The bony finger of war is clearly marking an ancient route to the players. It is difficult to know what to say or write that might chart a path to a more wholesome future.
Whether the clashes in Jerusalem and the West Bank are the long-awaited “Third Intifada” is the question being asked by virtually every journalist covering the Middle East.
Border crossings and ad hoc and unpredictable checkpoints made us and the subjugated Palestinians into cattle, prodded and shouted at by Israelis with machine guns, proving who had colonial power and who had none.
Director, Global Campaign for Education-US
My situation is not unique. People coming from the Gulf and Europe to visit their families in Gaza lose their jobs, scholarships, or miss their classes — all for wanting to see a sick parent or meet a new family member.
TEL AVIV — Foreign analysts have been quick to claim that recent events are about Al Aqsa, and they’ve been even quicker to argue about whether or not this is a third intifada. But both discussions miss the point.
AMMAN — While attention has been given to attacks on Israelis, few have looked into the other side. Palestinians in Jerusalem are feeling terrorized, worried about leaving their homes and becoming a victim of summary execution.
I love movies because they seem to simplify life. Nowhere is it more clear than on the big screen when a character’s predicament begins to shift.
Divided Palestinians need to be united if the current protests are to have direction.
This conflict is not the only one in the Middle East, but a solution would send a strong signal of hope that solutions even for very intractable disputes are possible. Fortunately, both sides overwhelmingly agree on the key aspects of a viable solution: two states within the 1967 borders, with some mutual border adjustments.
Washington should not pretend that the conflict and settlements are foreign issues. Its own citizens are being affected on both sides. Israel has shown it cannot be trusted to effectively handle settler terrorism and the United States should not leave the fate of its citizens in the hands of a foreign government.
Senior Foreign Policy Fellow at the Brookings Institution’s Doha Center and Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University in Qatar
Will Clinton’s more muscular alternative be the future of U.S. foreign policy if the Democrats hold on to the Oval Office in 2016? Or would Bernie Sanders, if he grabs the Democratic nomination and triumphs in the general election, guide the United States in a different direction?
Director, Foreign Policy In Focus and Editor, LobeLog
WASHINGTON–As one of the American citizens who was born in Israel and is well versed in Middle East affairs, my friend Raphael Benaroya has an intere…
Founding Chairman, Business Executives for National Security
Mahmoud Abbas holds many titles. He is the head of the Fateh movement, chairman of the PLO’s executive committee and president of the state of Palestine. Technically and legally, the Palestine Liberation Organization is superior.
When a Palestinian Christian says, “If the only choice is between violent resistance to the Occupation or submission, you must understand that for us, submission is not an option,” it needs to be heard not as a threat or ultimatum, but as a plea.
John H. Thomas
Ordained UCC minister with a forty year career in local and national UCC ministries, including General Minister and President, 1999 to 2009.
Of all the bizarre encounters the Palestinian conflict has generated, Tony Blair’s four meetings in Doha with Khaled Meshaal, the Hamas leader must surely rank as one of the oddest.
The following conversation between Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (Bibi) and Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) is fictitious.
Continue reading here:
Palestinian Territories: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News
Anti-Semitism: Why Does It Exist? And Why Does it Persist?
By Mark Weber
Over the centuries, hostility against Jews has repeatedly erupted in terrible violence. Again and again, Jews have been driven out of countries where theyd been living. Why does anti-Semitism exist? And why has rage against Jews broken out, again and again, in the most varied nations, eras and cultures? Closely related to this is the broader issue of relations between Jews and non-Jews a subject that many writers and scholars have called the Jewish question.
All too often, discussions of anti-Semitism and the Jewish question have been distorted by prejudice, bigotry and lack of candor. But this important subject deserves careful, informed and honest consideration.
Prominent Jewish leaders claim to be puzzled by the persistence of anti-Jewish sentiment and behavior. Insisting that anti-Semitism is a baseless and unreasonable prejudice, they often compare it to a mysterious virus or disease.
Elie Wiesel is one of the best-known Jewish authors and community figures of our age. His memoir of wartime experiences, entitled Night, has been obligatory reading in many classrooms. Hes a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, and for years has been a professor at Boston University. Wiesel is considered to be an authority on anti-Semitism, but he says that hes puzzled by it. The source and endurance of anti-Semitism in history remains a mystery, he told an audience in Germany in April 2004. /1 In another address he described anti-Semitism as an irrational disease. Speaking at a conference in October 2002, Wiesel went on to say: The world has changed in the last 2,000 years, and only anti-Semitism has remained … The only disease that has not found its cure is anti-Semitism. /2
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is one of the worlds largest and most influential Jewish-Zionist organizations. It considers itself the foremost center for monitoring and combating anti-Semitism, and educating the public about this dangerous phenomenon. In his 2003 book, Never Again?: The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism, ADL national director Abraham Foxman expressed grave concern about what he sees as rising hostility toward Jews: I am convinced we currently face as great a threat to the safety and security of the Jewish people as the one we faced in the 1930s if not a greater one. /3 Remarkably, he too claimed to be perplexed about the reasons for the origin and durability of discord between Jews and non-Jews. I think of anti-Semitism as a disease, Foxman writes. Anti-Semitism also resembles a disease in being fundamentally irrational … Its a spiritual and psychological illness. /4
Charles Krauthammer, an influential Jewish-American writer who is a fervent defender of Israel, is similarly puzzled by the endurance of anti-Jewish sentiment. The persistence of anti-Semitism, that most ancient of poisons, is one of historys great mysteries, he wrote in a Washington Post column that also appeared in many other newspapers across the country. /5
Wiesel, Foxman and Krauthammer, along with other prominent Jewish-Zionist leaders, are unable — or unwilling — to provide an explanation for the persistence of anti-Semitism. They believe, or claim to believe, that because its an entirely irrational and baseless disease, theres no relation between what Jews do, and what non-Jews think of Jews. In their view, the strife and tension between Jews and non-Jews that has persisted over the centuries is not caused by, or is even related to, Jewish behavior.
