terug naar hun thuisland en vonden hun huizen en eigendommen precies zo terug zoals ze ze hadden achtergelaten.
Dat was elders in Europa wel anders: daar waren de meeste Joodse bezittingen geroofd of vernield. Dat was onder andere in Nederland het geval. Van de weinigen die uit de kampen terugkeerden, vonden de meesten hun huizen bewoond door Nederlanders en hun bezittingen onteigend. Maar weinigen lukte het hun bezittingen terug te krijgen en dan ook nog pas na vaak jarenlange processen. Pas in het jaar 2000 zijn voor deze kille houding door de naoorlogse autoriteiten excuses aangeboden door de Nederlandse overheid en werd een financile tegemoetkoming toegezegd aan hun nabestaanden.
Bepaalde groepen, vaak als Holocaustontkenners (negationisten) aangeduid, ontkennen dat de Holocaust heeft plaatsgevonden.
Sommige holocaustrevisionisten beweren dat het aantal Joodse slachtoffers dat traditioneel wordt genoemd incorrect is. Zij zeggen dat veel minder dan zes miljoen Joden werden gedood en dat de meeste slachtoffers zijn gevallen door verhongering en door uitgebroken ziektes, zoals tyfus en cholera. Holocaustrevisionisten beweren ook dat (zowel mobiele als stationaire) gaskamers enkel gebruikt werden voor desinfectiedoeleinden.
Het ontkennen, bagatelliseren of goedpraten van de Holocaust is verboden en strafbaar in onder andere Belgi, Frankrijk, Australi, Canada, Zwitserland, Polen en Isral. In Duitsland kan het bestraft worden met vijf jaar gevangenisstraf. Vooral in de jaren tachtig zijn er zware straffen uitgesproken tegen mensen die openlijk hun twijfels uitten over de officile Holocaustversie. Sinds 1 april 2010 is het ontkennen, bagatelliseren of goedpraten van de Holocaust ook in Hongarije verboden en wordt dit bestraft met een gevangenisstraf van drie jaar.
In Iran werd op 11 en 12 december 2006 een conferentie gehouden over het ontkennen van de Holocaust. Hieraan namen ook Joodse intellectuelen deel.
Ruim honderdduizend Nederlandse Joden werden omgebracht, zeker driekwart van de Joden die bij het begin van de bezetting in Nederland woonden. Zij worden allen met naam en geboortedatum genoemd in de gedenkboeken van de Oorlogsgravenstichting in Den Haag, en in het boek In Memoriam, uitgegeven door Sdu te Den Haag. Vijfduizend Roma in Nederland stierven aan de gevolgen van de zigeunervervolging.
Ongeveer 25 duizend Belgische Joden werden het slachtoffer. Het relatief kleine aantal was het gevolg van ten dele het Belgische verzet en het feit dat Belgi een Militrverwaltung (een militair bestuur) had tijdens de Duitse bezetting. Pas in 1944 werd de administratie omgevormd in een Zivielverwaltung (burgerlijk bestuur). Het doorgangskamp, de Dossinkazerne waar de Joden verzameld werden voordat zij op transport gezet werden naar de vernietigingskampen in Polen, bevond zich te Mechelen, halfweg tussen Antwerpen en Brussel, waar de meeste Joden woonden.
De Holocaust (en daarmee samenhangende aspecten) wordt op verschillende dagen herdacht:
De Duitsers hebben zelf archieven bijgehouden van de slachtoffers van de Holocaust. De Duitse archieven zijn bijzonder gedetailleerd omdat de nazi’s alle informatie nauwkeurig bijhielden.
Onder andere het Nederlandse overzicht In memoriam met de namen van 100 duizend vermoorde Joden is hierop gebaseerd. Daarnaast zijn de namen van Joodse slachtoffers opgenomen in het Digitaal Monument Joodse Gemeenschap in Nederland.
In de Duitse stad Bad Arolsen, Hessen, bevindt zich het enorm archief (ongeveer 47 miljoen stukken, ongeveer 6 huizen vol papier). Dit archief bevat informatie over 17,5 miljoen mensen en vult ruim 27 kilometer archiefplanken. Het bestaat uit lijsten, inventarissen, persoonsbeschrijvingen, verslagen van medische experimenten, verordeningen, enz. Met name de hele bureaucratie van terreur die de ordelijke nazi’s bijhielden voor hun machinerie van dwangarbeid, deportatie en uitroeiing. Het volledige archief uit de concentratiekampen Buchenwald en Dachau is er te vinden. De ontstellende omvang van de oorlog en de ambtelijk gestuurde Duitse moordmachine wordt er duidelijk.
De “International Tracing Service”, een afdeling van het Rode Kruis, beheert de archieven. Deze service werd na de oorlog opgericht om vermiste personen op te sporen. Ze werd vooral gebruikt door overlevenden die bewijsmateriaal nodig hadden om een uitkering te kunnen krijgen. Het archief werd verder gesloten gehouden uit privacy-overwegingen, ook voor onderzoekers omdat de documenten gevoelige informatie bevatten over personen, zoals iemands politieke overtuiging, over Joodse collaborateurs en hoe men daartoe aangezet werd, wie luizen had, welke medische experimenten er werden uitgevoerd, de aard van een mentale handicap, wie beschuldigd werd van homoseksualiteit, incest of pedofilie. Er was ook de Duitse vrees voor rechtsprocedures als die informatie vrij zou komen. De mogelijkheid tot juridische stappen is ondertussen verjaard. Fundamenteel nieuws dat de geschiedenis van de Holocaust zal bijsturen, wordt niet verwacht bij het raadplegen van het archief door historici. De onderzoekers hopen wel meer details te vinden om de geschiedenis van de gruwel te reconstrueren.
Op 24 april 2007 ratificeerde het Belgisch Parlement het Protocol dat wetenschappers en onderzoekers tot de archieven van de deportatie tijdens Wereldoorlog II in Bad Arolsen (Duitsland) toegang geeft. Tot de openstelling van de archieven werd beslist na onderhandelingen tussen de lidstaten van de Internationale Commissie van de Internationale Opsporingsdienst. Belgi maakt, samen met Nederland, Luxemburg, Duitsland, Frankrijk, Groot-Brittanni, Itali, Isral, de Verenigde Staten van Amerika, Griekenland en Polen deel uit van deze Internationale Commissie.
Eind november 2007 werd het archief opengesteld voor onderzoekers en voor het algemene publiek.
Op 7 oktober 2013 werden door het Fritz Bauer Institut te Frankfurt de getuigenverklaringen in het eerste in Frankfurt gehouden Auschwitzproces (1963-1965) digitaal beschikbaar gemaakt.
Ashkenazi Jews ( Y’hudey Ashkenaz in Ashkenazi Hebrew) Total population 1011.2 million Regions with significant populations United States 56 million Israel 2.8 million Russia 194,000500,000 Argentina 300,000 United Kingdom ~ 260,000 Canada ~ 240,000 France 200,000 Germany 200,000 Ukraine 150,000 Australia 120,000 South Africa 80,000 Belarus 80,000 Hungary 75,000 Chile 70,000 Belgium 30,000 Brazil 30,000 Netherlands 30,000 Moldova 30,000 Poland 25,000 Mexico 18,500 Sweden 18,000 Latvia 10,000 Romania 10,000 Austria 9,000 New Zealand 5,000 Azerbaijan 4,300 Lithuania 4,000 Czech Republic 3,000 Slovakia 3,000 Estonia 1,000 Languages Historical: Yiddish Modern: Local languages, primarily: English, Hebrew, Russian Religion Judaism, some secular, irreligious Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Samaritans,Assyrians,Kurds,Arabs, other Levantines,Italians, Iberians and Greeks
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (Hebrew: , Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation: [aknazim], singular: [aknazi], Modern Hebrew: [akenazim, akenazi]; also Y’hudey Ashkenaz, lit. “The Jews of Germany”), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the 1st millennium. The traditional language of Ashkenazi Jews consisted of various dialects of Yiddish.
They established communities throughout Central and Eastern Europe, which had been their primary region of concentration and residence until recent times, evolving their own distinctive characteristics and diasporic identities. Once emancipated, weaving Jewish creativity into the texture of European life (Hannah Arendt), the Ashkenazi made a “quite disproportionate and remarkable contribution to humanity” (Eric Hobsbawm), and to European culture in all fields of endeavour: philosophy, scholarship, literature, art, music and science. The genocidal impact of the Holocaust, the mass murder of approximately 6 million Jews during World War II devastated the Ashkenazi and their Yiddish culture, affecting almost every Jewish family.
It is estimated that in the 11th century Ashkenazi Jews composed only three percent of the world’s Jewish population, while at their peak in 1931 they accounted for 92 percent of the world’s Jews. Immediately prior to the Holocaust, the number of Jews in the world stood at approximately 16.7 million. Statistical figures vary for the contemporary demography of Ashkenazi Jews, oscillating between 10 million and 11.2 million.Sergio DellaPergola in a rough calculation of Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews, implies that Ashkenazi make up less than 74% of Jews worldwide. Other estimates place Ashkenazi Jews as making up about 75% of Jews worldwide.
Genetic studies on Ashkenazim have been conducted to determine how much of their ancestry comes from the Levant, and how much derives from European populations. These studiesresearching both their paternal and maternal lineagespoint to a significant prevalence of ancient Levantine origins. But they have arrived at diverging conclusions regarding both the degree and the sources of their European ancestry. These diverging conclusions focus particularly on the extent of the European genetic origin observed in Ashkenazi maternal lineages.
