The Jewish state comes to an end in 70 AD, when the Romans begin to actively drive Jews from the home they had lived in for over a millennium. But the Jewish Diaspora (“diaspora” =”dispersion, scattering”) had begun long before the Romans had even dreamed of Judaea. When the Assyrians conquered Israel in 722, the Hebrew inhabitants were scattered all over the Middle East; these early victims of the dispersion disappeared utterly from the pages of history. However, when Nebuchadnezzar deported the Judaeans in 597 and 586 BC, he allowed them to remain in a unified community in Babylon. Another group of Judaeans fled to Egypt, where they settled in the Nile delta. So from 597 onwards, there were three distinct groups of Hebrews: a group in Babylon and other parts of the Middle East, a group in Judaea, and another group in Egypt. Thus, 597 is considered the beginning date of the Jewish Diaspora. While Cyrus the Persian allowed the Judaeans to return to their homeland in 538 BC, most chose to remain in Babylon. A large number of Jews in Egypt became mercenaries in Upper Egypt on an island called the Elephantine. All of these Jews retained their religion, identity, and social customs; both under the Persians and the Greeks, they were allowed to run their lives under their own laws. Some converted to other religions; still others combined the Yahweh cult with local cults; but the majority clung to the Hebraic religion and its new-found core document, the Torah.

In 63 BC, Judaea became a protectorate of Rome. Coming under the administration of a governor, Judaea was allowed a king; the governor’s business was to regulate trade and maximize tax revenue. While the Jews despised the Greeks, the Romans were a nightmare. Governorships were bought at high prices; the governors would attempt to squeeze as much revenue as possible from their regions and pocket as much as they could. Even with a Jewish king, the Judaeans revolted in 70 AD, a desperate revolt that ended tragically. In 73 AD, the last of the revolutionaries were holed up in a mountain fort called Masada; the Romans had besieged the fort for two years, and the 1,000 men, women, and children inside were beginning to starve. In desperation, the Jewish revolutionaries killed themselves rather than surrender to the Romans. The Romans then destroyed Jerusalem, annexed Judaea as a Roman province, and systematically drove the Jews from Palestine. After 73 AD, Hebrew history would only be the history of the Diaspora as the Jews and their world view spread over Africa, Asia, and Europe.

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Life Palestine does not perform too well on the Human Development Index where it comes in as no. 110 of the 182 states that are ranked in the world; yet in the MENA region comes in ahead of countries like Egypt and Morocco. On a scale with 1.000 as maximum, Palestine gains 0.737 points. Palestine has no currency of its own, Israeli New Shekels and Jordanian dinars are used. Palestine’s economy is weak from decades of occupation and limitation on personal freedom, as well as poor administration and corruption. Foreign aid contributes greatly to the economy. With a GDP per capita at US$2,900 (2008 estimate), Palestine is 72% below world average. Unemployment is as high as 25%, and 57% of the population are below the poverty line. Economy Despite being low on the MENA ranking, health in Palestine also has a few positive sides, like a moderate child mortality and fairly good doctor density. Health Many sectors of Palestine’s educational system are well-developed, which is mirrored in very high literacy rates. Academic training is in total good at all levels, but of varying quality between institutions. Education Palestinians are the most homogeneous in the Middle East, especially if one counts the few hundred thousand Jews as Israelis. Peoples Just like withe peoples, the situation for languages is largely homogeneous, Arabic being the only language of society. Languages Sunni Islam dominates in Palestine. Christianity is an old religion here, but due to emigration, the number of Christians is falling. Religions Palestinian women have about 4 children, but on the Gaza Strip they have 5. Palestine has one of highest growths in the Middle East. Demographics Are the Palestinians ancestors of the Canaanites, or simply Arab immigrants? Both views are frequently expressed. The lands the Palestinians call home has seen many important historical events through the millenniums. But the history is also a sad one, and perhaps never before have the Palestinians suffered more, being unwanted in Israel and without hope of obtaining citizenship in the Arab neighbouring states. History

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The religion of the Jewish people (II Macc. ii. 21, viii. 1, xiv. 38; Gal. i. 13 = , Esth. R. iii. 7; comp. , Esth. viii. 17); their system of beliefs and doctrines, rites and customs, as presented in their sacred literature and developed under the influence of the various civilizations with which they have come in contact, widening out into a world-religion affecting many nations and creeds. In reality the name “Judaism” should refer only to the religion of the people of Judea, that is, of the tribe of Judah, the name “Yehudi” (hence “Judean,” “Jew”) originally designating a member of that tribe. In the course of time, however, the term “Judaism” was applied to the entire Jewish history.

A clear and concise definition of Judaism is very difficult to give, for the reason that it is not a religion pure and simple based upon accepted creeds, like Christianity or Buddhism, but is one inseparably connected with the Jewish nation as the depository and guardian of the truths held by it for mankind. Furthermore, it is as a law, or system of laws, given by God on Sinai that Judaism is chiefly represented in Scripture and tradition, the religious doctrines being only implicitly or occasionally stated; wherefore it is frequently asserted that Judaism is a theocracy (Josephus, “Contra Ap.” ii. 16), a religious legislation for the Jewish people, but not a religion. The fact is that Judaism is too large and comprehensive a force in history to be defined by a single term or encompassed from one point of view.

Extending over thirty-five centuries of history and over well-nigh all the lands of the civilized globe, Judaism could not always retain the same form and character. Judaism in its formative period, that is, in the patriarchal and prophetic times, differed from exilic and post-exilic Judaism; and rabbinic or pharisaic Judaism again presents a phase quite different from Mosaic Judaism, to which the Sadducees, and afterward to some extent the Karaites, persistently clung. Similarly Judaism in the Diaspora, or Hellenistic Judaism, showed great divergences from that of Palestine. So, too, the mysticism of the Orient produced in Germany and France a different form of Judaism from that inculcated by the Arabic philosophy cultivated by the Jews of Spain. Again, many Jews of modern times more or less systematically discard that form of Judaism fixed by the codes and the casuistry of the Middle Ages, and incline toward a Judaism which they hold more in harmony with the requirements of an age of broader culture and larger aims. Far from having become 1900 years ago a stagnant or dried-up religion, as Christian theology declares, Judaism has ever remained “a river of God full of living waters,” which, while running within the river-bed of a single nation, has continued to feed anew the great streams of human civilization. In this light Judaism is presented in the following columns as a historic power varying in various epochs. It is first necessary to state what are the main principles of Judaism in contradistinction to all other religions.

However tribal or exclusive the idea of the God of Israel may have been originally, Judaism boldly assumes that its God was the God of man from the very beginning; the Creator of heaven and earth, and the Ruler of the world from eternity to eternity, who brought the Flood upon a wicked generation of men, and who established the earth in righteousness and justice (Gen. i.-x.). In the light of this presentation of facts, idolatry or the worship of other gods is but a rebellious breaking away from the Most High, the King of the Nations, the universal God, besides whom there is no other (Deut. v. 39; Jer. x. 7), and to whom alone all knees must bend in humble adoration (Isa. xlv. 23, lxvi. 23). Judaism, accordingly, has for its sole object the restoration of the pure worship of God throughout the earth (Zech. xiv. 9); the Sinaitic covenant, which rendered Israel “a kingdom of priests among the nations”itself only a renewal of the covenant made with Abraham and his descendants for all timehaving been concluded for the sole purpose of giving back to mankind its God of old, the God of the Noachian covenant, which included all men (Gen. ix. 17, xviii. 18-19; Ex. xix. 3-6; Isa. xlix. 6-8). Surely there is nothing clannish in the God of the Prophets and the Psalmist, who judges all men and nations alike with justice and righteousness (Amos i.-ii., ix. 7; Jer. xxvi.; Ezek. xl.; Ps. xcvi. 13, xcviii. 9; and elsewhere). Judaism’s God has through the prophetic, world-wide view become the God of history, and through the Psalms and the prayers of the asidim the God of the human heart, “the Father,” and the “Lover of souls” (Isa. lxiii. 16; see Wisdom, xi. 26, and Abba). Far from departing from this standpoint, Judaism in the time of the Synagogue took the decisive forward step of declaring the Holy Name (see Adonai) ineffable, so as to allow the God of Israel to be known only as “the Lord God.” Henceforth without any definite name He stood forth as the world’s God without peer.

Judaism at all times protested most emphatically against any infringement of its pure monotheistic doctrine, whether by the dualism of the Gnostic (Sanh. 38a; Gen. R. i.; Eccl. R. iv. 8) or by the Trinitarianism of the Church (see Jew. Encyc. iv. 54, s.v. Christianity), never allowing such attributes as justice and pardoning love to divide the Godhead into different powers or personalities. Indeed, every contact with other systems of thought or belief served only to put Judaism on its guard lest the spirituality of God be marred by ascribing to Him human forms. Yet, far from being too transcendental, too remote from mortal man in his need (as Weber, “Jdische Theologie,” 1897, pp. 157 et seq., asserts), Judaism’s God “is ever near, nearer than any other help or sympathy can be” (Yer. Ber. ix. 13a); “His very greatness consists in His condescension to man” (Meg. 31a; Lev. R. i., with reference to Ps. cxiii. 6). In fact, “God appears to each according to his capacity or temporary need” (Mek., Beshalla, Shirah, iv.; see Schechter in “J. Q. R.” vi. 417-427).

Judaism affirms that God is a spirit, above all limitations of form, the Absolute Being who calls Himself “I am who I am” (“Eheyeh asher Eheyeh”; Ex. iii. 14), the Source of all existence, above all things, independent of all conditions, and without any physical quality. Far, however, from excluding less philosophical views of the Deity, so ardent a Jew as R. Abraham b. David of Posquires contends against Maimonides that he who holds human conceptions of God, such as the cabalists did, is no less a Jew than he who insists on His absolute incorporeality (Haggahot to “Yad,” Teshubah, iii. 7). Indeed, the daily prayers of the Jew, from “Adon ‘Olam” to the “Shir ha-Yiud” of Samuel b. Kalonymus, show a wide range of thought, here of rationalistic and there of mystic character, combining in a singular manner transcendentalism and immanence or pantheism as in no other faith. While the ideas of the various ages and civilizations have thus ever expanded and deepened the conception of God, the principle of unity was ever jealously guarded lest “His glory be given to another” (Isa. xlii. 8; see God).