Fortunately, a reasonable explanation for this enduring phenomenon has been provided by one of the most prominent and influential Jewish figures of modern history: Theodor Herzl, the founder of the modern Zionist movement. He laid out his views in a book, written in German, entitled The Jewish State (Der Judenstaat). Published in 1896, this work is the basic manifesto of the Zionist movement. A year and a half later he convened the first international Zionist conference.
In his book Herzl explained that regardless of where they live, or their citizenship, Jews constitute not merely a religious community, but a nationality, a people. He used the German word, Volk. Wherever large numbers of Jews live among non-Jews, he said, conflict is not only likely, its inevitable. The Jewish question exists wherever Jews live in noticeable numbers, he wrote. Where it does not exist, it is brought in by arriving Jews … I believe I understand anti-Semitism, which is a very complex phenomenon. I consider this development as a Jew, without hate or fear. /6
In his public and private writings, Herzl explained that anti-Semitism is not an aberration, but rather a natural response by non-Jews to alien Jewish behavior and attitudes. Anti-Jewish sentiment, he said, is not due to ignorance or bigotry, as so many have claimed. Instead, he concluded, the ancient and seemingly intractable conflict between Jews and non-Jews is entirely understandable, because Jews are a distinct and separate people, with interests that are different from, and which often conflict with, the interests of the people among whom they live.
Anti-Jewish sentiment in the modern era, Herzl believed, arose from the emancipation of Jews in the 18th and 19th centuries, which freed them from the confined life of the ghetto and brought them into modern urban society and direct economic dealings with middle class non-Jews. Anti-Semitism, Herzl wrote, is an understandable reaction to Jewish defects. In his diary he wrote: I find the anti-Semites are fully within their rights. /7
Herzl maintained that Jews must stop pretending — both to themselves and to non-Jews — that they are like everyone else, and instead must frankly acknowledge that they are a distinct and separate people, with distinct and separate goals and interests. The only workable long-term solution, he said, is for Jews to recognize reality and live, finally, as a normal people in a separate state of their own. In a memo to the Tsar of Russia, Herzl wrote that Zionism is the final solution of the Jewish question. /8
Israels first president, Chaim Weizmann, expressed a similar view. In his memoirs, he wrote: Whenever the quantity of Jews in any country reaches the saturation point, that country reacts against them … [This] reaction … cannot be looked upon as anti-Semitism in the ordinary or vulgar sense of that word; it is a universal social and economic concomitant of Jewish immigration, and we cannot shake it off. /9
Such candor is rare. Only occasionally do Jewish leaders today explain anti-Semitism as a reaction to the behavior of Jews. One of the wealthiest and most influential figures in todays world is George Soros, the Hungarian-born billionaire financier. Generally he avoids highlighting his ties to the Jewish community, and only rarely attends purely Jewish gatherings. But in November 2003 he addressed a meeting in New York City of the Jewish Funders Network. When he was asked about anti-Semitism in Europe, Soros did not respond by saying that it is an irrational disease. Instead, he said that it is the result of the policies of Israel and the United States. There is a resurgence of anti-Semitism in Europe. The policies of the Bush administration and the Sharon administration contribute to that, he said. If we change that direction, then anti-Semitism also will diminish,” he went on. I cant see how one could confront it directly. /10
Jewish community leaders reacted angrily to Soros remarks. Elan Steinberg, senior adviser at the World Jewish Congress (and former executive director of that influential organization), said: Lets understand things clearly: Anti-Semitism is not caused by Jews; its caused by anti-Semites. Abraham Foxman called Soros comments absolutely obscene. The ADL director went on to say: He buys into the stereotype. Its a simplistic, counterproductive, biased and bigoted perception of whats out there. Its blaming the victim for all of Israels and the Jewish peoples ills. /11
Most people readily accept that positive feelings by non-Jews toward Jews have some basis in Jewish behavior. But Jewish leaders such as Foxman, Wiesel and Steinberg seem unwilling to accept that negative feelings toward Jews might similarly have a basis in Jewish behavior.
Along with all other social behavior over time, conflict between Jews and non-Jews has an evident and understandable basis in history and human nature. The historical record suggests that the persistence of anti-Semitism over the centuries is rooted in the unusual way that Jews relate to non-Jews.
Israeli and Jewish- Zionist leaders affirm that Jews constitute a people or a nation that is, a distinct nationality group to which Jews everywhere are supposed to feel and express a primary loyalty. /12 Some American Jewish leaders have been explicit about this. Louis Brandeis, a US Supreme Court justice and a leading American Zionist, said: Let us all recognize that we Jews are a distinctive nationality of which every Jew, whatever his country, his station or shade of belief, is necessarily a member. /13 Stephen S. Wise, president of the American Jewish Congress and of the World Jewish Congress, told a rally in New York in June 1938: “I am not an American citizen of the Jewish faith. I am a Jew … Hitler was right in one thing. He calls the Jewish people a race, and we are a race.” /14 In keeping with this outlook, Israeli leaders also say that the Zionist state represents not just its own Jewish citizens, but Jews everywhere. /15
While affirming — usually only among themselves that Jews are members of a separate nationality to which they should feel and express a prime loyalty, Zionists simultaneously insist that Jews must be welcomed as full and equal citizens in whatever country they may wish to live. While Zionist Jews in the US such as Abraham Foxman speak of the Jewish people as a distinct nationality, they also claim that Jews are Americans like everyone else, and insist that Jews, including Zionist Jews, must be granted all the rights of US citizens, with no social, legal or institutional obstacles to Jewish power and influence in American life. In short, Jewish-Zionist leaders and organizations (such as the World Jewish Congress and the American Jewish Committee) demand full citizen rights for Zionist Jews not only in their country, Israel, but everywhere.