The name Ashkenazi derives from the biblical figure of Ashkenaz, the first son of Gomer, son of Khaphet, son of Noah, and a Japhetic patriarch in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10). The name of Gomer has often been linked to the ethnonym Cimmerians. Biblical Ashkenaz is usually derived from Assyrian Akza (cuneiform Akuzai/Ikuzai), a people who expelled the Cimmerians from the Armenian area of the Upper Euphrates, whose name is usually associated with the name of the Scythians. The intrusive n in the Biblical name is likely due to a scribal error confusing a waw with a nun .
In Jeremiah 51:27, Ashkenaz figures as one of three kingdoms in the far north, the others being Minni and Ararat, perhaps corresponding to Urartu, called on by God to resist Babylon.
In the Yoma tractate of the Babylonian Talmud the name Gomer is rendered as Germania, which elsewhere in rabbinical literature was identified with Germanikia in northwestern Syria, but later became associated with Germania. Ashkenaz is linked to Scandza/Scanzia, viewed as the cradle of Germanic tribes, as early as a 6th-century gloss to the Historia Ecclesiastica of Eusebius. In the 10th-century History of Armenia of Yovhannes Drasxanakertc’i (1.15) Ashkenaz was associated with Armenia, as it was occasionally in Jewish usage, where its denotation extended at times to Adiabene, Khazaria, Crimea and areas to the east. His contemporary Saadia Gaon identified Ashkenaz with the Saquliba or Slavic territories, and such usage covered also the lands of tribes neighboring the Slavs, and Eastern and Central Europe. In modern times, Samuel Krauss identified the Biblical “Ashkenaz” with Khazaria.
Sometime in the early medieval period, the Jews of central and eastern Europe came to be called by this term. In conformity with the custom of designating areas of Jewish settlement with biblical names, Spain was denominated Sefarad (Obadiah 20), France was called Tsarefat (1 Kings 17:9), and Bohemia was called the Land of Canaan. By the high medieval period, Talmudic commentators like Rashi began to use Ashkenaz/Eretz Ashkenaz to designate Germany, earlier known as Loter, where, especially in the Rhineland communities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz, the most important Jewish communities arose. Rashi uses leshon Ashkenaz (Ashkenazi language) to describe German speech, and Byzantium and Syrian Jewish letters referred to the Crusaders as Ashkenazim. Given the close links between the Jewish communities of France and Germany following the Carolingian unification, the term Ashkenazi came to refer to both the Jews of medieval Germany and France.
The origins of the Ashkenazim are obscure, and many theories have arisen speculating about their ultimate provenance. The most well supported theory is the one that details a Jewish migration through what is now Italy and other parts of southern Europe. The historical record attests to Jewish communities in southern Europe since pre-Christian times. Many Jews were denied full Roman citizenship until 212 CE, when Emperor Caracalla granted all free peoples this privilege. Jews were required to pay a poll tax until the reign of Emperor Julian in 363. In the late Roman Empire, Jews were free to form networks of cultural and religious ties and enter into various local occupations. But, after Christianity became the official religion of Rome and Constantinople in 380, Jews were increasingly marginalized.
The history of Jews in Greece goes back to at least the Archaic Era of Greece, when the classical culture of Greece was undergoing a process of formalization after the Greek Dark Age. The Greek historian Herodotus knew of the Jews, whom he called “Palestinian Syrians”, and listed them among the levied naval forces in service of the invading Persians. While Jewish monotheism was not deeply affected by Greek Polytheism, the Greek way of living was attractive for many wealthier Jews. The Synagogue in the Agora of Athens is dated to the period between 267 and 396 CE. The Stobi Synagogue in Macedonia, was built on the ruins of a more ancient synagogue in the 4th century, while later in the 5th century, the synagogue was transformed into Christian basilica.
Sporadicepigraphic evidence in grave site excavations, particularly in Brigetio (Szny), Aquincum (buda), Intercisa (Dunajvros), Triccinae (Srvr), Savaria (Szombathely), Sopianae (Pcs), and Osijek in Croatia, attest to the presence of Jews after the 2nd and 3rd centuries where Roman garrisons were established, There was a sufficient number of Jews in Pannonia to form communities and build a synagogue. Jewish troops were among the Syrian soldiers transferred there, and replenished from the Middle East, after 175 C.E. Jews and especially Syrians came from Antioch, Tarsus and Cappadocia. Others came from Italy and the Hellenized parts of the Roman empire. The excavations suggest they first lived in isolated enclaves attached to Roman legion camps, and intermarried among other similar oriental families within the military orders of the region.Raphael Patai states that later Roman writers remarked that they differed little in either customs, manner of writing, or names from the people among whom they dwelt; and it was especially difficult to differentiate Jews from the Syrians. After Pannonia was ceded to the Huns in 433, the garrison populations were withdrawn to Italy, and only a few, enigmatic traces remain of a possible Jewish presence in the area some centuries later.
No evidence has yet been found of a Jewish presence in antiquity in Germany beyond its Roman border, nor in Eastern Europe. In Gaul and Germany itself, with the possible exception of Trier and Cologne, the archeological evidence suggests at most a fleeting presence of very few Jews, primarily itinerant traders or artisans. A substantial Jewish population emerged in northern Gaul by the Middle Ages, but Jewish communities existed in 465 CE in Brittany, in 524 CE in Valence, and in 533 CE in Orleans. Throughout this period and into the early Middle Ages, some Jews assimilated into the dominant Greek and Latin cultures, mostly through conversion to Christianity.[bettersourceneeded] King Dagobert I of the Franks expelled the Jews from his Merovingian kingdom in 629. Jews in former Roman territories faced new challenges as harsher anti-Jewish Church rulings were enforced.
Charlemagne’s expansion of the Frankish empire around 800, including northern Italy and Rome, brought on a brief period of stability and unity in Francia. This created opportunities for Jewish merchants to settle again north of the Alps. Charlemagne granted the Jews freedoms similar to those once enjoyed under the Roman Empire. In addition, Jews from southern Italy, fleeing religious persecution, began to move into central Europe. Returning to Frankish lands, many Jewish merchants took up occupations in finance and commerce, including money lending, or usury. (Church legislation banned Christians from lending money in exchange for interest.) From Charlemagne’s time to the present, Jewish life in northern Europe is well documented. By the 11th century, when Rashi of Troyes wrote his commentaries, Jews in what came to be known as “Ashkenaz” were known for their halakhic learning, and Talmudic studies. They were criticized by Sephardim and other Jewish scholars in Islamic lands for their lack of expertise in Jewish jurisprudence (dinim) and general ignorance of Hebrew linguistics and literature.Yiddish emerged as a result of language contact with various High German vernaculars in the medieval period. It was written with Hebrew letters, and heavily influenced by Hebrew and Aramaic.
Historical records show evidence of Jewish communities north of the Alps and Pyrenees as early as the 8th and 9th century. By the 11th century Jewish settlers, moving from southern European and Middle Eastern centers, appear to have begun to settle in the north, especially along the Rhine, often in response to new economic opportunities and at the invitation of local Christian rulers. Thus Baldwin V, Count of Flanders, invited Jacob ben Yekutiel and his fellow Jews to settle in his lands; and soon after the Norman Conquest of England, William the Conqueror likewise extended a welcome to continental Jews to take up residence there. Bishop Rdiger Huzmann called on the Jews of Mainz to relocate to Speyer. In all of these decisions, the idea that Jews had the know-how and capacity to jump-start the economy, improve revenues, and enlarge trade seems to have played a prominent role. Typically Jews relocated close to the markets and churches in town centres, where, though they came under the authority of both royal and ecclesiastical powers, they were accorded administrative autonomy.
In the 11th century, both Rabbinic Judaism and the culture of the Babylonian Talmud that underlies it became established in southern Italy and then spread north to Ashkenaz.
With the onset of the Crusades in 1095, and the expulsions from England (1290), France (1394), and parts of Germany (15th century), Jewish migration pushed eastward into Poland (10th century), Lithuania (10th century), and Russia (12th century). Over this period of several hundred years, some have suggested, Jewish economic activity was focused on trade, business management, and financial services, due to several presumed factors: Christian European prohibitions restricting certain activities by Jews, preventing certain financial activities (such as “usurious” loans) between Christians, high rates of literacy, near universal male education, and ability of merchants to rely upon and trust family members living in different regions and countries.
By the 15th century, the Ashkenazi Jewish communities in Poland were the largest Jewish communities of the Diaspora. This area, which eventually fell under the domination of Russia, Austria, and Prussia (Germany), would remain the main center of Ashkenazi Jewry until the Holocaust.
The answer to why there was so little assimilation of Jews in central and eastern Europe for so long would seem to lie in part in the probability that the alien surroundings in central and eastern Europe were not conducive, though contempt did not prevent some assimilation. Furthermore, Jews lived almost exclusively in shtetls, maintained a strong system of education for males, heeded rabbinic leadership, and scorned the life-style of their neighbors; and all of these tendencies increased with every outbreak of antisemitism.
In the first half of the 11th century, Hai Gaon refers to questions that had been addressed to him from Ashkenaz, by which he undoubtedly means Germany. Rashi in the latter half of the 11th century refers to both the language of Ashkenaz and the country of Ashkenaz. During the 12th century, the word appears quite frequently. In the Mahzor Vitry, the kingdom of Ashkenaz is referred to chiefly in regard to the ritual of the synagogue there, but occasionally also with regard to certain other observances.
In the literature of the 13th century, references to the land and the language of Ashkenaz often occur. Examples include Solomon ben Aderet’s Responsa (vol. i., No. 395); the Responsa of Asher ben Jehiel (pp.4, 6); his Halakot (Berakot i. 12, ed. Wilna, p.10); the work of his son Jacob ben Asher, Tur Orach Chayim (chapter 59); the Responsa of Isaac ben Sheshet (numbers 193, 268, 270).