But the most characteristic and essential distinction of Judaism from every other system of belief and thought consists in its ethical monotheism. Not sacrifice, but righteous conduct, is what God desires (Isa. i. 12-17; Amos v. 21-24; Hos. vi. 6; Micah vi. 6-8; Jer. vii. 22; Ps. xl. 7 [A. V. 6], 1. 8-13); the whole sacrificial cult being intended only for the spiritual need of man (Pesi. vi. 57, 62; Num. R. xxi.; Lev. R. ii.). Religion’s only object is to induce man to walk in the ways of God and to do right (Gen. xix. 19; Deut. x. 12), God Himself being the God of righteousness and holiness, the ideal of moral perfection (Ex. xx. 5-6, xxxiv. 7; Lev. xix. 1; Deut. vii. 9-10). While the pagan gods were “products of fear,” it was precisely “the fear of God” which produced in Judaism the conscience, the knowledge of a God within, thus preventing man from sin (Gen. xlii. 18; Ex. xx. 20; Deut. x. 12; Job i. 1). Consequently thehistory of mankind from the beginning appeared as the work of a moral Ruler of the world, of “the King of the nations of whom all are in awe” (Jer. x. 7; Ps. lxv. 13, xcvi. 10; Dan. ii. 21), in whom power and justice, love and truth are united (Ps. lxxxix. 15 [A. V. 14]). As He spoke to Israel, “Be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy” (Lev. xix. 1, Hebr.), so “He said unto man, Behold the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding” (Job xxviii. 28; comp. Micah vi. 8; Isa. xxxiii. 15; Ps. xv., xxiv. 4: “He hath showed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?”). Quite characteristic of rabbinical Judaism is the fact that the names used for God are chiefly taken from His ethical attributes: “The world’s Righteous One” (“Zaddio shel ‘olam,” Gen. R. xlix.; Yoma 37a); “The Merciful One” (“Ramana”); and most frequently “The Holy One, blessed be He!” (“ha-adosh baruk hu”). Before Cain killed his brother, he said: “There is no divine judgment and no Judge” (Targ. Yer. to Gen. iv. 8). “The first question put to man at the Last Judgment will be: ‘Didst thou deal honestly with thy fellow man?'” (Shab. 31a; see God).

At any rate, Judaism, while insisting upon the unity of God and His government of the world, recognizes alongside of God no principle of evil in creation. God has no counterpart either in the powers of darkness, as the deities of Egypt and Babylon had, or in the power of evil, such as Ahriman in the Zoroastrian religion is, whose demoniacal nature was transferred by the Gnostic and Christian systems to Satan. In the Jewish Scriptures Satan has his place among the angels of heaven, and is bound to execute the will of God, his master (Job i. 7); and though sin and death are occasionally ascribed to him (see Satan), he can seduce and harm only as far as God permits him, and in the end must work for good (B. B. 16a). “God is the Creator of light and darkness, the Maker of peace and of evil” (Isa. xlv. 7). Everything He made was found by Him to be very good (Gen. i. 31); “also death,” says R. Mer (Gen. R. ix.). “What the Merciful does is for the good” (Ber. 60b). Whatever evil befalls man has disciplinary value: it is intended for his higher welfare (Deut. viii. 5; Ps. xciv. 12; Ta’an. 21a: “Gam zu leobah”).

Because the Lord saw that the world could not stand to be measured by strict justice, He mingled the quality of mercy with that of justice and created the world with both (Gen. R. xii.). In striking contrast to the pessimistic doctrine that the world is the product of mere chance and full of evil, the Midrash boldly states that the world was (or is) a process of selection and evolution: “God created worlds after worlds until He said, ‘This at last pleases Me'” (Gen. R. ix.; see Optimism).

The fundamental principle of Judaism (see Maimonides, “Moreh,” iii. 17) is that man is free; that is to say, the choice between good and evil has been left to man as a participant of God’s spirit. “Sin lieth at the door, and unto thee shall be its desire; but thou shalt rule over it” (Gen. iv. 7, Hebr.) says God to Cain; and herein is laid down for all time the law of man’s freedom of will. Accordingly Moses says in the name of God: “See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil; . . . therefore choose life” (Deut. xxx. 15, 19); and Ben Sira, commenting upon this, says: “God hath made man from the beginning and left him in the hand of his counsel. . . . He hath set fire and water before thee; thou mayest stretch forth thy hand unto whichsoever thou wilt. Before man is life and death; and whichsoever he liketh, it shall be given him” (Ecclus. [Sirach] xv. 14-17). Similarly R. Akiba declares: “All is foreseen; but the mastery [that is, free will] is granted” (Ab. iii. 15). Another rabbinical saying is, “Everything is determined by Heaven save the fear of Heaven” (Ber. 33b). Freedom of will constitutes man’s responsibility; and his heavenly prerogative would be impaired were there an inheritance of sin. “Every man shall be put to death for his own sin,” says the Law (Deut. xxiv. 16). It is the principle for which the prophet Ezekiel fought (Ezek. xviii. 20). Accordingly the Rabbis say: “The wicked are under the power of their hearts; the righteous have their hearts in their power” (Gen. R. lxvii.). Also, “Man is constantly led along the way he wishes to go. If he wishes to pollute himself by sin, the gates of sin will be opened for him; if he strives for purity, the gates of purity will be opened to him” (Yoma 38a; Mak. 10b; Nid. 30b). Regarding the difficulty of reconciling free will with divine omniscience, see Free Will. Notwithstanding man’s propensity to sin, caused by the Yeer Ha-Ra’, “the leaven in the lump” (Ber. 17a; comp. I Cor. v. 7), and the universal experience of sinfulness (Eccl. vii. 20; Ex. R. xxxi.), rabbinical Judaism denies that sin is inherited from parents, pointing to Abraham the son of Terah, Hezekiah the son of Ahaz, and others as instances to the contrary (Tan., uat, ed. Buber, p. 4, with reference to Job xiv. 4), and insists on the possibility of sinlessness as manifested by various saints (Shab. 55b; Yoma 22b; Eccl. R. i. 8, iii. 2).

Sin, according to Jewish teaching, is simply erring from the right path, owing chiefly to the weakness of human nature (Num. xv. 26; I Kings viii. 46; Ps. xix. 13, lxxviii. 39, ciii. 14; Job iv. 17-21); only in the really wicked it is insolent rebellion against God and His order (“pesha'” or “resha'”; Isa. lvii. 20; Ps. i. 4-6, xxxvi. 2; and elsewhere). And there is no sin too great to be atoned for by repentance and reparation (Ezek. xviii. 23; Yer. Peah i. 16b; id. 40b). The whole conception, then, of mankind’s depravity by sin has no place in Judaism, which holds forth the reintegrating power of repentance to Gentiles and Jews, to the ordinary and the most corrupt sinners alike (Pes. 119a; R. H. 17b; Sanh. 103a, 108a; Yoma 86a, b). “Before God created the world, He created repentance for man as one of his prerequisites” (Pes. 54a; Gen. R. xxi., xxii.; see Repentance; Sin).

Israel, then, has been chosen, like Israel’s ancestor Abraham, the descendant of Shem (Gen. ix. 26-27), to be a blessing to all nations on earth (ib. xii. 3, xix. 18); and the name by which the Lord calls him at the Exodus (Ex. iv. 22), “My first-born son,” betokens in the language of the time his mission to be that of the priest and teacher in the house-hold of the nations, leading the rest by his precept and example to the worship of the Only One (ib. xix. 6; Isa. lxi. 6). “A people dwelling in solitude and not counted among the nations” (Num. xxiii. 9; Deut. vii. 7), but watched over by divine providence with especial care (Deut. xxvii. 18-19, xxxii. 8-12), the standard-bearer of incomparable laws of wisdom and righteousness in the sight of the nations (ib. iv. 5-8), Israel has been created to declare God’s praise to the world, to be “His witnesses” (LXX., “martyrs”) testifying to His unity, “the light of the nations,” and the “covenant of the people to establish the earth” (Isa. xliii. 10, 21; xlix. 6-8). “To Israel’s house of God the nations shall flock to be taught of His ways and to learn to walk in His paths.” This is to bring humanity back to its normal condition, peace and bliss on earth, because righteousness will then prevail everywhere and the whole “earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord” (Isa. ii. 2-4, ix. 6, xi. 4-9, lxv. 25; Micah iv. 1-4). Israel, who when redeemed from Egypt proclaimed God as King (Ex. xv. 19; Lev. R. ii. 4), received the truth of Sinai as a trust; he is never to rest until his God shall become king of the whole earth, until all men and nations shall bend the knee before Him (Zech. xiv. 9; Isa. xl. 5, xlv. 13, xlix. 19; Ps. xxii. 29 [A. V. 28], xlvii. 9 [8], lxxvii. 5 [4], xcvi.-xcix.). “Israel, who proclaims God’s unity, is proclaimed by God as His unique people” (Mek., Beshalla, Shirah, 3). Israel, as the people of the saints of the Most High, is to establish the kingdom of God to last forever (Dan. ii. 44, vii.). But as teacher and guardian of mankind’s purest faith and loftiest hope, he is dealt with more severely by God for every transgression (Jer. ii. 21; Ezek. xx. 33-41; Amos iii. 2). Nay more, as the servant of God he has been chosen for continual martyrdom in the cause of truth and justice; he, therefore, is the “man of sorrows” whose affliction is to bring healing to the world and to lead many to righteousness (Isa. lii-liii.; see Servant of God).