Major Jewish-Zionist organizations, and, more broadly, the organized Jewish community, also promote pluralism, tolerance and diversity in the United States and other countries. They believe this is useful for Jews. Americas pluralistic society is at the heart of Jewish security, wrote Abraham Foxmam. In the long run, the ADL director went to explain, what has made American Jewish life a uniquely positive experience in Diaspora history and which has enabled us to be such important allies for the State of Israel, is the health of a pluralistic, tolerant and inclusive American society. /16
For some time, the ADL has promoted the slogan Diversity is Our Strength. In keeping with this motto, which it claims to have invented, the ADL has devoted effort and resources to persuading Americans — especially younger Americans — to welcome and embrace ever more social, cultural and racial diversity. /17
This campaign has been very successful. American politicians and educators, and virtually the entire US mass media, promote diversity, multiculturalism and pluralism, and portray those who do not embrace these objectives as hateful and ignorant. At the same time, influential Jewish-Zionist organizations such as the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) insist that the US must recognize and defend Israel as a specifically Jewish ethnic-religious state. /18 Pluralism and diversity, it seems, are only for non-Jews. Whats good for Jews in their own homeland, Jewish-Zionist leaders seem to say, is not pluralism and diversity, but a tribalistic nationalism.
What Jews think is important because the Jewish community has the power to realize its goals. In a remarkable address in May 2013, Vice President Joe Biden said that the immense and outsized Jewish role in the US mass media and cultural life has been the single most important factor in shaping American attitudes over the past century, and in driving major cultural- political changes. I bet you 85 percent of those [social- political] changes, whether its in Hollywood or social media, are a consequence of Jewish leaders in the industry. The influence is immense, he said. Jewish heritage has shaped who we are all of us, us, me as much or more than any other factor in the last 223 years. And thats a fact, he added. /19
Biden is not alone in acknowledging this clout. It makes no sense at all to try to deny the reality of Jewish power and prominence in popular culture, wrote Michael Medved, a well-known Jewish author and film critic in 1996. /20 Joel Stein, a columnist for the Los Angeles Times, wrote in 2008: As a proud Jew, I want America to know about our accomplishment. Yes, we control Hollywood … I dont care if Americans think were running the news media, Hollywood, Wall Street or the government. I just care that we get to keep running them. /21
Even though Jews have more influence and power in US political and cultural life than any other ethnic or religious group, Jewish groups are uncomfortable when non- Jews point this out. In fact, says Foxman and the ADL, one sure sign that someone is an anti-Semite is if he agrees with the statement that Jews have too much power in our country today. /22 For Foxman, apparently, there can never be too much Jewish influence and power.
Anti-Semitism is not a mysterious disease. As Herzl and Weizmann suggested, and as history shows, what is often called anti-Semitism is the natural and understandable attitude of people toward a minority with particularist loyalties that wields greatly disproportionate power for its own interests, rather than for the common good.
— December 2013. Revised January 2014.
About the Author
Mark Weber is a historian, author and current affairs analyst. He studied history at the University of Illinois (Chicago), the University of Munich, Portland State University and Indiana University (M.A., 1977).
For Further Reading
Norman F. Cantor. The Sacred Chain: A History of the Jews. New York: Harper, 1994.
Benjamin Ginsberg. The Fatal Embrace: Jews and the State. The Univ. of Chicago Press, 1993.
Peter Harrison, What Causes Anti-Semitism? Review of Macdonalds Separation and Its Discontents. The Journal of Historical Review, May-June 1998. ( http://ihr.org/jhr/v17/v17n3p28_Harrison )
Stanley Hornbeck. Review of Macdonalds The Culture of Critique. American Renaissance, June 1999. ( http://www.csulb.edu/~kmacd/review-AR.html )
Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab. Jews and the New American Scene. Harvard University Press, 1995.
Kevin MacDonald, A People That Shall Dwell Alone: Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy. Praeger, 1994.
Kevin MacDonald, Separation and Its Discontents: Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Anti-Semitism. Praeger,1998
Kevin MacDonald, The Culture of Critique: An Evolutionary Analysis of Jewish Involvement in Twentieth-Century Intellectual and Political Movements. Praeger, 1998 (Softcover edition, 2002).
W. D. Rubinstein. The Left, The Right and the Jews. New York: Universe Books, 1982.
Israel Shahak. Jewish History, Jewish Religion. London: Pluto Press, 1994,
Goldwin Smith. The Jewish Question. From: Essays on Questions of the Day. New York: Macmillan, 1894. ( http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v17/v17n1p16_Smith.html )
Mark Weber, A Straight Look at the Jewish Lobby ( http://ihr.org/leaflets/jewishlobby.shtml )
Mark Weber, Holocaust Remembrance: What’s Behind the Campaign? Feb. 2006. ( http://www.ihr.org/leaflets/holocaust_remembrance.shtml )
Mark Weber, Jews: A Religious Community, a People, or a Race?, March-April 2000. ( http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v19/v19n2p63_Weber.html ) ;
Mark Weber, Straight Talk About Zionism: What Jewish Nationalism Means. April 2009. ( http://www.ihr.org/zionism0409.html )
Mark Weber, The Weight of Tradition: Why Judaism is Not Like Other Religions. Oct. 2010. ( http://www.ihr.org/judaism0709.html )
Mark Weber, Vice President Biden Acknowledges ‘Immense’ Jewish Role in American Mass Media and Cultural Life, July 2013. ( http://ihr.org/other/biden_jewish_role )
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Anti-Semitism: Why Does It Exist? And Why Does it Persist?
Holocaust denial, the denial of the systematic genocidal killing of millions of ethnic minorities in Europe (including Jews) by Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, is illegal in 14 European nations. Many countries also have broader laws that criminalize genocide denial. Of the countries that ban Holocaust denial, some, such as Austria, Germany, Hungary, and Romania, were among the perpetrators of the Holocaust, and many of these also ban other elements associated with Nazism, such as the expression of Nazi symbols.