In the Midrash compilation, Genesis Rabbah, Rabbi Berechiah mentions Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah as German tribes or as German lands. It may correspond to a Greek word that may have existed in the Greek dialect of the Palestinian Jews, or the text is corrupted from “Germanica.” This view of Berechiah is based on the Talmud (Yoma 10a; Jerusalem Talmud Megillah 71b), where Gomer, the father of Ashkenaz, is translated by Germamia, which evidently stands for Germany, and which was suggested by the similarity of the sound.
In later times, the word Ashkenaz is used to designate southern and western Germany, the ritual of which sections differs somewhat from that of eastern Germany and Poland. Thus the prayer-book of Isaiah Horowitz, and many others, give the piyyutim according to the Minhag of Ashkenaz and Poland.
According to 16th-century mystic Rabbi Elijah of Chelm, Ashkenazi Jews lived in Jerusalem during the 11th century. The story is told that a German-speaking Palestinian Jew saved the life of a young German man surnamed Dolberger. So when the knights of the First Crusade came to siege Jerusalem, one of Dolberger’s family members who was among them rescued Jews in Palestine and carried them back to Worms to repay the favor. Further evidence of German communities in the holy city comes in the form of halakhic questions sent from Germany to Jerusalem during the second half of the 11th century.
In an essay on Sephardi Jewry, Daniel Elazar at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs summarized the demographic history of Ashkenazi Jews in the last thousand years, noting that at the end of the 11th century, 97% of world Jewry was Sephardic and 3% Ashkenazi; by the end of XVI century, the: ‘Treaty on the redemption of captives’, by Gracian of the God’s Mother, Mercy Priest, who was imprisoned by Turks, cites a Tunisian Hebrew, made captive when arriving to Gaeta, who aided others with money, named: ‘Simon Escanasi’, in the mid-17th century, “Sephardim still outnumbered Ashkenazim three to two”, but by the end of the 18th century, “Ashkenazim outnumbered Sephardim three to two, the result of improved living conditions in Christian Europe versus the Ottoman Muslim world.” By 1931, Ashkenazi Jews accounted for nearly 92% of world Jewry. These factors are sheer demography showing the migration patterns of Jews from Southern and Western Europe to Central and Eastern Europe.
In 1740 a family from Lithuania became the first Ashkenazi Jews to settle in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem.
The generations of after emigration from the west enjoyed a comparatively stable socio-political environment in places like Poland, Russia, and Belarus. A thriving publishing industry and the printing of hundreds of biblical commentaries precipitated the development of the Hasidic movement as well as major Jewish academic centers. After two centuries of comparative tolerance in the new nations, massive westward emigration occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries in response to pogroms in the east and the economic opportunities offered in other parts of the world. Ashkenazi Jews have made up the majority of the American Jewish community since 1750.
Ashkenazi cultural growth led to the Haskalah, or Jewish Enlightenment, with its goal of integrating modern European values into Jewish life.Zionism was also developed in modern Europe.
Of the estimated 8.8 million Jews living in Europe at the beginning of World War II, the majority of whom were Ashkenazi, about 6 million more than two-thirds were systematically murdered in the Holocaust. These included 3 million of 3.3 million Polish Jews (91%); 900,000 of 1.5 million in Ukraine (60%); and 5090% of the Jews of other Slavic nations, Germany, Hungary, and the Baltic states, and over 25% of the Jews in France. Sephardi communities suffered similar depletions in a few countries, including Greece, the Netherlands and the former Yugoslavia. As the large majority of the victims were Ashkenazi Jews, their percentage dropped from nearly 92% of world Jewry in 1931 to nearly 80% of world Jewry today. The Holocaust also effectively put an end to the dynamic development of the Yiddish language in the previous decades, as the vast majority of the Jewish victims of the Holocaust, around 5 million, were Yiddish speakers. Many of the surviving Ashkenazi Jews emigrated to countries such as Israel, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and the United States after the war.
Following the Holocaust, some sources place Ashkenazim today as making up approximately 8385 percent of Jews worldwide, while Sergio DellaPergola in a rough calculation of Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews, implies that Ashkenazi make up a notably lower figure, less than 74%. Other estimates place Ashkenazi Jews as making up about 75% of Jews worldwide. Ashkenazi Jews constitute around 3536% of Israel’s total population, or 47.5% of Israel’s Jewish population.
In Israel, the term Ashkenazi is now used in a manner unrelated to its original meaning, often applied to all Jews who settled in Europe and sometimes including those whose ethnic background is actually Sephardic. Jews of any non-Ashkenazi background, including Mizrahi, Yemenite, Kurdish and others who have no connection with the Iberian Peninsula, have similarly come to be lumped together as Sephardic. Jews of mixed background are increasingly common, partly because of intermarriage between Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi, and partly because many do not see such historic markers as relevant to their life experiences as Jews.
Religious Ashkenazi Jews living in Israel are obliged to follow the authority of the chief Ashkenazi rabbi in halakhic matters. In this respect, a religiously Ashkenazi Jew is an Israeli who is more likely to support certain religious interests in Israel, including certain political parties. These political parties result from the fact that a portion of the Israeli electorate votes for Jewish religious parties; although the electoral map changes from one election to another, there are generally several small parties associated with the interests of religious Ashkenazi Jews. The role of religious parties, including small religious parties that play important roles as coalition members, results in turn from Israel’s composition as a complex society in which competing social, economic, and religious interests stand for election to the Knesset, a unicameral legislature with 120 seats.
People of Ashkenazi descent constitute around 47.5% of Israeli Jews (and therefore 3536% of Israelis). They have played a prominent role in the economy, media, and politics of Israel since its founding. During the first decades of Israel as a state, strong cultural conflict occurred between Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews (mainly east European Ashkenazim). The roots of this conflict, which still exists to a much smaller extent in present-day Israeli society, are chiefly attributed to the concept of the “melting pot”. That is to say, all Jewish immigrants who arrived in Israel were strongly encouraged to “melt down” their own particular exilic identities within the general social “pot” in order to become Israeli.
The Ashkenazi Chief Rabbis in the Yishuv and Israel include:
Religious Jews have Minhagim, customs, in addition to Halakha, or religious law, and different interpretations of law. Different groups of religious Jews in different geographic areas historically adopted different customs and interpretations. On certain issues, Orthodox Jews are required to follow the customs of their ancestors, and do not believe they have the option of picking and choosing. For this reason, observant Jews at times find it important for religious reasons to ascertain who their household’s religious ancestors are in order to know what customs their household should follow. These times include, for example, when two Jews of different ethnic background marry, when a non-Jew converts to Judaism and determines what customs to follow for the first time, or when a lapsed or less observant Jew returns to traditional Judaism and must determine what was done in his or her family’s past. In this sense, “Ashkenazic” refers both to a family ancestry and to a body of customs binding on Jews of that ancestry. Reform Judaism, which does not necessarily follow those minhagim, did nonetheless originate among Ashkenazi Jews.
In a religious sense, an Ashkenazi Jew is any Jew whose family tradition and ritual follows Ashkenazi practice. Until the Ashkenazi community first began to develop in the Early Middle Ages, the centers of Jewish religious authority were in the Islamic world, at Baghdad and in Islamic Spain. Ashkenaz (Germany) was so distant geographically that it developed a minhag of its own. Ashkenazi Hebrew came to be pronounced in ways distinct from other forms of Hebrew.
In this respect, the counterpart of Ashkenazi is Sephardic, since most non-Ashkenazi Orthodox Jews follow Sephardic rabbinical authorities, whether or not they are ethnically Sephardic. By tradition, a Sephardic or Mizrahi woman who marries into an Orthodox or Haredi Ashkenazi Jewish family raises her children to be Ashkenazi Jews; conversely an Ashkenazi woman who marries a Sephardi or Mizrahi man is expected to take on Sephardic practice and the children inherit a Sephardic identity, though in practice many families compromise. A convert generally follows the practice of the beth din that converted him or her. With the integration of Jews from around the world in Israel, North America, and other places, the religious definition of an Ashkenazi Jew is blurring, especially outside Orthodox Judaism.
New developments in Judaism often transcend differences in religious practice between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews. In North American cities, social trends such as the chavurah movement, and the emergence of “post-denominational Judaism” often bring together younger Jews of diverse ethnic backgrounds. In recent years, there has been increased interest in Kabbalah, which many Ashkenazi Jews study outside of the Yeshiva framework. Another trend is the new popularity of ecstatic worship in the Jewish Renewal movement and the Carlebach style minyan, both of which are nominally of Ashkenazi origin.
Culturally, an Ashkenazi Jew can be identified by the concept of Yiddishkeit, which means “Jewishness” in the Yiddish language.Yiddishkeit is specifically the Jewishness of Ashkenazi Jews. Before the Haskalah and the emancipation of Jews in Europe, this meant the study of Torah and Talmud for men, and a family and communal life governed by the observance of Jewish Law for men and women. From the Rhineland to Riga to Romania, most Jews prayed in liturgical Ashkenazi Hebrew, and spoke Yiddish in their secular lives. But with modernization, Yiddishkeit now encompasses not just Orthodoxy and Hasidism, but a broad range of movements, ideologies, practices, and traditions in which Ashkenazi Jews have participated and somehow retained a sense of Jewishness. Although a far smaller number of Jews still speak Yiddish, Yiddishkeit can be identified in manners of speech, in styles of humor, in patterns of association. Broadly speaking, a Jew is one who associates culturally with Jews, supports Jewish institutions, reads Jewish books and periodicals, attends Jewish movies and theater, travels to Israel, visits ancient synagogues in Prague, and so forth. It is a definition that applies to Jewish culture in general, and to Ashkenazi Yiddishkeit in particular.