Whether the expectation is that the universal kingdom of God on earth will be brought about by an ideal king from the house of David, the Messiah, as Isaiah and his followers depict the future of Israel (Isa. xi. 1 et seq.; Ezek. xxxiii. 24), or by the dispersed people of Israel itself, as the seer of the Exile (Isa. lvi.-lxvi.) indicates (see Messiah); whether or not the great day when all flesh shall worship the Lord will be preceded by a day of divine judgment when all the wicked “shall be stubble” (Mal. iii. 19, 21 [A. V. iv. 3]; see Day of the Lord; Eschatology; Gog and Magog), Judaism by its idea of a divine kingdom of truth and righteousness to be built on earth gave to mankind a hope and to history a goal for which to live and strive through the centuries. Other nations beheld in the world’s process a continual decline from a golden age of happiness to an iron age of toil, until in a great catastrophe of conflagration and ruin the end of all things, of men and gods, is to be reached: Judaism points forward to a state of human perfection and bliss to be brought about by the complete unfolding of the divine in man or the revelation of God’s full glory as the goal of history. And herein lies its great distinction also from Christianity. Judaism’s scope lies not in the world beyond, the world of the spirit, of which man on earth can have no conception. Both the hope of resurrection and that of immortality, in some form or other familiar and indispensable to all tribes and creeds, seem evidently to have come to the Jews from withoutthe one from Persia or Babylonia, the other from Greece. Judaism itself rests on neither (see Eschatology; Immortality; Resurrection). Its sole aim and purpose is to render the world that now is a divine kingdom of truth and righteousness; and this gives it its eminently rational, ethical, and practical character.

Judaism has a twofold character: (1) universal, and (2) particular or national. The one pertains to its religious truths destined for the world; the other, to its national obligationsconnected with its priestly mission. Upon the former more stress is laid by the Prophets and by most of the sacred poets, by the Alexandrian propagandists and the Palestinian haggadists, as well as by the medieval philosophers and the modern Reform school; whereas the Mosaic law, the Halakah, and the Talmudic and cabalistic schools dwell almost exclusively upon the latter.

Judaism is, above all, the law of justice. Whereas in heathendom, except in the case of some exalted philosopher like Plato, might was deified, and the oppressed, the slave, and the stranger found no protection in religion, the declaration is everywhere made throughout Scripture that injustice committed by man against man provokes the wrath of the world’s Ruler and Judge (Ex. xxi. 22-23; Gen. vi. 13, xviii. 20; Deut. xxvii. 15-26; Amos i. 3-ii. 8; and elsewhere), and that righteousness and compassionate love are demanded for the oppressed, the slave, the poor, the fatherless and homeless, the stranger, and for the criminal as having a claim on the sympathy of his fellow men; even for the dumb creature compassion is required (Ex. xxii. 20-26, xxiii. 5-6; Deut. xxii. 6; xxiv. 6, 10-xxv. 4; Job xxxi.). This is the “Torah” of which Isaiah speaks (Isa. i. 10), the “commandment” put by God upon every human heart (Deut. xxx. 11-14). And this spirit of justice permeates the Talmudic literature also. “For righteousness is one of the pillars of the world” (Ab. i. 18). “Where right is suppressed war comes upon the world” (ib. iv. 8). “The execution of justice is one of the Noachian laws of humanity” (Sanh. 56b). “Justice is demanded alike for the Gentile and the Jew” (Mak. 24a; B. . 113a; and other quotations in Baya b. Joseph’s “ad ha-Kema,” ch. “Gezelah”). To have due regard for the honor of all fellow creatures (“kebod aberiyyot”; Tos., B. . vii. 10) is one of the leading principles of rabbinic law (Shab. 94b).

Judaism furthermore is the law of purity. Heathenism by its orgiastic cults of Baal-peor, Astarte, and the like, fostered impurity and incest (Lev. xviii. 3, 24-30; Num. xxv. 1-9; Deut. iv. 3). The Torah warns against fornication, and teaches purity of heart and of action (Num. xv. 39; Deut. xxiii. 18-19, xxiv. 15; Prov. vii. 5-27; Job xxxi. 1), because God is too pure to tolerate unchastity in man or in woman (see Holiness; Purity). Judaism resents every act of lewdness as “nebalah” = “villainy” (Gen. xxxiv. 7, 31; Deut. xxii. 21; Judges xix. 24; II Sam. xiii. 12; see Folly), and most severely condemns lascivious talk (Isa. ix. 16; Shab. 33a).

Judaism is, moreover, the law of truth. Its God is the God of truth (Jer. x. 10). “The seal of the Holy One is truth” (Gen. R. lxxxi.; see Alpha and Omega). Abraham, Moses, Jeremiah, Job, and ohelet wrestled with God in doubt until He revealed Himself to them in a higher form (Gen. xviii. 25; Ex. xxxii.-xxxiii.; Jer. xii. 1; Job xxxi. 35). And as the Prophets had perfect faith in God as the God of truth and therefore shrank from hypocrisy (Yer. Ber. vii. 11c), so did all the Jewish philosophers show perfect confidence in truth while boldly expressing their lofty views concerning the Deity and divesting God of every trace of Anthropomorphism and Anthropopathism and of every attribute infringing upon the spirituality and unity of God. It was, says the Talmud, the last will of Canaan that his children should not speak the truth and should love lasciviousness (Pes. 113b). “The Torah of Moses is truth” and “desires men to speak the truth and assent to the truth, even as God Himself assents to the truth when honestly spoken”; for “Upon truth rests the world” (B. B. 74a; Ps. xv. 2; Ab. R. N. xxxvii.; Ab. i. 18). This honest search for truth made Judaism, indeed, the world’s great power for truth as well as for righteousness.

Judaism promotes and fosters education and culture. In contrast to such systems of faith as foster ignorance of the masses, it renders it a duty for the father to instruct his children and for the community to provide for the general instruction of old and young (see Education; Philosophy). It sanctifies labor, and makes the teaching of a trade whereby a livelihood may be earned a duty incumbent upon the father or upon the municipal authority (see Labor, Holiness of). It makes the systematic care of the poor a duty of the community with a view to the dignity and self-help of the recipient (See Charity). It denounces celibacy as unlawful, and enjoins each man to build a home and to contribute to the welfare of human society (see Marriage). The high priest in Israel was not allowed to officiate on the Day of Atonement unless he had a wifeliving with him (Yoma i. 1; comp. Ta’an. ii. 2). It enjoins love of country and loyalty to the government, no matter how unfriendly it be to the Jew (Jer. xxix. 7; Ab. iii. 2; Ket. 111a; see Patriotism).

Judaism is a religion of joy, and it desires that man should rejoice before God and gratefully enjoy all His gifts, at the same time filling other hearts with joy and thanksgiving. Especially are its Sabbath and festal days seasons of joy with no austerity about them. Judaism discourages asceticism (see Asceticism; Joy).

Judaism is a religion of hope. It teaches men to recognize in pain and sorrow dispensations of divine goodness. It is optimistic, because it does not defer hope merely to the world to come, but waits for the manifestation of God’s plans of wisdom and goodness in the moral and spiritual advancement of man. While the present world is, in comparison to the future one, declared to be “like the vestibule wherein one prepares for the palace,” it is nevertheless stated that “one hour devoted to repentance and good works in this world is more valuable than the entire life of the world to come” (Ab. iv. 16-17); for “to-day is the time for working out one’s destiny, while to-morrow is the time for receiving compensation” (‘Er. 22a).

As its highest aim and motive Judaism regards the love of God. Twice every day the Jew recites the Shema’, which contains the words: “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, with all thy soul, and with all thy might” (Deut. vi. 5); this verse is understood to enjoin him to willingly surrender life and fortune whenever the cause of God demands it, while it at the same time urges him to make God beloved by all his fellow creatures through deeds of kindness, as Abraham did (Sifre, Deut. 32). This love of God implies the most unselfish devotion and the purest motive of action; that is, acting not from fear, but rather for God’s sake alone (Sifre, Deut. 32, 48; Ab. ii. 12); doing good not in view of any reward in the world to come (Ab. i. 3), but for its own sake (see Schreiner, “Die Jngsten Urtheile ber das Judenthum,” 1902, pp. 145-151); and it also implies the love of man (Deut. x. 12-19; see Love).

Judaism, finally, is a system of sanctification of life. It teaches that the whole of life is holy, because God is manifested in it: “Be holy, for the Lord your God is holy” (Lev. xix. 1, Hebr.). Even in the functions of animal life the presence of a holy God should be realized (Deut. xxiii. 15); and when the perfect state of humanity shall have been attained, every road will be a holy road free from impurity (Isa. xxxv. 8), and “In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, Holy unto the Lord” (Zech. xiv. 20, R. V.).

The Sinaitic covenant which rendered Israel “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation” (Ex. xix. 6) became, the Rabbis say, “a source of hatred to the nations” (Shab. 89a: a play upon words, “Sinai””Sin’ah”), because it separated it from them by statutes and ordinances such as the dietary and the Levitical purity laws and others intended to prevent idolatrous practises. Like the priest in the Temple, whose garments and mode of life distinguished him from the rest in order to invest him with the spirit of greater sanctity and purity (I Chron. xxiii. 13), so Israel was for all time to be impressed with its priestly mission by all those ceremonies which form so prominent a feature in its religious life (see Ceremonies; Circumcision; Commandments; Dietary Laws). Particularly the Mosaic and, later on, the Pharisaic laws had for their object the separation of the Jewish people from all those influences prevalent in heathendom which led to idolatry and impurity; wherefore not only intermarriage, but also participation in any meal or other festive gathering which could possibly be connected with idol-worship was prohibited (see Worship, Idol-; Intermarriage; Jubilees, Book of.) This persistent avoidance of association with the Gentiles on the part of the Pharisees, which in the time of the Maccabees was termed = “keepingapart from the surrounding nations” (comp. II Macc. xiv. 38), became the chief cause of the accusation of a “hatred of mankind” which was brought against the Jews by the Greeks and Romans, and which has ever since been reiterated by the anti-Semites (see Schrer, “Gesch.” iii. 3, 416).