In several nations such as the United Kingdom and the United States, laws against Holocaust denial have come up in legal discussion and have been proposed, but the measures have been rejected. Organizations representing groups that have been victimized during the Holocaust have generally been split about such laws.
Scholars have pointed out that countries that specifically ban Holocaust denial generally have legal systems that limit speech in other ways, such as banning hate speech. According to D. D. Guttenplan, this is a split between the “common law countries of the United States, Ireland and many British Commonwealth countries from the civil law countries of continental Europe and Scotland. In civil law countries the law is generally more proscriptive. Also, under the civil law regime, the judge acts more as an inquisitor, gathering and presenting evidence as well as interpreting it”. Michael Whine argues that Holocaust denial can inspire violence against Jews; he states, “Jews’ experience in the post-World War II era suggests that their rights are best protected in open and tolerant democracies that actively prosecute all forms of racial and religious hatred.”
Jnos Kis and in particular Andrs Schiffer feel the work of Holocaust deniers should be protected by a universal right to free speech. An identical argument was used by the Hungarian Constitutional Court (Alkotmnybrsg) led by Lszl Slyom when it struck down a law against Holocaust denial in 1992.
The argument that laws punishing Holocaust denial are incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights have been rejected by institutions of the Council of Europe (the European Commission of Human Rights, the European Court of Human Rights) and also by the United Nations Human Rights Committee.
Historians who oppose such laws include Raul Hilberg,Richard J. Evans, and Pierre Vidal-Naquet. Other prominent opponents of the laws are Timothy Garton Ash,Christopher Hitchens, Peter Singer, and Noam Chomsky. An uproar resulted when Serge Thion used one of Chomsky’s essays without explicit permission as a foreword to a book of Holocaust denial essays (see Faurisson affair). These laws have also been criticized on the grounds that education is more effective than legislation at combating Holocaust denial and that the laws will make martyrs out of those imprisoned for their violation.
It seems to me something of a scandal that it is even necessary to debate these issues two centuries after Voltaire defended the right of free expression for views he detested. It is a poor service to the memory of the victims of the holocaust to adopt a central doctrine of their murderers.
While Australia lacks a specific law against Holocaust denial, Holocaust denial is prosecuted in Australia under various laws against “hate speech” and “racial vilification”. Gerald Fredrick Tben and his Adelaide Institute would be the best-known case of someone being prosecuted in Australia for Holocaust denial.
In Austria, the Verbotsgesetz 1947 provided the legal framework for the process of denazification in Austria and suppression of any potential revival of Nazism. In 1992, it was amended to prohibit the denial or gross minimisation of the Holocaust.
3g. He who operates in a manner characterized other than that in 3a 3f will be punished (revitalising of the NSDAP or identification with), with imprisonment from one to up to ten years, and in cases of particularly dangerous suspects or activity, be punished with up to twenty years’ imprisonment.
3h. As an amendment to 3 g., whoever denies, grossly plays down, approves or tries to excuse the National Socialist genocide or other National Socialist crimes against humanity in a print publication, in broadcast or other media.
In Belgium, Holocaust denial was made illegal in 1995.
Article 1 Whoever, in the circumstances given in article 444 of the Penal Code denies, grossly minimises, attempts to justify, or approves the genocide committed by the German National Socialist Regime during the Second World War shall be punished by a prison sentence of eight days to one year, and by a fine of twenty six francs to five thousand francs. For the application of the previous paragraph, the term genocide is meant in the sense of article 2 of the International Treaty of 9 December 1948 on preventing and combating genocide. In the event of repetitions, the guilty party may in addition have his civic rights suspended in accordance with article 33 of the Penal Code.
Art.2 In the event of a conviction on account of a violation under this Act, it may be ordered that the judgement, in its entity or an excerpt of it, is published in one of more newspapers, and is displayed, to the charge of the guilty party.
Art.3. Chapter VII of the First Book of the Penal Code and Article 85 of the same Code are also applicable to this Act.
Art. 4. The Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism, as well as any association that at the time of the facts had a legal personality for at least five years, and which, on the grounds of its statutes, has the objective of defending moral interests and the honour of the resistance or the deported, may act in law in all legal disputes arising from the application of this Act.
In May 2007 Ekrem Ajanovic, a Bosniak MP in the Bosnian Parliament proposed a legislation on criminalizing the denial of Holocaust, genocide and crimes against humanity. This was the first time that somebody in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Parliament proposed such a legislation. Bosnian Serb MPs voted against this legislation and proposed that such an issue should be resolved within the Criminal Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Following this, on 6 May 2009 Bosniak MPs Adem Huskic, Ekrem Ajanovic and Remzija Kadric proposed to the BH parliament a change to the Criminal Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina where Holocaust, genocide and crimes against humanity denial would be criminalized. Bosnian Serb MPs have repeatedly been against such a legislation claiming that the law “would cause disagreement and even animosity” according to SNSD member Lazar Prodanovic.
In the Czech Republic, Holocaust denial and denial of communist perpetrated atrocities is illegal.
260 (1) The person who supports or spreads movements oppressing human rights and freedoms or declares national, race, religious or class hatred or hatred against other group of persons will be punished by prison from 1 to 5 years. (2) The person will be imprisoned from 3 to 8 years if: a) he/she commits the crime mentioned in paragraph (1) in print, film, radio, television or other similarly effective manner, b) he/she commits the crime as a member of an organized group c) he/she commits the crime in a state of national emergency or state of war
261 The person who publicly declares sympathies with such a movement mentioned in 260, will be punished by prison from 6 months to 3 years.
261a The person who publicly denies, puts in doubt, approves or tries to justify nazi or communist genocide or other crimes of nazis or communists will be punished by prison of 6 months to 3 years.