As Ashkenazi Jews moved away from Europe, mostly in the form of aliyah to Israel, or immigration to North America, and other English-speaking areas; and Europe (particularly France) and Latin America, the geographic isolation that gave rise to Ashkenazim has given way to mixing with other cultures, and with non-Ashkenazi Jews who, similarly, are no longer isolated in distinct geographic locales. Hebrew has replaced Yiddish as the primary Jewish language for many Ashkenazi Jews, although many Hasidic and Hareidi groups continue to use Yiddish in daily life. (There are numerous Ashkenazi Jewish anglophones and Russian-speakers as well, although English and Russian are not originally Jewish languages.)
France’s blended Jewish community is typical of the cultural recombination that is going on among Jews throughout the world. Although France expelled its original Jewish population in the Middle Ages, by the time of the French Revolution, there were two distinct Jewish populations. One consisted of Sephardic Jews, originally refugees from the Inquisition and concentrated in the southwest, while the other community was Ashkenazi, concentrated in formerly German Alsace, and speaking mainly Yiddish. The two communities were so separate and different that the National Assembly emancipated them separately in 1790 and 1791.
But after emancipation, a sense of a unified French Jewry emerged, especially when France was wracked by the Dreyfus affair in the 1890s. In the 1920s and 1930s, Ashkenazi Jews from Europe arrived in large numbers as refugees from antisemitism, the Russian revolution, and the economic turmoil of the Great Depression. By the 1930s, Paris had a vibrant Yiddish culture, and many Jews were involved in diverse political movements. After the Vichy years and the Holocaust, the French Jewish population was augmented once again, first by Ashkenazi refugees from Central Europe, and later by Sephardi immigrants and refugees from North Africa, many of them francophone.
Then, in the 1990s, yet another Ashkenazi Jewish wave began to arrive from countries of the former Soviet Union and Central Europe. The result is a pluralistic Jewish community that still has some distinct elements of both Ashkenazi and Sephardic culture. But in France, it is becoming much more difficult to sort out the two, and a distinctly French Jewishness has emerged.
In an ethnic sense, an Ashkenazi Jew is one whose ancestry can be traced to the Jews who settled in Central Europe. For roughly a thousand years, the Ashkenazim were a reproductively isolated population in Europe, despite living in many countries, with little inflow or outflow from migration, conversion, or intermarriage with other groups, including other Jews. Human geneticists have argued that genetic variations have been identified that show high frequencies among Ashkenazi Jews, but not in the general European population, be they for patrilineal markers (Y-chromosome haplotypes) and for matrilineal markers (mitotypes). However, a 2013 study of Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA, from the University of Huddersfield in England, suggests that at least 80 percent of the Ashkenazi maternal lineages derive from the assimilation of mtDNAs indigenous to Europe, probably as a consequence of conversion.
Since the middle of the 20th century, many Ashkenazi Jews have intermarried, both with members of other Jewish communities and with people of other nations and faiths, while some Jews have also adopted children from other ethnic groups or from other parts of the world and have raised them as Jews. Conversion to Judaism, rare for nearly 2,000 years, has become more common.
A 2006 study found Ashkenazi Jews to be a clear, homogeneous genetic subgroup. Strikingly, regardless of the place of origin, Ashkenazi Jews can be grouped in the same genetic cohort that is, regardless of whether an Ashkenazi Jew’s ancestors came from Poland, Russia, Hungary, Lithuania, or any other place with a historical Jewish population, they belong to the same ethnic group. The research demonstrates the endogamy of the Jewish population in Europe and lends further credence to the idea of Ashkenazi Jews as an ethnic group. Moreover, though intermarriage among Jews of Ashkenazi descent has become increasingly common, many Haredi Jews, particularly members of Hasidic or Hareidi sects, continue to marry exclusively fellow Ashkenazi Jews. This trend keeps Ashkenazi genes prevalent and also helps researchers further study the genes of Ashkenazi Jews with relative ease. It is noteworthy that these Haredi Jews often have extremely large families.
The Halakhic practices of (Orthodox) Ashkenazi Jews may differ from those of Sephardi Jews, particularly in matters of custom. Differences are noted in the Shulkhan Arukh itself, in the gloss of Moses Isserles. Well known differences in practice include:
The term Ashkenazi also refers to the nusach Ashkenaz (Hebrew, “liturgical tradition”, or rite) used by Ashkenazi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book). A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. Two other major forms of nusach among Ashkenazic Jews are Nusach Sefard (not to be confused with Sephardi), which is the same as the general Polish (Hasidic) Nusach; and Nusach Chabad, otherwise known as Lubavitch Chasidic, Nusach Arizal or Nusach Ari.
This phrase is often used in contrast with Sephardi Jews, also called Sephardim, who are descendants of Jews from Spain and Portugal. There are some differences in how the two groups pronounce certain Hebrew letters and in points of ritual.
Several famous people have Ashkenazi as a surname, such as Vladimir Ashkenazy. However, most people with this surname hail from within Sephardic communities, particularly from the Syrian Jewish community. The Sephardic carriers of the surname would have some Ashkenazi ancestors since the surname was adopted by families who were initially of Ashkenazic origins who move to Sephardi countries and joined those communities. Ashkenazi would be formally adopted as the family surname having started off as a nickname imposed by their adopted communities. Some have shortened the name to Ash.
Relations between Ashkenazim and Sephardim have not always been warm. North African Sepharadim and Berber Jews were often looked upon by Ashkenazim as second-class citizens during the first decade after the creation of Israel. This has led to protest movements such as the Israeli Black Panthers led by Saadia Marciano a Moroccan Jew. Nowadays, relations are getting better. In some instances, Ashkenazi communities have accepted significant numbers of Sephardi newcomers, sometimes resulting in intermarriage.
Ashkenazi Jews have a noted history of achievement in Western societies in the fields of exact and social sciences, literature, finance, politics, media, and others. In those societies where they have been free to enter any profession, they have a record of high occupational achievement, entering professions and fields of commerce where higher education is required. Ashkenazi Jews have won a large number of the Nobel awards. While they make up about 2% of the U.S. population, 27% of United States Nobel prize winners in the 20th century, a quarter of Fields Medal winners, 25% of ACM Turing Award winners, half the world’s chess champions, including 8% of the top 100 world chess players, and a quarter of Westinghouse Science Talent Search winners have Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.
Time magazine’s person of the 20th century, Albert Einstein, was an Ashkenazi Jew. According to a study performed by Cambridge University, 21% of Ivy League students, 25% of the Turing Award winners, 23% of the wealthiest Americans, and 38% of the Oscar-winning film directors, and 29% of the Oslo awards have gone to Ashkenazi Jews.
Efforts to identify the origins of Ashkenazi Jews through DNA analysis began in the 1990s. Currently, there are three types of genetic origin testing, autosomal DNA (atDNA), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y-chromosomal DNA (Y-DNA). Autosomal DNA is a mixture from an individual’s entire ancestry, Y-DNA shows a male’s lineage only along his strict-paternal line, mtDNA shows any person’s lineage only along the strict-maternal line. Genome-wide association studies have also been employed to yield findings relevant to genetic origins.
Like most DNA studies of human migration patterns, the earliest studies on Ashkenazi Jews focused on the Y-DNA and mtDNA segments of the human genome. Both segments are unaffected by recombination (except for the ends of the Y chromosome the pseudoautosomal regions known as PAR1 and PAR2), thus allowing tracing of direct maternal and paternal lineages.
These studies revealed that Ashkenazi Jews originated in the Middle East during the Bronze Age (between 2500 BC and 700 BC), spreading later to Europe.
Although the Jewish people in general were present across a wide geographical area as described, genetic research done by Gil Atzmon of the Longevity Genes Project at Albert Einstein College of Medicine suggests “that Ashkenazim branched off from other Jews around the time of the destruction of the First Temple, 2,500 years ago … flourished during the Roman Empire but then went through a ‘severe bottleneck’ as they dispersed, reducing a population of several million to just 400 families who left Northern Italy around the year 1000 for Central and eventually Eastern Europe.”
Various studies have arrived at diverging conclusions regarding both the degree and the sources of the non-Levantine admixture in Ashkenazim, particularly in respect to the extent of the non-Levantine genetic origin observed in Ashkenazi maternal lineages, which is in contrast to the predominant Levantine genetic origin observed in Ashkenazi paternal lineages. All studies nevertheless agree that genetic overlap with the Fertile Crescent exists in both lineages, albeit at differing rates. Collectively, Ashkenazi Jews are less genetically diverse than other Jewish ethnic divisions.
The majority of genetic findings to date concerning Ashkenazi Jews conclude that the male line was founded by ancestors from the Middle East. Others have found a similar genetic line among Greeks, and Macedonians.
A study of haplotypes of the Y-chromosome, published in 2000, addressed the paternal origins of Ashkenazi Jews. Hammer et al. found that the Y-chromosome of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews contained mutations that are also common among Middle Eastern peoples, but uncommon in the general European population. This suggested that the male ancestors of the Ashkenazi Jews could be traced mostly to the Middle East. The proportion of male genetic admixture in Ashkenazi Jews amounts to less than 0.5% per generation over an estimated 80 generations, with “relatively minor contribution of European Y chromosomes to the Ashkenazim,” and a total admixture estimate “very similar to Motulsky’s average estimate of 12.5%.” This supported the finding that “Diaspora Jews from Europe, Northwest Africa, and the Near East resemble each other more closely than they resemble their non-Jewish neighbors.” “Past research found that 5080 percent of DNA from the Ashkenazi Y chromosome, which is used to trace the male lineage, originated in the Near East,” Richards said.