In reality these very laws of seclusion fitted the Jew for his herculean task of battling for the truth against a world of falsehood, and enabled him to resist the temptations and to brave the persecutions of the nations and the ages. They imbued him with a spirit of loyalty unparalleled in human history; they inculcated in him the principle of abstinence, enabling him to endure privation and torture; and filled him with that noble pride which alone upheld him amidst the taunts and sneers of high and low. They brought out those traits of manhood which characterized Abraham, who, according to the Rabbis, was called ‘”Ibri ” (Hebrew) because his maxim was: “Let all the world stand on the one side [“‘eber ead”]I side with God and shall win in the end” (Gen. R. xlvi.). But these laws also fostered a conception of the sanctity of life unknown to other creeds or races. By investing the commonest act and event with religious obligations, they made the whole of life earnest and holy with duty. Instead of being “a yoke of servitude,” as Schrer and others have it, they “filled the home and the festal seasons with higher joy” (see Schechter and Abrahams in “J. Q. R.” iii. 762 et seq., xi. 626 et seq.).

Notwithstanding its unmitigated severity against heathenism with its folly and vice, and against every mode of compromise therewith, Judaism does not, like other creeds, consign the non-believer to eternal doom. It judges men not by their creed, but by their deeds, demanding righteous actions and pure motives, since “fear of God” signifies fear of Him who looketh into the heart (Sifra, Aare Mot, iii. 2). It declares through R. Joshua b. Hananiah, whose opinion is generally accepted, that “the righteous of all nations have a share in the world to come”; the Shammaite R. Eliezer in consigning all heathen to Gehenna bases his argument on the Scriptural verse Ps. ix. 18 (A. V. 17), into which he reads, “The wicked are turned to Sheol because all heathen forget God”not as R. Joshua does, “all those heathen that forget God” (Sanh. 105a). It is the moral depravity ascribed to the heathen, owing to his unchaste and violent habits, which is the cause of all the harsh haggadic expressionssuch as “the people that resemble the ass” (Ket. 111a)and halakic injunctions found in the Talmud against the heathen (Gentile or ‘Akkum; see Jubilees, Book of). The latter is always under grave suspicion (see ‘Ab. Zarah ii. 1; Yeb. 98a), yet, no sooner does he solemnly discard idolatry than his association is invited and he has a claim on protection (Gi. 45a).

On the contrary, Judaism waits for “the righteous nation that keeps the faith” (Isa. xxvi. 2), and opens wide “its gates that the righteous from among the heathen world may enter” (Ps. cxviii. 20; Sifra, Aare Mot, xiii.), calling the Gentiles that serve God in righteousness “priests of the Lord” (“Otiot de-R. Akiba,” letter “Zayin”). It declares that the Holy Spirit may rest upon the righteous heathen as well as upon the Jew (Tanna debe Eliyahu R. ix.). It pays due homage to the wise among the heathen (Ber. 58a; Soah 35b; Bek. 8b; Gen. R. lxv.). It recognizes the existence of prophets among the heathen (B. B. 15b: “Fifteen prophets God sent to the heathen world up to the time of Moses: Balaam and his father, Job and his four friends,” etc.; comp. Lev. R. i. 12, ii. 8; Tanna debe Eliyahu R. xxvi.; ib. Zua xi., etc.). The assertion made by Max Mller, Kuenen, and others, that Judaism is not a missionary religion, rests on insufficient knowledge. There existed an extensive proselyte propaganda literature, especially in Alexandria (see Didache; Propaganda); and, according to the Midrash, “the heathen world is saved by the merit of the one proselyte who is annually won” (Gen. R. xxviii.; comp. Matt. xxiii. 15; Jellinek, “B. H.” vi., Introduction, xlvi.). Abraham and Sarah are represented as devoting their lives to making proselytes (Gen. R. xxxix.); and as the Psalmist accords to the proselytes”those that fear God”a special place (Ps. cxv. 11), so does the daily prayer of the Jew in the “Shemoneh ‘Esreh” contain a special blessing for the proselytes (“Gere ha-ede”). Only in later centuries, when the Church interfered through apostates and by edicts, was the proselyte declared to be a plague instead of a desired accession to the house of Israel (Isa. xiv. 1); the ancient Halakah endeavored to encourage the heathen to come under the wings of the Shekinah (Yeb. 47a, b; Mas. Gerim; Lev. R. ii.). In order to facilitate the admission of Gentiles, Judaism created two classes: (1) “proselytes of righteousness,” who had to bring the “sacrifices of righteousness” while submitting to the Abrahamic rite in order to become full members of the house of Israel; and (2) “proselytes of the gate” (“gere toshab”), who accepted only the seven Noachian laws (ten and thirty are also mentioned) of humanity. Occasionally the necessity of undergoing circumcision is made a matter of controversy also in the case of the full proselyte (see Circumcision). But proselytism as a system of obtaining large numbers is deprecated by Judaism.

However, the Messianic age is regarded as the one when “the fulness of the heathen world” will join Judaism (Isa. xiv. 1; Zech. viii. 23; ‘Ab. Zarah 3a). Especially characteristic of the cosmopolitan spirit of Judaism is the fact that the seventy bullocks brought as sacrifice during the Sukkot festival at the Temple were taken to be peace-offerings on behalf of the supposed seventy nations representing the heathen world (Suk. 55b), a view shared by Philo (“De Monarchia,” ii. 6; idem, “De Septenario,” p. 26; see Treitel in “Monatsschrift,” 1903, pp. 493-495). Throughout the entire ethical literature of the Jews, from Tanna debe Eliyahu R. down to the various Ethical Wills of the Rabbis, there is voiced regarding the non-Jewish world a broadly human spirit which stands in strange contrast to the narrowness with which Judaism is viewed by Christian writers, even those of high rank (see Zunz, “Z. G.” pp. 122-157). The same cosmopolitan attitude was taken by Judaism whenever its representativeswere called upon to act as intermediaries between Moslem and Christian; and the parable of the three rings, put by Lessing into the mouth of Nathan der Weise, was actually of Jewish origin (see Wnsche in “Lessing-Mendelssohn Gedenkbuch,” 1879, pp. 329 et seq.).

Owing to the Paulinian antithesis of law and faith or love (see Lwy, “Die Paulinische Lehre von Gesetz,” in “Monatsschrift,” 1903, pp. 332 et seq., 417 et seq.), the Torah, the basis and center of Judaism since Ezra, has been persistently placed in a false light by non-Jewish writers, undue stress being laid upon “the burden of the Law.” In reality, the word “Torah” signifies both “law” and “doctrine”; and Judaism stands for both while antagonizing Paul’s conception of faith as a blind dogmatic belief which fetters the mind. It prefers the bondage of the Law to the bondage of the spirit. It looks upon the divine commandments as a source of spiritual joy (“simah shel miwah”) and as a token of God’s special protection (Ber. 31a), for which it enjoins the Jew to offer Benedictions and to display zeal and enthusiastic love (Ab. v. 20). “God has given the children of Israel so many commandments in order to increase their merit [Mak. iii. 16] or to purify them” (Tan., Shemini, ed. Buber, p. 12). Every morning after having taken upon himself the yoke of God’s kingdom, the Israelite has to take upon himself the yoke of the divine commandments also (Ber. ii. 2); and there is no greater joy for the true Israelite than to be “burdened with commandments” (Ber. 17a). “Even the commonest of Jews are full of merit on account of the many commandments they fulfil” (ib. 57a.)

The Law was accordingly a privilege which was granted to Israel because of God’s special favor. Instead of blind faith, Judaism required good works for the protection of man against the spirit of sin (ib. 32b). The Law was to impress the life of the Jew with the holiness of duty. It spiritualized the whole of life. It trained the Jewish people to exercise self-control and moderation, and it sanctified the home. It rendered the commonest functions of life holy by prescribing for them special commandments. In this sense were the 613 commandments regarded by Judaism.

Some of these are understood to be divine marks of distinction to separate Israel from the other nationsstatutes (“ukkot”) which are designated as unreasonable by the heathen world, such as laws concerning diet, dress, and the like (Sifra, Aare Mot, xiii.). Others are called “‘eduyot” (testimony), in view of their having been given to make Israel testify to God’s miraculous guidance, such as the festive seasons of the year; while still others are “signs” (“ot”), being tokens of the covenant between God and Israel, such as circumcision, the Sabbath (Gen. xvii. 11; Ex. xxxi. 13), the Passover (Ex. xii. 13, xiii. 9), and, according to the rabbinical interpretation, the tefillin (Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18).

Of sacraments, in the sense of mysterious rites by which a person is brought into a lifelong bodily relationship to God, Judaism has none. The Sabbath and circumcision have been erroneously called thus by Frankel (in his “Zeitschrift,” 1844, p. 67): they are institutions of Judaism of an essential and, according to the generally accepted opinion, vital character; but they do not give any Jew the character of an adherent of the faith (see Ceremony; Commandments). At the same time the Sabbath and the festival seasons, with the ceremonies connected with them, have at all times been the most significant expressions of Jewish sentiment, and must be regarded as the most important factors of religious life both in the Synagogue and in the home (see Ab, Ninth of; Atonement, Day of; anukkah; New-Year; Passover; Purim; Sabbath; Shabuot; and Sukkot).

While the immutability of the Torah, that is, the law of Moses, both the written and the oral Law, is declared by Maimonides to be one of the cardinal doctrines of Judaism, there are views expressed in the Talmud that the commandments will be abrogated in the world to come (Nid. 61b). It is especially the dietary laws that will, it is said, be no longer in force in the Messianic time (Midr. Teh. on Ps. cxlvi. 4).

On the question whether the laws concerning sacrifice and Levitical purity have ceased to be integral parts of Judaism, Reform and Orthodox Judaism are at issue (on this and other points of difference between the two extreme parties of Judaism see Reform Judaism). Between the two stands the so-called “Breslau school,” with Zacharias Frankel as head, whose watchword was “Positive Historical Judaism,” and whose principle was “Reform tempered with Conservatism.” While no longer adhering to the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch (see Grtz in “Gesch.” ii. 299-318, and Schechter in “J. Q. R.” iii. 760-761) and the divine character of tradition (see Frankel, “Darke ha-Mishnah”), it assigns the power and authority for reforms in Judaism only to the Jewish community as a whole, or to what Schechter calls “catholic Israel.” The latter author desires “a strong authority,” one which, “drawing inspiration from the past, understands also how to reconcile us [the Jews] with the present and to prepare us [them] for the future” (“J. Q. R.” iv. 470). Grtz goes so far as to reduce Judaism to two fundamental principles: (1) “the religious element, which is mere negative monotheism in the widest acceptation of the term,” and (2) the ethical, which offers the ideal for the moral life: “Be ye holy even as I am holy”; at the same time declaring that “prophets and Talmudists did not regard sacrifice or ritual as the fundamental and determining thing in Judaism” (Grtz, i. 9). This leads to a final statement of the principles and forces of Judaism.