In France, the Gayssot Act, voted for on July 13, 1990, makes it illegal to question the existence of crimes that fall in the category of crimes against humanity as defined in the London Charter of 1945, on the basis of which Nazi leaders were convicted by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1945-46. When the act was challenged by Robert Faurisson, the Human Rights Committee upheld it as a necessary means to counter possible antisemitism. In 2012, the Constitutional Council of France ruled that to extend the Gayssot Act to the Armenian Genocide denial was unconstitutional because it violated the freedom of speech.
MODIFICATIONS OF THE LAW OF JULY 29, 1881 ON THE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS Art 8. – Article 24 of the Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881 is supplemented by the following provisions: In the event of judgment for one of the facts envisaged by the preceding subparagraph, the court will be able moreover to order: Except when the responsibility for the author of the infringement is retained on the base for article 42 and the first subparagraph for article 43 for this law or the first three subparagraphs for article 93-3 for the law No 82-652 for July 29, 1982 on the audio-visual communication, the deprivation of the rights enumerated to the 2o and 3o of article 42 of the penal code for imprisonment of five years maximum;
Art 9. As an amendment to Article 24 of the law of July 29, 1881 on the freedom of the press, article 24 (a) is as follows written:
Art 13. – It is inserted, after article 48-1 of the law of July 29, 1881 on the freedom of the press, article 48-2 thus written:
In Germany, Volksverhetzung (“incitement of the people”) is a concept in German criminal law that bans incitement to hatred against segments of the population. It often applies to (though not limited to) trials relating to Holocaust denial in Germany. In addition, Strafgesetzbuch 86a outlaws various symbols of “unconstitutional organisations”, such as the Swastika and the SS runes.
(1) Whosoever, in a manner capable of disturbing the public peace:
shall be liable to imprisonment from three months to five years.
(3) Whosoever publicly or in a meeting approves of, denies or downplays an act committed under the rule of National Socialism of the kind indicated in section 6 (1) of the Code of International Criminal Law, in a manner capable of disturbing the public peace shall be liable to imprisonment not exceeding five years or a fine.
(4) Whosoever publicly or in a meeting disturbs the public peace in a manner that violates the dignity of the victims by approving of, glorifying, or justifying National Socialist rule of arbitrary force shall be liable to imprisonment not exceeding three years or a fine.
The definition of section 6 of the Code of Crimes against International Law referenced in the above 130 is as follows:
(1) Whoever with the intent of destroying as such, in whole or in part, a national, racial, religious or ethnic group:
The following sections of the German criminal code are also relevant:
Whoever disparages the memory of a deceased person shall be punished with imprisonment for not more than two years or a fine.
(1) An insult shall be prosecuted only upon complaint. If the act was committed through dissemination of writings (Section 11 subsection (3)) or making them publicly accessible in a meeting or through a presentation by radio, then a complaint is not required if the aggrieved party was persecuted as a member of a group under the National Socialist or another rule by force and decree, this group is a part of the population and the insult is connected with this persecution. The act may not, however, be prosecuted ex officio if the aggrieved party objects. When the aggrieved party deceases, the rights of complaint and of objection devolve on the relatives indicated in Section 77 subsection (2). The objection may not be withdrawn.
(2) If the memory of a deceased person has been disparaged, then the relatives indicated in Section 77 subsection (2), are entitled to file a complaint. If the act was committed through dissemination of writings (Section 11 subsection (3)) or making them publicly accessible in a meeting or through a presentation by radio, then a complaint is not required if the deceased person lost his life as a victim of the National Socialist or another rule by force and decree and the disparagement is connected therewith. The act may not, however, be prosecuted ex officio if a person entitled to file a complaint objects. The objection may not be withdrawn. (…)
The Parliament of Hungary declared the denial or trivialization of the Holocaust a crime punishable by up to three years’ imprisonment on February 23, 2010. The law was signed by the President of the Republic in March 2010. On June 8, 2010, the newly elected Fidesz-dominated parliament changed the formulation of the law to “punish those, who deny the genocides committed by national socialist or communist systems, or deny other facts of deeds against humanity”. The word “Holocaust” is no longer in the law.
In 2011, the first man was charged with Holocaust denial in Budapest. The Court sentenced the man to 18 months in prison, suspended for three years, and probation. He also had to visit either Budapest’s memorial museum, Auschwitz or Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. He chose his local Holocaust Memorial Center and had to make three visits in total and record his observations.
In January 2015, the court ordered far-right on-line newspaper Kuruc.info to delete its article denying the Holocaust published in July 2013, which was the first ruling in Hungary of its kind. The Association for Civil Liberties (TASZ) offered free legal aid to the website as a protest against restrictions on freedom of speech, but the site refused citing the liberal views of the association, and also refused to delete the article.
In Israel, a law to criminalize Holocaust denial was passed by the Knesset on July 8, 1986.
Definitions 1. In this Law, “crime against the Jewish people” and “crime against humanity” have the same respective meanings as in the “Nazis and Nazi Collaborators Law, 5710-1950.
Prohibition of Denial of Holocaust 2. A person who, in writing or by word of mouth, publishes any statement denying or diminishing the proportions of acts committed in the period of the Nazi regime, which are crimes against the Jewish people or crimes against humanity, with intent to defend the perpetrators of those acts or to express sympathy or identification with them, shall be liable to imprisonment for a term of five years.
Prohibition of publication of expression for sympathy for Nazi crimes 3. A person who, in writing or by word of mouth, publishes any statement expressing praise or sympathy for or identification with acts done in the period of the Nazi regime, which are crimes against the Jewish people or crimes against humanity, shall be liable to imprisonment for a term of five years.
Permitted publication 4. The publication of a correct and fair report of a publication prohibited by this Law shall not be regarded as an offence thereunder so long as it is not made with intent to express sympathy or identification with the perpetrators of crimes against the Jewish people or against humanity.
Filing of charge 5. An indictment for offences under this Law shall only be filed by or with the consent of the Attorney-General.
Although not specifically outlining national socialist crimes, item five of section 283 of Liechtenstein’s criminal code prohibits the denial of genocide.