But historical documents tell a slightly different tale. Based on accounts such as those of Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, by the time of the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, as many as six million Jews were living in the Roman Empire, but outside Israel, mainly in Italy and Southern Europe. In contrast, only about 500,000 lived in Judea, said Ostrer, who was not involved in the new study.
A 2001 study by Nebel et al. showed that both Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewish populations share the same overall paternal Near Eastern ancestries. In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in the region, Jews were found to be more closely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent. The authors also report on Eu 19 (R1a) chromosomes, which are very frequent in Central and Eastern Europeans (54%60%) at elevated frequency (12.7%) in Ashkenazi Jews. They hypothesized that the differences among Ashkenazim Jews could reflect low-level gene flow from surrounding European populations and/or genetic drift during isolation. A later 2005 study by Nebel et al., found a similar level of 11.5% of male Ashkenazim belonging to R1a1a (M17+), the dominant Y-chromosome haplogroup in Central and Eastern Europeans.
Before 2006, geneticists had largely attributed the ethnogenesis of most of the world’s Jewish populations, including Ashkenazi Jews, to Israelite Jewish male migrants from the Middle East and “the women from each local population whom they took as wives and converted to Judaism.” Thus, in 2002, in line with this model of origin, David Goldstein, now of Duke University, reported that unlike male Ashkenazi lineages, the female lineages in Ashkenazi Jewish communities “did not seem to be Middle Eastern”, and that each community had its own genetic pattern and even that “in some cases the mitochondrial DNA was closely related to that of the host community.” In his view this suggested “that Jewish men had arrived from the Middle East, taken wives from the host population and converted them to Judaism, after which there was no further intermarriage with non-Jews.”
In 2006, a study by Behar et al., based on what was at that time high-resolution analysis of haplogroup K (mtDNA), suggested that about 40% of the current Ashkenazi population is descended matrilineally from just four women, or “founder lineages”, that were “likely from a Hebrew/Levantine mtDNA pool” originating in the Middle East in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. Additionally, Behar et al. suggested that the rest of Ashkenazi mtDNA is originated from ~150 women, and that most of those were also likely of Middle Eastern origin. In reference specifically to Haplogroup K, they suggested that although it is common throughout western Eurasia, “the observed global pattern of distribution renders very unlikely the possibility that the four aforementioned founder lineages entered the Ashkenazi mtDNA pool via gene flow from a European host population”.
In 2013, however, a study of Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA by a team led by Martin B. Richards of the University of Huddersfield in England reached different conclusions, again corroborating the pre-2006 origin hypothesis. Testing was performed on the full 16,600 DNA units composing mitochondrial DNA (the 2006 Behar study had only tested 1,000 units) in all their subjects, and the study found that the four main female Ashkenazi founders had descent lines that were established in Europe 10,000 to 20,000 years in the past while most of the remaining minor founders also have a deep European ancestry. The study states that the great majority of Ashkenazi maternal lineages were not brought from the Near East (i.e., they were non-Israelite), nor were they recruited in the Caucasus (i.e., they were non-Khazar), but instead they were assimilated within Europe, primarily of Italian and Old French origins. Richards summarized the findings on the female line as such: “[N]one [of the mtDNA] came from the North Caucasus, located along the border between Europe and Asia between the Black and Caspian seas. All of our presently available studies including my own, should thoroughly debunk one of the most questionable, but still tenacious, hypotheses: that most Ashkenazi Jews can trace their roots to the mysterious Khazar Kingdom that flourished during the ninth century in the region between the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire.” The 2013 study estimated that 80 percent of Ashkenazi maternal ancestry comes from women indigenous to Europe, and only 8 percent from the Near East, while the origin of the remainder is undetermined. According to the study these findings “point to a significant role for the conversion of women in the formation of Ashkenazi communities.”
Variation in Ashkenazi mtDNA is highly distinctive, with four major and numerous minor founders. However, due to their rarity in the general population, these founders had been difficult to trace to a source.
A 2014 study by Fernndez et al. has found that Ashkenazi Jews display a frequency of haplogroup K in their maternal DNA that suggests an ancient Near Eastern origin, similar to the results of Behar. He stated that this observation clearly contradicts the results of the study led by Richards that suggested a European source for 3 exclusively Ashkenazi K lineages.
In genetic epidemiology, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS) is an examination of all or most of the genes (the genome) of different individuals of a particular species to see how much the genes vary from individual to individual. These techniques were originally designed for epidemiological uses, to identify genetic associations with observable traits.
A 2006 study by Seldin et al. used over five thousand autosomal SNPs to demonstrate European genetic substructure. The results showed “a consistent and reproducible distinction between ‘northern’ and ‘southern’ European population groups”. Most northern, central, and eastern Europeans (Finns, Swedes, English, Irish, Germans, and Ukrainians) showed >90% in the “northern” population group, while most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italians, Greeks, Portuguese, Spaniards) showed >85% in the “southern” group. Both Ashkenazi Jews as well as Sephardic Jews showed >85% membership in the “southern” group. Referring to the Jews clustering with southern Europeans, the authors state the results were “consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups”.
A 2007 study by Bauchet et al. found that Ashkenazi Jews were most closely clustered with Arabic North African populations when compared to Global population, and in the European structure analysis, they share similarities only with Greeks and Southern Italians, reflecting their east Mediterranean origins.
A 2010 study on Jewish ancestry by Atzmon-Ostrer et al. stated “Two major groups were identified by principal component, phylogenetic, and identity by descent (IBD) analysis: Middle Eastern Jews and European/Syrian Jews. The IBD segment sharing and the proximity of European Jews to each other and to southern European populations suggested similar origins for European Jewry and refuted large-scale genetic contributions of Central and Eastern European and Slavic populations to the formation of Ashkenazi Jewry”, as both groups the Middle Eastern Jews and European/Syrian Jews shared common ancestors in the Middle East about 2500 years ago. The study examines genetic markers spread across the entire genome and shows that the Jewish groups (Ashkenazi and non Ashkenazi) share large swaths of DNA, indicating close relationships and that each of the Jewish groups in the study (Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, Italian, Turkish, Greek and Ashkenazi) has its own genetic signature but is more closely related to the other Jewish groups than to their fellow non-Jewish countrymen. Atzmon’s team found that the SNP markers in genetic segments of 3 million DNA letters or longer were 10 times more likely to be identical among Jews than non-Jews. Results of the analysis also tally with biblical accounts of the fate of the Jews. The study also found that with respect to non-Jewish European groups, the population most closely related to Ashkenazi Jews are modern-day Italians. The study speculated that the genetic-similarity between Ashkenazi Jews and Italians may be due to inter-marriage and conversions in the time of the Roman Empire. It was also found that any two Ashkenazi Jewish participants in the study shared about as much DNA as fourth or fifth cousins.
A 2010 study by Bray et al., using SNP microarray techniques and linkage analysis found that when assuming Druze and Palestinian Arab populations to represent the reference to world Jewry ancestor genome, between 35 to 55 percent of the modern Ashkenazi genome can possibly be of European origin, and that European “admixture is considerably higher than previous estimates by studies that used the Y chromosome” with this reference point. Assuming this reference point the linkage disequilibrium in the Ashkenazi Jewish population was interpreted as “matches signs of interbreeding or ‘admixture’ between Middle Eastern and European populations”. On the Bray et al. tree, Ashkenazi Jews were found to be a genetically more divergent population than Russians, Orcadians, French, Basques, Italians, Sardinians and Tuscans. The study also observed that Ashkenazim are more diverse than their Middle Eastern relatives, which was counterintuitive because Ashkenazim are supposed to be a subset, not a superset, of their assumed geographical source population. Bray et al. therefore postulate that these results reflect not the population antiquity but a history of mixing between genetically distinct populations in Europe. However, it’s possible that the relaxation of marriage prescription in the ancestors of Ashkenazim that drove their heterozygosity up, while the maintenance of the FBD rule in native Middle Easterners have been keeping their heterozygosity values in check. Ashkenazim distinctiveness as found in the Bray et al. study, therefore, may come from their ethnic endogamy (ethnic inbreeding), which allowed them to “mine” their ancestral gene pool in the context of relative reproductive isolation from European neighbors, and not from clan endogamy (clan inbreeding). Consequently, their higher diversity compared to Middle Easterners stems from the latter’s marriage practices, not necessarily from the former’s admixture with Europeans.
The genome-wide genetic study carried out in 2010 by Behar et al. examined the genetic relationships among all major Jewish groups, including Ashkenazim, as well as the genetic relationship between these Jewish groups and non-Jewish ethnic populations. The study found that contemporary Jews (excluding Indian and Ethiopian Jews) have a close genetic relationship with people from the Levant. The authors explained that “the most parsimonious explanation for these observations is a common genetic origin, which is consistent with an historical formulation of the Jewish people as descending from ancient Hebrew and Israelite residents of the Levant”.
Speculation that the Ashkenazi arose from Khazar stock surfaced in the later 19th century and has met with mixed fortunes in the scholarly literature. In late 2012 Eran Elhaik, a research associate studying genetics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, argued for Khazar descent in his paper The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses. A 2013 study of Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA found no significant evidence of Khazar contribution to the Ashkenazi Jewish DNA, as would be predicted by the Khazar hypothesis.
A 2013 trans-genome study carried out by 30 geneticists, from 13 universities and academies, from 9 countries, assembling the largest data set available to date, for assessment of Ashkenazi Jewish genetic origins found no evidence of Khazar origin among Ashkenazi Jews. “Thus, analysis of Ashkenazi Jews together with a large sample from the region of the Khazar Khaganate corroborates the earlier results that Ashkenazi Jews derive their ancestry primarily from populations of the Middle East and Europe, that they possess considerable shared ancestry with other Jewish populations, and that there is no indication of a significant genetic contribution either from within or from north of the Caucasus region”, the authors concluded.