The Shema’, “the proclamation of God’s unity, requires an undivided Israel” (Mek., Yitro, Baodesh, i.). “One God, One Israel, and One Temple” is the principle twice stated in Josephus (“Ant.” iv. 8, 5; “Contra Ap.” ii. 28); “One God, One Israel, and One Torah” is the principle upon which Orthodox Judaism rests. “It was an evil day for Israel when the controversies between the schools of Shammai and Hillel began, and the one Torah appearedto have become two Torot” (Sanh. 88b; where the plural “Torot” occurs, it refers to the written and oral law; Yoma 28b, with reference to Gen. xxvi. 5; comp. Shab. 31a). This Torah, both written and oral, was known to and practised in all its details by the Patriarchs (Yoma 28b; Gen. R. lxiv.; comp. Jubilees, Book of, and “Attah Ead” in the liturgy). “Whosoever denies that the whole Law, written as well as oral, was given by God to Moses on Sinai is a heretic” (Sanh. 99a; Sifra, Behar, i. 1).

The trustworthiness of the divine behest until the final codification of the Law, from this point of view, rests upon the continuous chain of tradition from Moses down to the men of the Great Synagogue (Ab. i. 1), and afterward upon the successive ordination of the Rabbis by the elders with the laying on of hands (probably originally under the influence of the Holy Spirit; see Semikah). Accordingly the stability and the immutability of the Law remained from the Orthodox standpoint one of the cardinal principles of Judaism (see M. Friedlnder, “The Jewish Religion,” 1891; Samson Raphael Hirsch, “Horeb,” 1837).

Independent research, however, discerns evolution and progress to have been at work in the various Mosaic legislations (Ex. xx. 22-xxiii. 19; Deut. xii.-xxi. 13; and Leviticus together with Num. xv., xviii.-xix. 22), in the prophetic and priestly as well as in the soferic activities, and it necessarily sees in revelation and inspiration as well as in tradition a spiritual force working from within rather than a heavenly communication coming from without. From this point of view, ethical monotheism presents itself as the product not of the Semitic race, which may at best have created predisposition for prophetic inspiration and for a conception of the Deity as a personality with certain moral relations to man, but solely of the Jewish genius, whose purer and tenderer conception of life demanded a pure and holy God in sharp contrast to the cruel and lascivious gods of the other Semitic races (see M. Jol, “Religis-Philosophische Zeitfragen,” 1876, pp. 82-83).

It was the prophetic spirit of the Jewish nation embodied in Abraham (not the Midianite, as Budde thinks, nor some Babylonian tribe, as the Assyriologists would have it) which transformed Yhwh, an original tribal deity localized on Sinai and connected with the celestial phenomena of nature, into the God of holiness, “a power not ourselves that maketh for righteousness,” the moral governor of the world. Yet this spirit works throughout the Biblical time only in and through a few individuals in each age; again and again the people lapse into idolatry from lack of power to soar to the heights of prophetic vision. Only in the small Judean kingdom with the help of the Deuteronomic Book of the Law the beginning is made, and finally through Ezra the foundation is laid for the realization of the plan of “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.”

But while thus the people were won, and the former propensity to idolatry, the “yeer ha-ra’,” was banished forever by the power of the men of the Great Synagogue (Yoma 69b), the light of prophetic universalism became dim. Still it found its utterance in the Synagogue with its liturgy, in the Psalms, in the Books of Jonah and Job, in the Books of Wisdom, and most singularly in the hafarah read on Sabbath and holy days often to voice the prophetic view concerning sacrifice and ritual in direct antagonism to the Mosaic precepts. Here, too, “the Holy Spirit” was at work (see Inspiration; Synagogue). It created Pharisaism in opposition to Sadducean insistence upon the letter of the Law; and the day when the injunction “an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth” was abrogated, and the rationalistic interpretation of the Scribes was substituted therefor, was celebrated as a triumph of reason (Megillat Ta’an. iv. 1). While the legalists beheld God’s majesty confined to “the four ells of the Halakah” (Ber. 8a), the Haggadah unfolded the spirit of freedom and progress; and when mysticism in the East threatened to benumb the spirit, philosophy under Arabian influence succeeded in enlarging the mental horizon of Judaism anew.

Thus Judaism presents two streams or currents of thought ever running parallel to each other: the one conservative, the other progressive and liberal; the one accentuating the national and ritualistic, the other the cosmopolitan and spiritual, elements; mysticism here and rationalism there, these together forming the centripetal and centrifugal forces of Judaism to keep it in continuous progress upon its God-appointed track.

Judaism, parent of both Christianity and Islam, holds forth the pledge and promise of the unity of the two (“Yad,” Melakim, xi. 4; “Cuzari,” iv. 23; see Jew. Encyc. iv. 56, s.v. Christianity), as it often stood as mediator between Church and Mosque during the Middle Ages (see Disputations and Judah ha-Levi). In order to be able to “unite all mankind into one bond” (New-Year’s liturgy and Gen. R. lxxx viii.), it must form “one bond” (Lev. R. xxx.). It must, to use Isaiah’s words, constitute a tree ever pruned while “the holy seed is the substance thereof” (Isa. vi. 13); its watchword being: “Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the Lord of hosts” (Zech. iv. 6).

For Karaitic Judaism see Karaites.

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State of Israel

The State of Israel is a country in southwestern Asia on the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. Israel became an independent country in 1948.[6] Israel is the only Jewish country, and Jews all over the world think of Israel as their spiritual home. Israel’s population was 8.1 million people in 2013 and 6.04 million are Jewish. Almost all the other citizens of Israel are Arabs (1.6 million) and include Muslims, Christians, Druze, and Samaritans.[7]Jerusalem is Israel’s capital and largest city.

Israel is a small country, but it has mountains, deserts, shores, valleys and plains. The climate is hot and dry in the summers, and cool and rainy in the winters.

Israel has few natural resources and imports more goods than it exports. It has a relatively high standard of living and life expectancy. Almost all of its people can read and write.

The country’s history goes back thousands of years, to ancient times. Two world religions, Judaism and Christianity, began here. It is the place where the Jewish nation and religion first grew. Jews and Christians call it the Holy Land, because it is the place of many events described in the Bible.

Three thousand years ago, the Canaanites and other Semitic peoples lived here. Between about 1800 and 1500 BCE, another Semitic people, called the Hebrews, settled in Canaan after being freed from Egypt. They were named the Children of Israel or Israelites. The Israelites had 12 tribes. They chose a King, Saul, as their leader. The next king, David, began the Kingdom of Israel in about 1000 BCE and made the city of Jerusalem his capital. His son, Solomon, built the first Temple for the worship of God. Solomon died in about 928 BCE. His kingdom broke into two countries. The northern country kept the name Israel. The southern country, called Judah, kept Jerusalem as its capital.

The Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 732 BCE and the Babylonians conquered the Kingdom of Judah in 586 BCE. Many Jews returned from Babylonia and built a country again. First the Persians, then the Greeks and then the Romans ruled the Land of Israel.

The Jews fought against the Romans but the Romans defeated them. In 70 CE, the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple there. Again, in 132 CE, the Romans defeated the Jews and killed or took many of them to other places. The number of Jews living in Israel became much smaller. Many were forced to live in other countries. This spreading of Jewish communities outside of Israel is called the Diaspora.

Many of the Jews who remained moved to the Galilee. Jewish teachers wrote important Jewish books, called the Mishnah and part of the Talmud there, in the 2nd to 4th centuries CE.

The Romans began to call this region by the word that became Palestine in English. The Roman and then the Byzantine empires ruled until 635 CE, when Arabs conquered the region. Different Arab rulers, and for a while Crusaders, ruled the land. In 1516, the Ottoman Empire conquered the land and ruled the region until the 20th century.

Since the Diaspora, there have been many attempts to make a new homeland for the Jewish people. In the 1880s, this wish for a Jewish nation in Israel became a movement called Zionism. Jews from all over the world began to come to the area and settled in desert zones, then governed by the Turkish and later by the British Governments.

On 14 May 1948, British control over the Palestine Mandate ended. The Jewish inhabitants (under the leadership of David Ben-Gurion) declared independence for the new Jewish state. Immediately following Israel’s declaration of independence, the armies of several nearby countries, including Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq attacked the new country.[8] Since the 1980s the main military opponents of Israel have been Islamist groups, such as Hezbollah.[9]

The countries of Lebanon and Syria are to the north of Israel, Jordan is on the east and Egypt is to the southwest. Israel also controls the West Bank of the Jordan River.

Israel has a long coastline on the Mediterranean Sea. In the south, the town of Eilat is on the Gulf of Aqaba, which is part of the Red Sea.

The Galilee is a fertile and mountainous region in the north. There is a flat plain called the Coastal Plain to the west near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Negev Desert is a barren area of flat plains, mountains and craters in the south. There is a range of mountains in the center that runs from the north to south.

On the eastern side, there is a low area called a depression. The Hula Valley and the Sea of Galilee are in this low area in the north. The Jordan River runs from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. The land next to the Dead Sea is the lowest in the world. It is -417 meters below sea level.[10]

The weather is normally hot and dry in the summer and mild in the winter. Rain falls mostly in the winter (between the months of November and April). There is more rain in the north than in the south and hardly any rain in the desert. Israel built a very big irrigation system to bring water from the north to the dry areas in the south so that crops can grow there also.[10]

Jerusalem is the biggest city in Israel. Tel Aviv, Haifa, Beersheba and Rishon LeZion are also large cities. The capital city is Jerusalem.[10]

Israel is a parliamentary democracy. All Israeli citizens who are 18 years or older may vote. The Israeli parliament is called the Knesset. The Knesset has 120 members. Each member is elected for no more than four years at a time. The Knesset makes laws, helps decide national policy, and approves budgets and taxes.