Whoever publicly denies, coarsely trivialises, or tries to justify genocide or other crimes against humanity via word, writing, pictures, electronically transmitted signs, gestures, violent acts or by other means shall be punished with imprisonment for up to two years.
In Lithuania, approval and denial of Nazi or Soviet crimes is prohibited.
In Luxembourg, Article 457-3 of the Criminal Code, Act of 19 July 1997 outlaws Holocaust denial and denial of other genocides. The punishment is imprisonment for between 8 days and 6 months and/or a fine. The offence of “negationism and revisionism” applies to:
While Holocaust denial is not explicitly illegal in the Netherlands, the courts consider it a form of spreading hatred and therefore an offence. According to the Dutch public prosecution office, offensive remarks are only punishable by Dutch law if they equate to discrimination against a particular group. The relevant laws of the Dutch penal code are as follows:
In Poland, Holocaust denial and the denial of communist crimes is punishable by law.
Article 55 He who publicly and contrary to facts contradicts the crimes mentioned in Article 1, clause 1 shall be subject to a fine or a penalty of deprivation of liberty of up to three years. The judgment shall be made publicly known.
Article 1 This Act shall govern: 1. the registration, collection, access, management and use of the documents of the organs of state security created and collected between 22 July 1944 and 31 December 1989, and the documents of the organs of security of the Third Reich and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning:
2. the rules of procedure as regards the prosecution of crimes specified in point 1 letter a), 3. the protection of the personal data of grieved parties, and 4. the conduct of activities as regards public education.
Although denial of the Holocaust is not expressly illegal in Portugal, Portuguese law prohibits denial of war crimes if used to incite to discrimination.
2 Whoever in a public meeting, in writing intended for dissemination, or by any means of mass media or computer system whose purpose is to disseminate:
with intent to incite to racial, religious or sexual discrimination or to encourage it, shall be punished with imprisonment from six months to five years.
In Romania, Emergency Ordinance No. 31 of March 13, 2002 prohibits Holocaust denial. It was ratified on May 6, 2006. The law also prohibits racist, fascist, xenophobic symbols, uniforms and gestures: proliferation of which is punishable with imprisonment from between six months to five years.
Article 3. (1) Establishing a fascist, racist or xenophobic organisation is punishable by imprisonment from 5 to 15 years and the loss of certain rights.
Article 4. (1) The dissemination, sale or manufacture of symbols either fascist, racist or xenophobic, and possession of such symbols is punished with imprisonment from 6 months to 5 years and the loss of certain rights.
Article 5. Promoting the culture of persons guilty of committing a crime against peace and humanity or promoting fascist, racist or xenophobic ideology, through propaganda, committed by any means, in public, is punishable by imprisonment from 6 months to 5 years and the loss of certain rights.
Article 6. Denial of the Holocaust in public, or to the effects thereof is punishable by imprisonment from 6 months to 5 years and the loss of certain rights.
Genocide denial was illegal in Spain until the Constitutional Court of Spain ruled that the words “deny or” were unconstitutional in its judgement of November 7, 2007. As a result, Holocaust denial is legal in Spain, although justifying the Holocaust or any other genocide is an offence punishable by imprisonment in accordance with the constitution.
Chapter II: Crimes of genocide – Article 6071.
1. Those who, with the intention to total or partially destroy a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, perpetrate the following acts, will be punished:
2. The diffusion by any means of ideas or doctrines that deny or justify the crimes in the previous section of this article, or tries the rehabilitation of regimes or institutions which they protect generating practices of such, will be punished with a prison sentence of one to two years.
Holocaust denial is not expressly illegal in Switzerland, but the denial of genocide and other crimes against humanity is an imprisonable offence.
Whoever publicly, by word, writing, image, gesture, acts of violence or any other manner, demeans or discriminates against an individual or a group of individuals because of their race, their ethnicity or their religion in a way which undermines human dignity, or on those bases, denies, coarsely minimizes or seeks to justify a genocide or other crimes against humanity […] shall be punished with up to three years’ imprisonment or a fine.
The European Union’s executive Commission proposed a European Union-wide anti-racism xenophobia law in 2001, which included the criminalization of Holocaust denial. On July 15, 1996, the Council of the European Union adopted the Joint action/96/443/JHA concerning action to combat racism and xenophobia. During the German presidency there was an attempt to extend this ban. Full implementation was blocked by the United Kingdom and the Nordic countries because of the need to balance the restrictions on voicing racist opinions against the freedom of expression. As a result a compromise has been reached within the EU and while the EU has not prohibited Holocaust denial outright, a maximum term of three years in jail is optionally available to all member nations for “denying or grossly trivialising crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.”
The EU extradition policy regarding Holocaust denial was tested in the UK during the 2008 failed extradition case brought against the suspected Holocaust denier Frederick Toben by the German government. As there is no specific crime of Holocaust denial in the UK, the German government had applied for Toben’s extradition for racial and xenophobic crimes. Toben’s extradition was refused by the Westminster Magistrates’ Court, and the German government withdrew its appeal to the High Court.
The text establishes that the following intentional conduct will be punishable in all EU Member States:
Member States may choose to punish only conduct which is either carried out in a manner likely to disturb public order or which is threatening, abusive or insulting.
The reference to religion is intended to cover, at least, conduct which is a pretext for directing acts against a group of persons or a member of such a group defined by reference to race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin.
Member States will ensure that these conducts are punishable by criminal penalties of a maximum of at least between 1 and 3 years of imprisonment.
Laws against Holocaust denial have been enforced in most jurisdictions that have them. Convictions and sentencings include:
See original here:
Laws against Holocaust denial – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
News & Analysis
Posted by Editor on October 26, 2015 in News & Analysis, Palestine, World
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Posted by Jamal Kanj on October 25, 2015 in Activisim & BDS, News & Analysis, Palestine
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Posted by Israel shamir on October 22, 2015 in Middle East, News & Analysis, World
An Israeli soldier detains a Palestinian boy during a protest in the West Bank village
Kremlin.ru Vladimir Putin: Mr President, Let me wish you a warm welcome to Moscow. Despite
Haftom Zarhum, a 29-year-old Eritrean migrant, was shot by a security guard and kicked by bystanders [AP] Economy and Trade Minister Naftali Bennett boasted, I have killed lots
Benjamin Netanyahu needs an intervention. And his own people need to undertake it. Hating Palestinians is one thing. Giving Hitler a pass is quite another.