There are many references to Ashkenazi Jews in the literature of medical and population genetics. Indeed, much awareness of “Ashkenazi Jews” as an ethnic group or category stems from the large number of genetic studies of disease, including many that are well reported in the media, that have been conducted among Jews. Jewish populations have been studied more thoroughly than most other human populations, for a variety of reasons:
The result is a form of ascertainment bias. This has sometimes created an impression that Jews are more susceptible to genetic disease than other populations. Healthcare professionals are often taught to consider those of Ashkenazi descent to be at increased risk for colon cancer.
A study by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine examines a particular genetic trait that increases the lifespan of the Ashkenazi population. The study focuses on telomerase, the enzyme responsible for maintaining telomeres at the ends of chromosomes during cell division.
Genetic counseling and genetic testing are often undertaken by couples where both partners are of Ashkenazi ancestry. Some organizations, most notably Dor Yeshorim, organize screening programs to prevent homozygosity for the genes that cause related diseases.
any white advocates are grateful for the work of Jared Taylor. Hes at the forefront of racial realism as a researcher, writer, conference speaker, and leader. His American Renaissance magazine and website enjoy widespread respect among white advocates. But as white advocacy work is at some level invariably involved with the Jewish Question, many in the movement wonder why Taylor is not. What are this forerunners views about the racial group that is at the forefront in stifling white advocacy?
Thankfully, Joe Adams of The White Voice asked him point blank:
Why is it that you dont focus on the Jews, who have history been parasites upon many nations and continents which theyve put themselves in. They also control mass media and are responsible for pulling the strings behind many different forms of government. Why is it that you do not confront the Jewish problem?
Go to 22:15 in this podcast to hear it yourself, but below is Taylors response followed by our commentary.
As far as the Jewish Question is concerned, I think that whites need to take responsibility for what they do themselves. I think that its not useful to blame our failure on the machinations of others. People who are constantly talking about and complaining about Jewish influence remind me of blacks who think everything thats ever gone wrong for blacks in the past or ever will go wrong for blacks in the future is because of white racism. I think that blacks need to be responsible for their successes and their own failure, and I think that the whites have to as well. At the same time, I think that although many Jews are on the wrong side of questions of nationality and questions of race, I think that some Jews are on the right side. And I think that it would be wrong simply to exclude them from the efforts of any kind of racial sanity in this country simply because theyre Jews.
Adams had a response:
At the same time you dont, Mr Tayloryou dont have to look very far to realize that 90 percent of these [media] outlets are controlled by Jews. How often would you see black against white being portrayed as hate crime in the media? But as soon as a white person does something against a black person, its this big national story. Its the way the media pushes things and because they are 90 percent controlled by people within the Jewish either race or religionHow about the Israeli interest that this government has? A politician in this country cannot get elected if he is not pro-Israel There are a lot of pulling of the strings behind the scenesI think once we overcome Jewish influence, a lot of white people will have their minds straightened out.
I think that it would be a mistake to say that the media of the United States are controlled 90 percent by Jews. The implication there, of course, is that there is a Jewish interest that is constantly being expressed by 90 percent the media. I think that these days if you were to poll Episcopalians, for example, on questions that have to do with race and nationality, you wouldnt find much difference in their views on these things from those of Jews. And again, I think that the essential question is: What is it that white people must do? I think that if white people had a sensible view of their own history and their own future, it wouldnt make any difference what a small minority, whether Jewish or Episcopalian or anyone else, is doing. I think that if you had the kind of message that has been broadcast in the United States in terms of anti-racism or anti-Nationalism in any other groupsay you tried that on the Japanese or you tried that on the Nigeriansthey would just laugh at you. I think white people are particularly susceptible to appeals to a kind of altruism. I think that our very virtues are easily turned against it. But I think that it is to our own selves that we have to look for solutions, rather than blame them on the machinations of others.
I think that something that tends to happen to people who have the interests of whites at heart, they start fixating on the activities of Jews in a way that, I think, they begin to miss the point almost. That it seems that trying to counter Jews or trying to thwart their interests becomes more important than advancing our own interests. I think that at the same time some people become so obsessed with Jews that they refuse to see anything good that any Jewish group or any Jewish individual is doing for our race. That, too, is a mistake. At this point, we need allies of all kinds, and I think to the extent that we can find allies among Jews or any other group, its very foolish to try to fend them off simply because of what their religion or what their ethnic background may be.
It is true that societies die from suicide rather than murder, and that whites need to take responsibility for their actions. Whites have indeed gotten themselves in the mess theyre in, but according the general Jewish Question thesis, one key way in that whites got in this mess was by letting Jews in their societies to manipulate and pervert them. And a key means of this control and perversion is their promotion of the multiculturalism and miscegenation that Taylor and we all despise. Of course, there is copious historic and present data available that corroborates this general thesis: the primary group responsible for corrupting and controlling mainline media, humanities and social sciences in the universities, and economic and social legislation in European nations, is a Jewish group. They themselves admit it. Does Taylor outright denounce this claim as false? Not quite. But if whites are to take responsibility for their failures as Taylor wishes, then they must analyze and understand every aspect of their failures, and the JQ is directly on the radar.
Taylors comparison of whites who complain about Jewish influence to blacks who blame whites for their failures is desperately inadequate. During the limited time of American slavery, whites goverened blacks by rule of law (righteous law in my view). Jews, however, rule whites by deception, usury, censorship, blackmail, espionage, warfare, racial mixing, propaganda, Zionism, etc. And most of said practices have a much longer history than the sum of American slavery and Jim Crow. The petulant bickers of blacks about white oppression are mostly imaginary while white complaints against Jews are as bona fideas the Federal Reserve Notes in your wallet, the US military that is presently spreading Israeli hegemony in the Middle East, or the Sallie Mae bill at home on your desk. The physicalcommand centers of Jewish supremacy are present in several European countries and in major cities here along our East Coast. Youll find no white dominion headquarters on black soil. The comparison is simply preposterous.
The bit about some Jews being on the right side of questions of race and nationality is disingenuous. Is Taylor so benighted that hes unaware of the Talmudic doctrine of inherent gentile inferiority? Is it news to him that Jews are the most noxiously xenophobic and scrounging group on the planet? Has he not spoken about these things with other white advocacy leaders over the years (e.g., David Duke, Kevin MacDonald, William Pierce, James Edwards)? Yes, there are exceptions, but as members of an infamous class it behooves Jews to own their perverse Talmudic teachings and their historically parasitic behavior in European nationsafter all, Taylor himself is calling for racial groups to take responsibility for their actions. These are not the problems of any other groups, be it Nigerians, Japanese, or Episcopalian. These are Jewishproblems. Perhaps Rabbi Schiller, who has written positive things at AmRen, will concede these things.
The question of whether Jews control 90 percent of the media must be decided by examination of who actually owns the media conglomerates, not necessarily by determining whether the medias message is explicitly pro-Jewish. The irony, however, is that no message could be more pro-Jewish than mass medias. What message is pumped from Hollywood, sitcoms, reality shows, documentaries, news broadcasts, etc? Nothing but multiculturalism, miscegenation, suppression of minority crime, feminism, sexual liberation, anti-children/family innuendo, outright mockery of Christianity and Europeans, Zionism, and the suggestion that Jews are successful, smart, and funny yet dreadfully persecuted. According to the JQ thesis, that is as pro-Jewish as it gets. Taylors implicit claim that the mainline media doesnt promote Jewish interest a priori dismisses the very thesis the JQ poses for his consideration!
Taylor is correct that we whites are susceptible to a kind of altruism that easily turns our virtues against us. And one way we do thismaybe the chief wayis by capitulating to the fear of being politically incorrect instead of bravely decrying and boldly challenging the evils perpetrated by protected classes. By doing so, by not calling out the Jew, we are validating the farce of racism and reinforcing the weaponry of our enemy. Did you know that Taylor has the honor of being recognized on the ADLs website as personally refraining from anti-Semitsm? Yet they and the SPLC still demonize him as a white supremacist who conducts pseudo-scholarship and pseudo-scientific studies, and as one who provides venues for anti-Semites to gather and collaborate. Why the need to thread that PC needle when Jews call you a bigot all the same?
Taylor presents our situation as if we may either fixate on trying to thwart Jewish interests, or we may more nobly focus on advancing our own. This is the fallacy of bifurcation, committed when one presents a distinction or classification as if its conclusive or exhaustive when other alternatives exist, or when one presents contraries as contradictories. The alternative is that we fixate on advancing own interests as well as on removing the obstacles in our path. Many of these obstacles are placed by Jews.
Before we finish the commentary, lets raise an interesting perspective on Taylors refusal to focus on the Jew. Many white advocates believe that Taylor is being strategic, that he really knows what we know but that hes using a long-term tactic. Maybe the strategy is to fly under the radar long enough to recruit greater forceswork that wouldnt be possible using the scorched earth approach of Alex Linder. Maybe its another. Personally, I dont buy it. Its an unethical tactic to deceive your own people about that which youre hiding. There are other (albeit difficult) ways to side step the JQ, but Taylor hasnt done that. He hasnt been neutral. He has instead made a positive case for turning away from such silly Jew business. Consider the rest of his response.
Taylor says its a mistake to ignore any good that Jewish groups or individuals may be doing for whites. Indeed it is. We appreciate Brother Nathaniel Kapner, Bobby Fischer,Norman Finklestein, Benjamin Freedman, etc. But since these white favors involve Jews blowing the whistle on their own tribesomething Taylor refuses to dohis point backfires. Our point is that its also a mistake to ignore the mass evil that Jewish groups and individuals are doing to whites.