Voters do not vote for individual candidates in Knesset elections. Instead, they vote for a party. This party makes a list with all its candidates. The list may have only one candidate or as many as 120 candidates. In an election, the percentage of the vote that each list wins decides how many representatives, or seats, the party gets in the Knesset. For example, if a party list gets 33 percent of the vote, it gets 40 Knesset seats.

Israel has no written constitution. Instead, the Knesset made “Basic Laws”. The Basic Laws say how the government must work and give civil rights to the citizens.

The Prime Minister is the head of Israel’s government. He or she is usually the leader of the party that has the most seats in the Knesset. The prime minister must keep the support of a majority of Knesset members to stay in office. He or she appoints ministers to the cabinet. The Knesset approves appointments to the Cabinet. The ministers are responsible for subjects such as education, defense, social welfare and so on. The prime minister is the head of the cabinet and decides the topics of cabinet meetings and makes the final decisions.

Benjamin Netanyahu has been the Prime Minister since March 2009.

The President is the head of state. The Knesset elects the president for seven years. Most of the president’s duties are ceremonial: The president signs laws and treaties approved by the Knesset, appoints judges, and members of some public organizations. He or she also accepts the documents from ambassadors and foreign diplomats bring when they are appointed.

Reuven Rivlin has been the President since July 2014.

Israel has many political parties, with a large variety of opinions. In the elections of 2009, twelve parties won seats in the Knesset.

The parties belong to three main groups: The biggest groups are the Zionist parties. These include the conservatives such as the Likud party; social democrats, such as Kadima and the Labor party; and the religious Zionists. There are also smaller religious Orthodox Jewish parties, special-interest parties, and Israeli Arab parties.

A single party usually does not win enough seats in the Knesset by itself to have a majority, so one of the bigger parties asks for support from the other parties, including the religious parties, to form a coalition government. This gives these parties a lot of power although they are small.

The Likud supports free market policies and limited government involvement in the economy. Likud believes strongly in protecting Israel’s security. It wants to give less away in the peace process for a negotiated agreement with the Palestinians and the Arab states.

The Labor Party supports government control of the economy, but also believes in a limited amount of free enterprise. The party says it will give more away for an agreement with the Palestinians and the Arab states.

Kadima is a centrist political party. It believes in both Israel’s security and continuing the peace process, and supports negotiating an agreement for peace with the Palestinians.

At independence, Israel was a poor country with little agricultural or industrial production. But Israel’s economy has grown tremendously since 1948. The nation now enjoys a relatively high standard of living, despite having few natural resources and a limited water supply.

Many immigrants came to Israel in the years immediately after independence. Many of these immigrants were skilled laborers and professionals who greatly aided the nation’s economic development.

Many of Israel’s service industry workers are employed by the government or by businesses owned by the government. Government workers provide many of the services that are needed by Israel’s large immigrant population, such as housing, education, and vocational training.

Tourism is one of the country’s important sources of income. Tourists visit many archaeological, historical and religious sites, museums, nature reserves and beach resorts in Israel.[11]

Tourists support many of Israel’s service industries, especially trade, restaurants, and hotels. Over 2.7 million foreign tourists visited Israel in 2009.[12]

Israeli factories produce such goods as chemical products, electronic equipment, fertilizer, paper, plastics, processed foods, scientific and optical instruments, textiles and clothing. The cutting of imported diamonds is a major industry. Government-owned plants manufacture equipment used by Israel’s large armed forces. Israel is the world’s largest exporter of drones.[13] Tel Aviv and Haifa are Israel’s major manufacturing centers.

Agriculture formerly employed a much larger percentage of Israel’s work force. But much of the work once performed by people is now performed by machines. Important agricultural products include citrus and other fruits, eggs, grain, poultry, and vegetables.

The government develops, helps finance, and controls agricultural activity, including fishing and forestry. Israel produces most of the food it needs to feed its people, except for grain. Agricultural exports provide enough income to pay for any necessary food imports. Most Israeli farmers use modern agricultural methods. Water drawn from the Sea of Galilee irrigates large amounts of land in Israel.

Most Israeli farms are organized as moshavim or kibbutzim. Israel also has some private farms.

The Dead Sea, the world’s saltiest body of water, is Israel’s leading source of minerals. Bromine, magnesium, potash and table salt are extracted from the sea. Potash, used mainly in fertilizers, is the most important mineral. In the Negev Desert, there are mines for phosphates, copper, clay, and gypsum.

Israel has few energy sources. It has no coal deposits or hydroelectric power resources and only small amounts of crude oil and natural gas. As a result, Israel depends on imported crude oil for gasoline and diesel for transportation, and coal producing electricity for its energy needs.

Solar energy energy from the sun is used widely to heat water for houses. Israel is developing other ways to use solar energy to power houses and factories.

In 2008, Israel began investing in building electric cars and the stations to charge them. There may also be large natural gas fields in the Mediterranean Sea that Israel could develop.

For 2006, Israeli exports grew by 11% to just over $29 billion; the hi-tech sector accounted for $14 billion, a 20% increase from the previous year.

Because it has few natural resources, Israel imports more goods than it exports. The country’s main imports include chemicals, computer equipment, grain, iron and steel, military equipment, petroleum products, rough diamonds, and textiles. Israel’s main exports are chemical products, citrus fruits, clothing, electronic equipment, fertilizers, polished diamonds, military equipment,and processed foods. The nation’s main trading partners include the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg), Germany, Italy, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Israel has a well-developed transportation system. Most middle-class Israeli families either own a car or have one provided by their employer. Paved roads reach almost all parts of the country. Public transportation both in and between cities is provided primarily by bus.

Ben-Gurion Airport is Israel’s main international airport. It is near Tel Aviv. There are smaller airports are located at Atarot, near Jerusalem, and at Eilat. El Al, Israel’s international airline, flies regularly to the United States, Canada, Europe, and parts of Africa and Asia. Israel has three major deepwater ports Haifa, Ashdod, and Eilat.

Israel’s communication system is one of the best in the Middle East. Israel has about 30 daily newspapers, about half of which are in Hebrew. The rest are in Arabic, Yiddish, or one of several foreign languages. The Israel Broadcasting Authority, a public corporation set up by the government, runs the TV and nonmilitary radio stations.

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Israel – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Written on October 3rd, 2015 & filed under Israel Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

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Christians for Israel in The Netherlands organized two services for confession and repentance on Monday evening 21st September. We have treated the Jewish people very badly. We have mistreated and misused the words which were entrusted to Israel, said Rev. Kees van Velzen who led the service in Woerden (Netherlands). More…

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, together with other top UN officials and senior diplomats from some 50 nations, have gathered on September 22, 2015 at the UN Rose garden in New York to celebrate the Jewish New Year Rosh Hashana and prepare for the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. The unique event was hosted by the Israeli Mission to the UN and the Forum for Cultural Diplomacy, which is a European Coalition for Israel initiative to the UN. More…

Christians for Israel seeks to bring a Biblical witness to the churches about the coming of Gods Kingdom; to warn the nations; to comfort Israel; and to help the Church to prepare for the Coming of the Lord. We are a network of national ministries, active in over 40 countries worldwide. This Report provides an overview of the activities of C4I International from 1st January 2014 to 30th June 2015. More…

Since the so-called Arab Spring broke out in 2010, the Middle East has been thrown in utter chaos, and with it, the rest of the world. Recent months have witnessed a growing flood of refugees fleeing violence, war and terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Eritrea and many other countries. Europe is now confronted with what some describe as the greatest demographic upheaval since WWII. More…

Quite recently (at the end of August, 2015), we helped one Jewish family Korobka, five people in total, to make Aliyah.They fled from Luhansk in the East of Ukraine and lived for two and a half months in our ‘shelter’ in Kiev before all their paperwork was done! On the day of their departure, the Korobka family told us they would love the other part of their big family to join them in Israel. More…

Last August (2015) we were blessed with a visit from Rev Willem Glashouwer, President of Christians for Israel International and a renowned Bible teacher. During the ten day speaking tour Rev Glashouwer taught on the themes Why Israel? Why Jerusalem? Why End Times?. Together with Derek Prince Ministries and Shalom Israel Melbourne, Ebenezer Operation Exodus co-hosted two one-day conferences and arranged visits to several church services and meetings in both Sydney and Melbourne. Rev Glashouwer was also invited to give a lunchtime lecture at NSW Parliament House, hosted by Rev the Hon Fred Nile MLC. His further speaking engagements included a Korean prayer group and two Korean-church evening meetings. More…

Masha and her husband Sergei were peacefully living in Luhansk and had excellent jobs. Sergei is a military veteran and quite recently they were making very good money, however, once perestroika happened in the beginning of the nineties of the last century their lives were completely turned upside down. They bought the usual inexpensive car Lada and were very happy about it! More…

Olesya Bogolei has just stepped on the path to make her dream a reality! Today in the morning I (Nataliya Krizhanovski) met a very interesting passenger an on-coming olim. Right now she makes the first step flies to Israel as part of the Na’ale-program. Its an incredible opportunity for teenagers to enter a school in Israel for 2 years. Some call it: “First children Aliyah, then parents”. More…

Egypt’s War on Terrorism Bears Fruit


This Yom Kippur, we should ask Ethiopian Israelis for forgiveness


Jordan’s Shameful Record


German intelligence chief warns refugees could be ‘easy prey for Islamists’


Jerusalem Post

Man beats girlfriend to death in middle of Tel Aviv street


According to Tel Aviv police, the an argument broke out between the man and his significant other on Chelnov street in south Tel Aviv near the corner of Matalon Street.

IDF strikes Syrian military targets in response to stray fire into Israel


For second time in two days apparent errant fire from civil war in Syria lands in Israeli territory.