An Israeli soldier detains a Palestinian boy during a protest in the West Bank village of Nabi Saleh in August. (Mohamad Torokman/Reuters) It is
File photo shows Israeli security forces storming al-Aqsa Mosque – Courtesy Press TV The new generations of Palestinians are fed up with the 67 years old Israeli occupation,
Continue reading here:
Intifada Palestine – Middle East Analysis and Perspective
The late Rebo Kairu Ngure, who was promoted to glory on October 17th 2015 after being severely attacked by thugs at his home in Kenya, will be buried on Friday. Family sources have said.
He was husband to Terry Wairimu Kairu, father to Kairu Rebo (Baltimore, Maryla…
Cytonn Diaspora requests the pleasure of your company at an Investment Forum which will take place in Towson, Maryland on Sunday, October 25th, 2015 from 3pm to 8pm.
Come learn about Investment opportunities in East Africa.
The Investment Forum will take pla…
Cytonn Diaspora requests the pleasure of your company for a Dinner Event in Towson, Maryland on Saturday, October 24, 2015 from 7pm to 9:30pm.
Come learn about Investment opportunities in East Africa over dinner, which is being sponsored by Cytonn Diaspora.
Oscar Winner Lupita Nyong’o Was Left Speechless On Tuesday (20oct15) As She Was Honoured With Her Own Day In Harlem, New York.
The 12 Years A Slave beauty is currently in the Big Apple for her Off Broadway play Eclipsed, and she was invited to discuss her life and…
The 2015 Mashujaa Awards Gala was held on Saturday, October 17th in Houston, Texas. The annual event recognizes and celebrates the achievements of Kenyans both in the Homeland Kenya and the entire Diaspora at large.
Here is the list of winners of the-just concluded…
A high-ranking Sheppard Pratt employee and her husband pleaded guilty Friday to fraud charges based on invoices from 2007 to 2014 totaling more than $2.7 million, according to the U.S. Attorney for the District of Maryland.
Lyneth Nyabiosi was the director of healt…
Pay your taxes and rates, follow-up on your documents, Obtain Information, Purchase Gifts, Groceries, and Stationery, Distribute Cards for your Events and such other things. Call Zissou – your reliable Courier and Errands Services Provider in Kenya.
Authorities in Brandenburg, Germany, are looking for relatives of a Kenyan man who died two weeks ago in the Northern German town of Hohenleipisch.
The body of Moses Sirma was discovered inside his house in Hohenleipisch on October 3, 2015 and has been lying in the…
The Nairobi Chamber Chorus is in the USA marketing Kenya as a safe place to visit.
The choir has been touring the southern states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida, using their songs to highlight the integration and peace in their home country.
Kitten Diaspora requests the pleasure of your company for a Dinner Event on Sunday, October 18, 2015 from 7pm to 9pm at Africa Fusion restaurant in Dallas, Texas.
Come learn about Investment opportunities in East Africa over dinner, which is being sponsored by Cyto…
Theatre critics are virtually unanimous in praising Lupita Nyongos stage debut in an Africa-focused play that opened in New York on Wednesday.
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An American national sobbed in a Nairobi court on Thursday as he narrated how his Kenyan wife, with whom they have two children, fleeced him.
Mr John Eugene Bennet, with a pitched voice stated: I have limited funds. All my accounts are in the name of my Kenyan wif…
King County officials have suspended the license of a nursing assistant after he was charged with raping a blind, deaf and mentally disabled person in his care.
Washington state Department of Health officials say Samuel K. Njuguna was charged with second-degree rap…
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A Kenyan diplomat was attacked during a home invasion in Queens, sources said.
Evans Maturu, 48, told police he was on the first floor of his Kew Gardens Hills home, on 73rd Ave. near 147th St., about 8 p.m. on Saturday when he heard a loud noise on the second floo…
Ever dream of starting a major business or bringing a top-rated franchise back to your motherland, but you are hamstrung by lack of capital or technical support? If so, a major investment forum in Boston next week (October 13-14) is your answer.
President Uhuru Kenyattas frequent foreign trips cost taxpayers more than Sh1 billion in the financial year ended June, adding to the national budget strain that has seen public servants wages and allowances eat deeply into development expenditure.
DJ Simple Simon was the sole Kenyan winner at the 2015 African Muzik Magazine Awards (AFRIMMA), which took place Saturday night in Dallas, Texas. Simple Simon won in the Best DJ (US) category, in which fellow Kenyan Deejay Shinski was also a nominee.
AFRICA is the…
It seems like yesterday Lupita Nyong’o won an Oscar for her breakthrough role in 12 Years a Slave, but that wasn’t the only big moment for the Nyong’o family that night. Her little brother, Peter, also made history by joining in Ellen DeGeneres’s break-the-Internet group…
A Kenyan who unsuccessfully vied for a political seat in the UK has blamed Kenyan authorities for manufacturing criminal lies against him.
Mr Daniel Munyambu who, this year, failed in a bid to be elected to the House of Commons is fighting extradition from the Un…
The Kiambu county government has secured a direct market for their coffee in the US in a deal that will enable farmers increase their production with a view to capitalising on the same.
Governor William Kabogo who made the disclosure after a tour of the US challeng…
On Saturday November the 28th, New Jersey will be set aflame as Africa’s Top comedian Anne Kansiime comes to New Jersey for a single Tri-state family oriented show. The Ugandan comedian and star host of Dont mess with Kansiime on Maisha Magic Channel 161 has won…
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A third person charged in connection to the murder of a man at a Roanoke hotel in June is now in custody, police say.