Shockingly, Taylor ends his response by stating that we must have cross-racial allies and that its very foolish to try to fend off other people simply because of their religion or race. While this warrants a blog post of its own, allow four points to suffice.
First, speaking the truth about group behavior should not be equated with (irrationally) fending off a group because of race or religion. Jared Taylor of all people knows this. Its precisely for his work in exposing black crime, for example, that Jews call him a racist. Yet, here is the pot calling the kettle black. Second, as mentioned, we welcome the work of whistle blowing Jews; he doesnt. Third, weno doubt Taylor includedappreciate Pastor James Mannings efforts in taking on the Black Question by calling a spade a spade, as it were. How can we applaud Manning for taking responsibility for the failures of his race but not also applaud when Jews like Kapner do the same? Double standard. Fourth and last, there are times when we should (rationally) fend off folks for their religion or race. Those who embrace Judaism embrace an explicitly anti-Christ and anti-Goyim religion. Unless this is an inaccurate evaluation of Judaism, Taylor should explain why we should welcome their help. If a black Muslim of the anti-white variety wanted to join our cause, wouldnt we first require a denouncement of his religion? Taylors point about refusing help for religious reasons is surely overstated. Race, too, can be a helpful profiling attribute. Rather than rashly fending off a black or a Jew because his race has historically been hostile to ours, we must at least allow his race to inform our first approximations. If we decide to allow his help, it is because we made an exception, not because we were color blind at the outset.
In Taylors reasoning for refusing to focus on the JQ, weve seen a poor analogy, contradictions, double standards, a bifurcation, and a take-away message that The Jew is one of us. As a leader in the white advocacy movement, thats simply irresponsible. We can condense our response to Taylor thusly: We are not blaming our failures on the machinations of others by opposing and exposing those who are forcefully and systematically contributing to our failures.
On the basis of Taylors being an erudite man, his acquaintance with those who strongly oppose Jews, and the very nature of his work, we may reasonably conclude that he is indeed aware of the realities behind the JQeven if he once told Phil Donahue that Jews are fine by me. Thus, puzzled white advocates are left seeking an explanation for his deeply deficient response to Joe Adams, as well as for his known policy of banning the JQ as a discussion topic at his AmRen conferences and web forum. The fairest judgment I can personally give to Taylor is that perhaps his tactic is to raise awareness of and offer credence to the JQ by never explicitly denying it, choosing instead to gain modest media coverage so that a larger number of possible converts can connect those dots on their own. But many white advocates will not be convinced; they will think that Taylors troublesome position on the JQ, which whitewashes a substantial threat to our work, has the efficacy of placing a Trojan Horse in the camp.
Ours is a time for straight talk and lasting solutions, not polished dialogue and misdirection. The great white leaders of the past spelled out the enemys name as clearly as they laid out the path to victory. Today, white politics is not for sport; it is for survival.
Go here to see the original:
Jared Taylor on the Jewish Question – Tribal Theocrat
Frank, Anne. Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1952. (D 810 .J4 F715 1952) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
First edition of the Diary to be published in English. Based on Annes original and self-edited diaries, which were further edited by Otto Frank for publication. Includes an introduction by Eleanor Roosevelt.
Frank, Anne. Anne Franks Tales from the Secret Annex. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983. (PT 5881.16 .R26 V413 1983) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
A collection of Anne Franks lesser-known writings, including short stories, fables, personal reminiscences, and essays.
Frank, Anne. The Diary of Anne Frank: The Revised Critical Edition. New York: Doubleday, 2003. (DS 135 .N5 A53413 2003) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Revised and expanded version of the Critical Edition, originally published in 1989. Collates all of Annes known writings, including different versions of her diary and her short stories. Also includes a summary of the document examination and handwriting identification analysis completed in 1986 by the Netherlands State Forensic Science Laboratory.
Frank, Anne. Diary of a Young Girl. West Hatfield, MA: Pennyroyal Press with Jewish Heritage Publishing, 1985. (Rare DS 135 .N5 F73 1985) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Along with the text of the diary, includes finely etched plates that reflect the events, places, and people living in the Secret Annex.
Frank, Anne. The Diary of a Young Girl: The Definitive Edition. New York: Doubleday, 1995. (DS 135 .N6 F73313 1995) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Based in large part on the edited version of the diary Anne created in 1944 in the hopes that it would be published after the War. Includes thirty percent more material than the shorter version of the diary Annes father originally published.
Frank, Anne. The Works of Anne Frank. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1959. (PT 5834 .F828 A1 1959a) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Includes the text of the diary, as well as Annes personal reminiscences, essays, and stories.
Metselaar, Menno. The Story of Anne Frank. Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 2004. (DS 135 .N6 F3492513 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Presents the diary of Anne Frank with descriptions throughout the text. Includes images of the diary, family photographs, and other illustrations.
Adler, David, and Karen Ritz. Picture Book of Anne Frank. New York: Holiday House, 1994. (DS 135 .N6 F7313 1993) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
An illustrated chronicle of the life of Anne Frank, who kept a diary during her familys attempts to hide from the Nazis in the 1940s. Written for children.
Amdur, Richard. Anne Frank. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1993. (DS 135 .N6 F7315 1993) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
A biography written for young adults and illustrated with photographs of Anne and her family, their helpers, and scenes from the Holocaust. Includes three appendices, a Further Reading section, a chronology, and an index. Part of the Chelsea House Library of Biography series.
Anne Frank Stichting. Anne Frank: A History for Today. Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 1995. (DS 135 .N5 A535 1995) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Uses illustrations and text to chronicle Annes story, along with the history of the Holocaust. Interweaves this story with the experiences of Holocaust survivors and Frank family friends. Briefly comments on the state of post-war anti-Semitism and racism worldwide.
Ashby, Ruth. Anne Frank: Young Diarist. New York: Aladdin, 2005. (DS 135 .N6 F73157 2005) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Recounts the life story of Anne Frank. Includes lists of further readings. Part of the Childhood of World Figures series, this book is written for young readers.
Brown, Gene. Anne Frank, Child of the Holocaust. New York: Blackbirch Marketing, 1997. (DS 135 .N6 F732 1991) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
A brief biography with illustrations that sets Annes story in the larger context of the Holocaust. Includes a short glossary and bibliography. Written for young adults as part of the Library of Famous Women series.
Brown, Jonatha A. Anne Frank. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library, 2004. (DS 135 .N6 F7323 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Tells the story of Anne Frank and the Holocaust through pictures and narrations. Includes statistics, a chronology, a glossary, recommended readings, and an index. Part of the Trailblazers of the Modern World series, this book is written for young readers.
Frank, Otto. Anne Frank and Family: Photographs. Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 2004. (DS 135 .N6 F733433 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Compiles images of the Frank family taken by Otto Frank between 1926 and 1941. Includes captions, an introduction, and a list of family members and their fates.
Gies, Miep. Anne Frank Remembered: The Story of the Woman who Helped to Hide the Frank Family. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987. (DS 135 .N5 A536 1987) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
One of the people who helped the Frank family while they were in hiding recalls life under Nazi occupation, including the day the Franks were discovered, her attempts to bribe the Gestapo to release the Franks, and the Hunger Winter in Holland. Includes photographs of the Frank family and their helpers.
Gold, Alison Leslie. Memories of Anne Frank: Reflections of a Childhood Friend. New York: Scholastic, 1997. (DS 135 .N6 P493 1997) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
An account of Anne Franks life before and after she went into hiding by Hannah Pick-Goslar, a close childhood friend. Includes photographs of Hannah and Anne. Written for young adults.
Hansen, Jennifer, editor. Anne Frank. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2003. (DS 135 .N6 F7316 2003) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Presents various essays which examine aspects of Annes life in hiding, her arrest, the diary, and her legacy. Includes discussion questions, appendices, a chronology, recommended readings, and an index. Part of the People Who Made History series, this book is written for young readers.
Hermann, Spring. Anne Frank: Hope in the Shadows of the Holocaust. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2004. (DS 135 .N6 F73344 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Discusses the life of Anne Frank and the events of the Holocaust. Includes illustrations, a detailed chronology, chapter notes, a glossary, and an index. Part of the Holocaust Heroes and Nazi Criminals series, this book is written for young readers.
Hudson-Goff, Elizabeth, and Jonatha A. Brown. Anne Frank. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library, 2006. (DS 135 .N6 F733449 2006) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Graphic novel recounting the life of Anne Frank through illustrations and a chronological story line. Includes a list of suggested readings and Web sites of interest. Part of the World Almanac Library series, this book is written for young readers.
Hurwitz, Johanna. Anne Frank: Life in Hiding. Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society, 1988. (DS 135 .N6 F7335 1988) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
A short biography of Anne written for young adults. Includes black-and-white drawings and a chronology of important dates.
Johnson, Emma. Anne Frank. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 2002. (DS 135 .N6 F7336 2002) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Details the life of Anne Frank, the history of the Holocaust, and the postwar publication of her diary. Includes illustrations, a glossary, timeline, recommendations for further reading, and an index. Part of the Twentieth-Century History Makers series, this book is written for young readers.
Kniesmeyer, Joke. Frank, Anne. In The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, edited by Israel Gutman, 519-524. New York: Macmillan, 1990. (Ref D 810 .J4 E6 1990 v.2) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Briefly describes Anne Franks family life, their time in hiding, the diary, and the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam.
Koestler-Grack, Rachel A. The Story of Anne Frank. Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea Clubhouse, 2004. (DS 135 .N6 F73375 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Details Annes life and the postwar publication of her diary. Includes illustrations, lists of facts and important dates, biographies of other important women of Anne Franks time, a glossary, suggested readings, and an index. Part of the Breakthrough Biographies series, this book is written for young readers.