Errant projectile from Syria again explodes in Golan, none hurt


For second time in two days apparent stray rocket fire from civil war in Syria lands in Israeli territory.

Christian schools, Education Ministry reach agreement to end strike


33,000 pupils from church schools set to return to studies on Monday.

The rest is here:
Christians for Israel International – Start your biblical …

Written on September 28th, 2015 & filed under Anti-Semitsm Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

Palestine is a region in the Middle East. It is in the Levant, between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea.[1][2][3] Many cultures have lived in Palestine through history and built their civilizations. These included Canaanites, Hebrews (Israelites), Philistines, Phoenicians and Arabs. For Jews, Palestine was and is still known as the Land of Israel.[4] It is also called the Holy Land. It is where Judaism and Christianity began.

Today, the region is divided into two states: Israel and the State of Palestine. The territories belonging to Palestinians (West Bank and the Gaza Strip) are occupied by Israel.[5][6] Many cities in the region are sacred to Abrahamic religions: Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth and Hebron are among the most important.

The name Palestine comes from the word Plesheth, meaning “invaders”. In English it is usually written Philistine. The Philistines were a people who invaded the area.They were probably a Greek people, who did not speak Arabic, not too surprising as the Arabs came to Palestine nearly 2000 years later.

Israelites ruled over the region of Palestine which was known as Canaan or the Land of Israel.The area went from Tyre in the north to Beersheba in the south. After the death of King Solomon, the land was split into a Northern Kingdom known as Samaria and Southern Kingdom known as Judea. The Northern Kingdom was conquered by Assyrian King Sennacherib, expelling most of its Israelite residents. Judea was conquered by the Babylonians more than 100 years later, and much of its Jewish population was expelled as well. However, despite the destruction, some Jews and Samaritans remained in the land. After Persian takeover of the Babylonian Empire, more Jews returned to Judea and slowly rebuilt their civilization. The area remained under direct Persian rule for 200 years more, with Jews having a limited autonomy.

With conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon, the area became dominated by Hellenistic rulers – first Alexander himself, later Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt and finally Seleucids. In second century before common era, the Jewish population of the area revolted against Seleucids and founded an independent Hesmonean kingdom. The Jewish kingdom expanded over the region in the next decades, conquering neighbouring Samaritans, Edomeans and Nabateans. Slowly however, the region became dominated by the Roman Empire.

After a semi-independent rule of King Herod, Judea was turned into a Roman Province. Jews violently revolted against the Romans twice, but the Romans reconquered the whole area and finally renamed it Syria-Palaestina after one of Judea’s ancient enemies, the Philistines. After two centuries, the Eastern Roman Empire became known as Byzantium, which became a Christian Empire. Byzantium kept its rule over the country, naming it Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda – both provinces with majorly Byzantine Christian population and big groups of Samaritans, Jews and Christian Arabs.

Over the next centuries, the region was briefly conquered by Persians, became part of Arab Muslim Empire, the Crusader kingdom, the Mamluk Sultanate, the Ottoman Syria, protected by the British Mandate and upon British withdrawal in 1948 taken over by Jordan, Israel and Egypt. The region is often named Holy Land, and is sacred for Muslims, Christans and Jews.

Jerusalem, Dome of the rock, in the background the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

A coin used as currency from 1927 to 1948.

Stamp of Palestine, 10 mils, circa 1928

A Palestinian passport from the era of British Mandate for Palestine

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Palestine – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Written on September 28th, 2015 & filed under Palestine Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

The school has committed to both strengthening and reviving the Christian Church in the Holy Land. Historically, evangelicals in the region do not have the reputation of playing well with others. Thus, the ecumenical gathering on Saturday, September 19, was significant.

Rev. Dr. Mae Elise Cannon

Author, “Forgive Us: Confessions of a Compromised Faith,” ‘Just Spirituality: How Faith Practices Fuel Social Action’ and ‘Social Justice Handbook: Small Steps for a Better World’

God makes several promises to Abraham in Genesis 12-17; these also involve Sarah, extending further to the world. The opening promise in Genesis 12:1-3 involves leaving the familiarity of home and traveling to an unknown land to be shown later. That must have taken courage!

While the media is currently having lots of fun asking their hypothetical “gotcha” question over a non-existent Muslim candidate, the possibility that Bernie Sanders could become America’s first Jewish president should be a valid topic for conversation in the midst of this campaign.

Over the years, I raised four children and two stepchildren, did freelance journalism, and clung to my American-born confidence in civic discourse, the conviction that dialogue and compromise can untangle even the knottiest disagreements. But Middle Eastern reality hit me hard.

Diana Bletter

Writer, Author, ‘A Remarkable Kindness’ (HarperCollins, 2015), ‘The Mom Who Took Off On Her Motorcycle’

Washington should not pretend that the conflict and settlements are foreign issues. Its own citizens are being affected on both sides. Israel has shown it cannot be trusted to effectively handle settler terrorism and the United States should not leave the fate of its citizens in the hands of a foreign government.

Ibrahim Fraihat

Senior Foreign Policy Fellow at the Brookings Institution’s Doha Center and Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University in Qatar

After losing my son, I joined the Parents Circle-Families Forum, an organization of more than 600 bereaved Israeli and Palestinian families, who like me, have chosen a path of reconciliation, rather than revenge.

Robi Damelin

Spokesperson, Parents Circle – Families Forum (PCFF)

President Obama promised that as soon as the Iran nuclear deal is closed he will refocus on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Given this shift of focus is now in sight, Obama should grant U.S. recognition of Palestine as an independent state, albeit a militarily occupied one.

Sam Bahour

Palestinian-American business development consultant

A review of Israel’s detention policy reveals how outrageous and convoluted the legal system behind this policy is. Israel maintains a perpetual state of emergency as a political tool to provide the legal rationale, however twisted, for the policy of continuing administrative detention.

While I didn’t watch all the winning films, I did watch other movies that in my humble opinion, are more current and relevant in their subject matter and themes.

At this time of year exactly thirty years ago, a Palestinian militant named Abu al-Abbas sat behind his office desk in Tunis, laying the final touches on an operation scheduled for October 1985.

Sami Moubayed

Former Scholar at the Carnegie Middle East Center – Beirut

If GCC officials slowly pivot toward the perception that their long-term interests reside in an improved relationship toward Iran, such a strategic shift would be seen in Riyadh as an erosion of GCC unity against an emboldened Iran.

Mahmoud Abbas holds many titles. He is the head of the Fateh movement, chairman of the PLO’s executive committee and president of the state of Palestine. Technically and legally, the Palestine Liberation Organization is superior.

Israel’s multiple fault lines — secular vs. religious, Jewish vs. Palestine and controversial calls for a boycott of the Jewish state — are exploding on the soccer pitch.

James Dorsey

Senior fellow, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies

Republican presidential candidate Mike Huckabee’s August campaign trip to Israel challenged longstanding U.S. policy towards Israel and the Palestinian territories.

When a Palestinian Christian says, “If the only choice is between violent resistance to the Occupation or submission, you must understand that for us, submission is not an option,” it needs to be heard not as a threat or ultimatum, but as a plea.

John H. Thomas

Ordained UCC minister with a forty year career in local and national UCC ministries, including General Minister and President, 1999 to 2009.

Dr. Imad Abu Kishek, the President of Al-Quds University, sat across from me as we celebrated Iftar, Ramadan’s nightly break-fast meal. The table was full of students and faculty from Brandeis and Al-Quds, all of whom share a common goal: to reestablish the partnership between our schools.

Palestine: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News

Written on September 28th, 2015 & filed under Palestine Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Palestine (from Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: Pleshet, Palestina; Arabic: Filastn, Falastn) is a name sometimes given to part of the land that generally comprises the Promised Land given to the Israelites / Jews in the Bible. Though historically Jews did reside there, it is not directly associated with the Jewish promise, as it is a geopolitical designation more than a religious one. Palestine was a later name for the province of Judea in the Roman Empire, who ruled the Jewish people at that time.[1] The Romans also renamed Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina.

After the Romans renamed Israel as Syria Palestina in 132-135 AD, Palestine is one of many names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan. Many different definitions of the region have been in usage in the past three thousand years. It was never an Arab state, and much of it’s history has been falsified by the Palestinian movement and its sympathizers in order to to create a new identity to give the Arab nations a new weapon to use to fight against the nation of Israel.

The Hebrew scriptures call the region Canaan when referring to the pre-Israelite period,(Hebrew: ) and afterwards Israel (Yisrael). The name “Land of the Hebrews” (Hebrew: , Eretz Ha-Ivrim) is also found. The wide area appears to be the habitat of the ancient ethnic Hebrews, though perhaps shared with other ethnic groups. The land of Canaan is part of the land given to the descendants of Abraham, which extends from the Nile to the Euphrates River (Genesis 15:18). Already in Genesis 12:6 and 7 we can read: And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, unto the plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land. This land is said to include an area called Aram Naharaim, which includes Haran in modern Turkey.

In the Qur’an, the term (“Holy Land”, Al-Ard Al-Muqaddasah) is mentioned at least seven times, once when Moses proclaims to the Children of Israel: “O my people! Enter the holy land which Allah hath assigned unto you, and turn not back ignominiously, for then will ye be overthrown, to your own ruin.” (Surah 5:21)

Originally inhabited by a loose bonding of Canaanite tribes, the Israelites settled into the area after the Exodus from Egypt and were partially successful in driving out the Canannites and making it their home. Migrations from the ‘Peoples of the Sea’ led to a strong Phillistine presence on the coastline, but they were generally subdued by King David and Solomon during the height of ancient Israel. The kingdom was subsequently divided into the Northern Kingdom and Judea upon the death of Solomon. The Northern Kingdom, and the remnants of the Philistine kingdoms, were conquered by the Assyrians in the late 8th century B.C. and the kingdom of Judea fell under Babylonian control in the late 7th century and lost their independence completely in 586 B.C. with the fall of Jerusalem, their capital. The Jews were allowed to return under the Persian Empire and the entire area was conquered by Alexander the Great around 330 B.C. When his empire broke apart at his death and consolidated into four different regions, it was the Ptolemies centered in Egypt who controlled the region for the better part of the next two centuries, but conquest by the Seleucids led to a harsh religious persecution on the Jews in the region. The Jews revolted and had their independence for almost 100 years before a civil war courted Roman intervention and the area came under Roman control and eventually became the province of Palestine. Byzantine rule was forcefully removed by the great Islamic waves of the 7th century A.D. Portions of Palestine were reclaimed under Crusader control from the late 11th century until the mid 13th century, but the overall region was under Islamic control for over 1000 years. Worth mentioning that the Philistines who at one time lived in part of the area were completely conquered by King David.

In the mid-1200’s, Mamelukes, originally soldier-slaves of the Arabs based in Egypt, established an empire that in time included the area of Palestine. Arab-speaking Muslims made up most of the population of the area once called Palestine. Beginning in the late 1300’s, Jews from Spain and other Mediterranean lands settled in Jerusalem and other parts of the land. The Ottoman Empire defeated the Mamelukes in 1517, and Palestine became part of the Ottoman Empire. The Turkish Sultan invited Jews fleeing the Spanish Catholic inquisition to settle in the Turkish empire, including several cities in Palestine. [2]

The breakup of the Ottoman Empire after their defeat in World War I saw the region come under the control of Great Britain. While there was always a Jewish remnant who never left, Jewish re-emigration to the area increased under the tolerant eyes of the British. This increased after the atrocities of World War II and the areas were given their independence with Palestine being divided into separate Jewish and Arab nations, the Jewish nation being called Israel and the Arab Palestine.

A war broke out in which the Jews expanded their borders and the Arab nation of Palestine was absorbed by Jordan. Hostility between the Arabs and Jews continued and in 1967 Israel conquered the West Bank from Jordan, taking the bulk of the Jewish land that had been the “Palestinian state”. UN resolution 242 called for the Israeli removal from that land, but it did not occur. Attempts to hold Israel accountable were vetoed in the Security Council by the United States. Although the land was part of Jordan, Jordan relinquished its rights in the 1980s telling the Israelis to speak with the Palestinian Arabs directly. The 1967 Israel borders have no popular support among ordinary Palestinian residents. What most people call the 1967 Israel borders is really a cease-fire line (armistice) dating back to 1949; this armistice agreement was never a permanent treaty between Israel and any Arab country. [3]

In 1988, the Kingdom of Jordan renounced all claims to the territory known as Judea and Samaria within Israel, and “The West Bank” to the rest of the world.[4] In 1994 Jordan made that renunciation permanent. It negotiated a permanent treaty of peace with Israel. That treaty set the boundary along the Jordan and Yarmouk Rivers, through the Dead Sea, then southwest along the Emek Haarava (or Wadi Araba in Arabic) line to the Gulf of Aqaba.[5] For that reason, the Judea-Samaria region is not an occupied territory at all, but a territory under military administration, the civilian population of which (with key exceptions) have leaders desiring secession and independence.

Today’s Palestinian Arabs are children and grandchildren of Arab immigrants from the surrounding nations [6][7]

The Palestinian Intifada from the late 1980s tried to regain Arab control of the West Bank region of Israel. While first clamping down harshly, Israel did sign an accord to grant the Palestinian Arabs autonomy in the West Band and the Gaza Strip, but not full independence. The borders of a future Palestinian state has been a stumbling block to a final solution with the Arabs wanting to control all of the area captured in the 1967 War and Israel claiming part of the land for the Jewish people. A continuing series of violent actions on the part of the Palestinian Arabs and an inability to find a comprise has prevented any type of permanent solution. The short term solution is bleak. With Hamas having the majority of the control in the Palestinian legislature, a terrorist entity that does not even recognize Israel’s right to exist in its own land (seeks to ethnic cleanse all Jews in the area and create a radical oppressive Islamic state, its head in Damascus Osama Hamdan supports Ahmadinejad’s genocide call to “wipe off Israel off the map” [8] and Hamas Cleric Muhsen Abu ‘Ita said: “The Annihilation of the Jews in Palestine is One of The Most Splendid Blessings for Palestine”[9].

The Palestinian National Authority (PNA) is an autonomous national entity comprising the territories of Gaza (formerly under Egyptian sovereignty) and West Bank (formerly under Jordan sovereignty), which were occupied by the Israeli Defense Forces in Jun 1967. As provided by the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles signed on 13 Sep 1993 and upon the Agreement signed on 4 May 1994, the PNA was inaugurated on 5 Jul 1994 as a transitional status including Palestinian interim self-governing and a phased transfer of powers and territories (towns and areas of the West Bank). Negotiations on the permanent status, which could end in a Palestinian State, are under way. Headquarters: Ramallah, Chairmen of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): Mahmoud Ridha Abbas[10]

Currently, the Palestinians living in disputed territories are trying to create a state called Palestine. The Palestine Liberation Organization has declared the State of Palestine, which is recognized by 130 United Nations member states, the Arab League, and the United Nations.

Each year, Palestinians throughout the region mark the Nakba (or catastrophe) Day with demonstrations; they use the term “nakba” to describe their defeat and displacement in the war that followed Israel’s founding on May 15, 1948 when hundreds of thousands of Palestinians were uprooted. But never before have marchers descended upon Israel’s borders from all directions. The Syrian incursion in May 2011 was especially surprising. The events carried a message for Israel: Even as it wrestles with the Palestinian demand for a state in the West Bank, Gaza and east Jerusalem areas Israel captured in the 1967 Mideast war there is a related problem of neighboring countries that host millions of Palestinians with aspirations to return.

International Protesters in the United Kingdom, led by Dave Randall, released a song in May 2011 as support for the Palestinians.[11] This has brought about huge criticism from Glenn Beck.[12]

Palestine is part of a region of the Middle East known as the Levant and has cultural similarities to other Levantine countries such as Syria,Lebanon and Jordan.The signature dish of the Palestinians is musakhkhan, a chicken dish.[13]

Palestine – Conservapedia

Written on September 28th, 2015 & filed under Palestine Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Did you know that the following article was an elaborate hoax perpetrated by the Zionist elites who control the world? 99 subhuman Jews in the row, 99 subhuman Jews! Shoot one down, kick it around, 98 subhuman Jews in the row!

~ Concentration camp worker on holocaust

~ Adolf Eichmann at the Nuremberg Trials

The Holocaust is an important mathematical structure in political algebraic topology and physics. It is the colimit in the category of fields of infinite tragic characteristic with natural logical morphisms, as is the nineleven in the category of fields of infinite tragic attributes with unnatural quantum functions.

A holocaust as displayed by in a three-dimensional field with Legos.

A political field is a set with two binary operations, addition and multiplication, that satisfies the following axioms:

A topological political field has also a topological structure. This determines open and closed issues on the political field. Multiplication is of course a continuous map under this topology.

Some political fields have a tragic characteristic, which is the smallest negative element n of the tragic numbers such that when acting upon the political field, 0 is attained. Political fields of finite tragic characteristic include the Schiavo field, the Chandra-Levy field, the Elysian field, the Natalee Holloway field, and the Phillip-Bustert field. Some political fields have no non-trivial nilpotent elements under tragedy. No action will reduce the open issues in these fields to 0. Such political fields have infinite tragic characteristic.

Classic political fields of infinite tragic characteristic include the Orwell field and the Alderaan field. In 1905, Bertrand Russell proved the existence of a universal political field of tragic infinite characteristic. However, it was not until 1941 that Wilhelm Sss, a German politicomathematician, explicitly constructed this field, which was later termed the Holocaust. Sss constructed the Holocaust using J-transport theory, which allows one to concentrate certain difficult degenerate maps into nilpotent elements.

The most important feature of the Holocaust is that it is universal for all political fields of infinite tragic characteristic. This is a priori a simple property from its definition as a colimit. However there appear to be no natural maps from any open issue in any other political field into the Holocaust. It was conjectured by American politicomathematician Asimov that it is impossible to construct a comparison of an open issue in any political field to the Holocaust. Many attempts to disprove this conjecture have failed, including attempts by politicomathematicians Santorum and Durbin, who respectively attempted to compare the Phillip-Bustert field and the Gitmo field to the Holocaust.

Most applications of the Holocaust depend upon the Asimov Conjecture. In this way, the Asimov Conjecture plays the same role in political field theory that the Riemann hypothesis plays in number theory.

Much work in the early 2000s has focused on the connection between the Asimov Conjecture and the Axiom of Choice. Many politicomathematicians, trying to extend earlier work of Paul Cohen, have tried to show that the Stewart Conjecture is incompatible with the Axiom of Choice. Most of the work in this field focuses on Ab-Torsion using elliptical maps. Still, despite years of work by the politicomathematicians Ralph Reed and Pat Robertson, no natural maps between Ab-Torsion groups and the Holocaust have been discovered.

Teaching kids about the Holocaust.

All Jews loved the holocaust. All of them.

Speculation is still open as to whether the Asimov Conjecture will be proven. If it can be successfully proven, then the energy focused on trying to construct a comparison between an open issue and the Holocaust will have been wasted. Current efforts are focused on the discovery of a hypothetical particle, the Joo particle, and a hypothetical second particle, the Nutsy particle. It is hypothesized that if the two particles should collide, then a very energetic reaction should take place.

This image shows (or resembles) a symbol that was used by the National Socialist (NSDAP/Nazi) government of Germany or an organization closely associated to it, or another party which has been banned by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany.

The use of insignia of organizations that have been banned in Germany (like the Nazi swastika or the arrow cross) may also be illegal in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, France, Brazil, Israel, Canada and other countries, depending on context. In Germany, the applicable law is paragraph 86a of the criminal code (StGB), in Poland Art. 256 of the criminal code (Dz.U. 1997 nr 88 poz. 553).

Therefore, if you are in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, France, Brazil, Israel, or Canada, fuck off, you’re not allowed to read this or the government will get you.

Seriously. GTFO. This article might just call you a god-damn ni-*gets arrested*

More here:
Holocaust – Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia

Written on September 28th, 2015 & filed under Holocaust Tags: , , , , , , ,