Kramer, Ann. Anne Frank: The Young Writer who Told the World Her Story. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2007. (DS 135 .N6 F73385 2007) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Illustrated introduction to the life and writings of Anne Frank. Written for young readers, ages 9-12.
Lee, Carol Ann. Roses from the Earth: The Biography of Anne Frank. London: Viking, 1999. (DS 135 .N6 F7334 1999) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
An authoritative, detailed biography depicting Annes life and death, as well as that of the other occupants of the Secret Annex. Foreword written by Buddy Elias, last living direct relative of Anne Frank and president of the Anne Frank-Fonds. Includes notes, a selected bibliography, and an index.
Lee, Carol Ann. A Friend Called Anne: One Girls Story of War, Peace, and a Unique Friendship with Anne Frank. New York: Viking, 2005. (DS 135 .N6 F73392 2005) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Retells the story of Jacqueline van Maarsen, Annes best friend before she went into hiding. Discusses the friendship, van Maarsens wartime experiences, and the fame of Annes diary. Includes several letters from Anne to Jackie. Written for young readers.
Lindwer, Willy. The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank. New York: Pantheon Books, 1991. (DS 135 .N6 F734413 1991) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
An account of what happened to Anne between her arrest in August 1944 until her death seven months later. Provides the eyewitness testimony of six Jewish female survivors who describe Annes ordeals as she was transported to Westerbork, Auschwitz, and finally, Bergen-Belsen. Based on the film of the same name.
Mller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1998. (DS 135 .N6 F7349713 1998) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
A detailed biography of Anne Frank that portrays both her life in hiding and her death. Draws upon exclusive interviews with family and friends, previously unavailable correspondence, and five additional, unpublished pages of the diary. Includes a diagram of Annes family tree. The Library also has an edition in German under the title, Das Mdchen Anne Frank: Die Biographie, and the story of Mllers research in the video, Anne Frank: The Missing Chapter.
Pressler, Mirjam. Anne Frank: A Hidden Life. New York: Dutton Childrens Books, 2000. (DS 135 .N6 F73513 2000) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Explores the background in which Anne Franks life and diary were set, and presents detailed descriptions of the other occupants of the Secret Annex. Written for young adults by the editor of the definitive edition of the diary.
Rol, Ruud van der. Anne Frank, Beyond the Diary: A Photographic Remembrance. New York: Viking, 1993. (DS 135 .N6 F7385 1993) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Uses extensive photographs and full-color illustrations to chronicle the life of the Frank family both before and during their time in hiding, and places their story in the context of the Holocaust. Includes a glossary, a chronology, and a bibliography, along with a brief essay regarding the different versions of the diary. Written for young adults. The Library also has an edition in French under the title, Anne Frank: Une Vie.
Saunders, Nicholas J. The Life of Anne Frank. Columbus, OH: School Specialty, 2006. (DS 135 .N6 F73558 2006) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Graphic novel recounting the life of Anne Frank through illustrations and a chronological story line. Includes a timeline, list of facts, a glossary, and an index. Part of the Stories from History series, this book is written for young readers.
Sawyer, Kem Knapp. Anne Frank. New York: DK Publishing Company, 2004. (DS 135 .N6 F73395 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Intersperses the story of Anne Frank with photographs and illustrations to portray the history of the Holocaust. Includes a timeline of Annes life, source notes, and an index.
Schnabel, Ernst. Anne Frank: A Portrait in Courage. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958. (D 810 .J4 S32 1958) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
A biography of Anne Franks life before she went into hiding, based on interviews with her schoolmates, friends, and acquaintances who survived the war. Interweaves excerpts from Annes diary with a narrative that presents a well-rounded picture of her life before the war. The Library also has an edition in German under the title, Anne Frank: Spur eines Kindes: Ein Bericht.
Shapiro, Edna, editor. The Reminiscences of Victor Kugler, the Mr. Kraler of Anne Franks Diary. Yad Vashem Studies 13 (1979): 353-385. (DS 135.E83 Y3 v. 13) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Presents the first-person account of Victor Kugler, a colleague of Otto Frank, who assisted the Frank family during their time in hiding. Includes a description of Mr. Kuglers attempts to help the Frank family as well as a detailed account of his arrest and imprisonment for helping Jews.
Van Maarsen, Jacqueline. My Friend Anne Frank. New York: Vantage Press, 1989. (DS 135 .N6 F7335513 1989) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Annes best friend in Amsterdam, known to Anne as Jopie, interweaves her own remembrances of Anne with selections from the diary.
Wiesenthal, Simon. Epilogue to Anne Franks Diary. In The Murderers Among Us: The Simon Wiesenthal Memoirs, 171-183. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. (D 804 .G4 W47 1967) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Recounts the authors difficult attempt to locate Anne Franks arrestor, Karl Silberbauer, and describes what became of Silberbauer after his involvement in the Frank familys arrest became known.
Williams, Brian. The Life and World of Anne Frank. Oxford: Heinemann Library, 2004. (DS 135 .N6 F73873 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Account of Anne Franks life and diary in relation to the history of World War II. Includes a glossary, index, and many photographs and illustrations.
Wilson, Cara. Dear Cara: Letters from Otto Frank. Sandwich, MA: North Star Publications, 2001. (DS 135 .S93 F738 2000) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Recounts Wilsons correspondence with Otto Frank during the 1960s and 1970s, and explains the relationship that formed between the two during this turbulent part of the authors life. Portions of this work were previously published in Wilsons earlier book Love, Otto.
Wilson, Cara. Love, Otto: The Legacy of Anne Frank. Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel, 1995. (DS 135 .S93 F738 1995) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Reproductions of the twenty-two years of correspondence between Otto Frank and Cara Weiss (now Wilson), a devotee of Anne Frank since reading her diary at the age of twelve.
Woog, Adam. Anne Frank. San Diego: Lucent Books, 2004. (DS 135 .N6 F73875 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Discusses Annes life before hiding, her period in the attic, her arrest and death, and the postwar efforts to publish her diary. Contains illustrations, endnotes, references, recommendations for further reading, and an index. Part of the Heroes and Villains series, this book is written for young readers.
Woronoff, Kristen. Anne Frank: Voice of Hope. Detroit, MI: Blackbirch Press, 2002. (DS 135 .N6 F7388 2002) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Briefly discusses Annes life and the publication of her diary. Includes illustrations, a glossary, references, and an index. Part of the Famous Women series, this book is written for young readers.
Zee, Nanda van der, and Fritz Pfeffer. De Kamergenoot van Anne Frank. Amsterdam: Lakeman Publishers, 1990. (DS 135 .N6 P4858 1990) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
A biography of Fritz Pfeffer, one of the occupants of the Secret Annex.
Rol, Ruud van der. Anne Frank: Une Vie. Amsterdam: Fondation Anne Frank, 1992. (Oversize DS 135 .N6 F738514 1992) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Uses extensive photographs and full-color illustrations to chronicle the life of the Frank family both before and during their time in hiding, and places their story in the context of the Holocaust. Includes a glossary, a chronology, and a bibliography, along with a brief essay regarding the different versions of the diary. Written for young adults. The Library also has an edition in English under the title, Anne Frank, Beyond the Diary: A Photographic Remembrance.
Alexander-Ihme, Esther, et al. Frher wohnten wir in Frankfurt–: Frankfurt am Main und Anne Frank. Frankfurt am Main: Amt fr Wissenschaft und Kunst der Stadt Frankfurt am Main, 1985. (D 810 .J4 F78 1985) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Describes Annes early years in Frankfurt before moving to Amsterdam. Focuses primarily on the lives of Otto and Edith Frank.
Hellwig, Joachim, and Gnther Deicke. Ein Tagebuch fr Anne Frank. Berlin: Verlag der Nation, . (D 810 .J4 H35 1959) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
A photographic essay that places the life of Anne Frank within the context of the events of the Holocaust and the Second World War.
Mller, Melissa. Das Mdchen Anne Frank: Die Biographie. Mnchen: Claasen, 1998. (DS 135 .N6 F73497 1998) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
A detailed biography of Anne Frank that portrays both her life in hiding and her death. Draws upon exclusive interviews with family and friends, previously unavailable correspondence, and five additional, unpublished pages of the diary. Includes a diagram of Annes family tree. The Library also has an edition in English under the title, Anne Frank: The Biography.
Schnabel, Ernst. Anne Frank: Spur eines Kindes: Ein Bericht. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958. (D 810 .J4 S32 1958) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
A biography of Anne Franks life before she went into hiding, based on interviews with her schoolmates, friends, and acquaintances who survived the war. Interweaves excerpts from Annes diary with a narrative that presents a well-rounded picture of her life before the war. The Library also has an edition in English under the title, Anne Frank: A Portrait in Courage.
Steen, Jrgen, et al. Anne aus Frankfurt: Leben und Lebenswelt Anne Franks. Frankfurt am Main: Historisches Museum Frankfurt am Main, 1990. (DS 135 .G42 H52 FRA A56 1990) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
Describes life for the Franks in Frankfurt and Amsterdam, as well as conditions in both cities while the Franks were living there.
Anne Frank House: A Museum with a Story. s-Gravenhage: Sdu Uitgeverij Koninginnegracht, 1992. (D 804.175 .A47 A55213 1992) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
An historical look at the actual canal-side house where Anne Frank wrote her diary. Reviews the story of the Frank family and their time in hiding. Contains illustrations of the house and the surrounding area.
Anne Frank House: A Museum with a Story. Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 1999. (Oversize DS 135 .N6 F7384 1999) [Find in a library near you (external link)]
An extensively illustrated work with images from the collection and exhibition of the Anne Frank House, quotations from the diary, and other photographs from the Holocaust period.