Brea Ann Belcher, 20, of North Carolina, is currently being held in the Roanoke City Jail without bond.
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Money sent home by Kenyans living abroad rose by 3.2 percent in the month of August, to $132.9 million, from the same month last year, the central bank said on Monday.
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Registration for the US Green Card Lottery for FY 2017 (DV-2017) begins today, Thursday October 1st at 12noon EDT.
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Kenyans living in the Diaspora are being offered a penalty waiver of 80% on loans they owe the Higher Education Loans Board (HELB). The waiver period runs through October 31, 2015, says HELB officials.
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The man who donated the much-hyped Hummer to Raila Odinga during his 2007 General Election campaigns has been cooling his heels at Kongolea Prison since April, 2013.
Controversial businessman, Don Bosco Gichana, who is also wanted by the US over alleged money laund…
Kenyans living in the United States will now enjoy an 80 per cent penalty waiver on their Helb university loans if they pay what they owe in a lump sum within the next one month.
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Kenyan Afro-pop all-boy band Sauti Sol will share the same stage with some of the biggest international names, including American music star Beyonce Knowles at the Global Citizen Festival on Saturday, September 26, 2015 in New York.
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President Uhuru Kenyatta has a tight schedule as he attends the 70th session of the United nations General Assembly in New York.
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DIASPORA NEWS | Mwakilishi.com
When the world looks at America, what it sees is an Israeli colony. Paul Craig Roberts
America has been taken over.
Slowly and imperceptibly, duped by lies and lulled into complacency, Americans have let their country slip into the hands of a fifth column: of a hostile ethnic elite whose primary allegiance is to Israel, a country built on stolen land and engaged in systematic genocide.
This is the rogue state that is arguably responsible for the greatest mass murder in history: the catastrophe of 9-11. If scientific evidence and forensic logic are anything to go on, Israel has to be suspect number one here, given its unbroken record of terrorism and its endless breaches of international law. Any country that can orchestrate such a spectacular crime and get away with itwhile somehow managing to pin the blame on nineteen Arabs with box cuttersis clearly a force to be reckoned with.
More than 200 senior military, intelligence, and law enforcement officials, including two generals, have now questioned the 9-11 Commissions report. They have been joined by over 1500 top architects and engineers, 250 pilots and aviation experts, 400 university professors, and 250 survivors and their families. David Ray Griffin, author of eleven books on 9-11 and a distinguished professor emeritus, has concluded definitively: All the proffered evidence that America was attacked by Muslims on 9-11 appears to have been fabricated.
Dr Alan Sabrosky, former director of the Army War College, has upped the ante and unequivocally identified Israel as the guilty party. What we need to stand up and say is not only did they [the Israelis] attack the USS Liberty, but that it is 100 percent certain 9/11 was a Mossad operation.
If any further proof were needed of Americas abject enslavement to Zionist interests, however, it would be Obamas humiliation at the hands of Israels Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu earlier this year. This humiliation has occurred on three separate occasions: in September 2009, in July 2010, and again only last May. Washington Post columnist Dana Milbank writes almost gloatingly of Obama flying the white flag of surrender in the White Housewhere he sat routed and humiliated.
He had asked the Israelis to observe international law by stopping settlement construction on Palestinian land. He had pleaded with them to withdraw to the 1967 borders, in accordance with UN Resolution 242a reasonable enough request which every American President before him has asked the Israelis to consider in the interests of peace.
The Israeli Prime Ministers response? Israel will NOT return to the indefensible boundaries of 1967!
So how is it that this rude and recalcitrant ally of America still continues to receive its $3 billion a year subsidy? Is America so besotted with love for the Jewish state that it cannot say No? Silly question. Since it rests on the Chomskyite assumption that America is still the lord and master and little Israel the dependent colony.
The riddle is easily solved if one turns Chomskys assumption on its head: organized Jewry, having taken over America, has transformed it into an Israeli colony. The $8.2 million per day that the American taxpayer pays his Jewish master is not a subsidy. It is tribute money. It is a tax or levy imposed on a vanquished people by their conquerors.
Hear the note of contempt for ones own President in this extraordinary account of Obamas humiliation at the hands of Netanyahu, his Jewish victor:
Netanyahu beat Obama like a red-headed stepchild; he played him like a fiddle; he pounded him like a big brass drum. The Prime Minister of Israel danced rings around his arrogant, professorial opponent. The Prime Minister mopped the floor with our guy.Bibi ripped him to shredsdemonstrating to the whole world that the Prime Minister of Israel has substantially more support in both the House and the Senate than the President of the United States.
I guess that says it all. Poor Obama. He has been symbolically castrated and buried in excrement up to the neck. Those 29 standing ovations Netanyahu received in Congress were equivalent to a lump of spit in the Presidents face.
According to political pundit Philip Giraldi, this was the first time in recorded history that a small nation with less than eight million citizens has subjugated a much larger country with a population of more than 310 million.
The Zionization of America is complete, with AIPAC appointing the government and 60 million Christian Zionists ready to die for their new masters in Jerusalem.
America is now Israels slave.
Ive never seen a President stand up to them. They always get what they want. If the American people understood what a grip those people have got on our government, they would rise up in arms. (Admiral Thomas Moorer, former Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1983)
At this point I feel the need to apologize for the picture of the finger-wagging rabbi at the end of Part 1 of this essay, together with the inflammatory words he is purported to have uttered about the Jewish desire for world domination. I can hear my critics cry: Silly airhead, why do you spout all this Protocolian poppycock? Dont you know the Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an anti-Semitic forgery?
Yes, I confess with a sigh that I have heard the word forgery often advanced as a reason not to read this brilliant political treatise, second only to Platos Republic in its profundity.
What I am saying, however, has nothing to do with the Protocols.I am not a conspiracy theorist. I am a historian who is interested only in facts. Truth alone stirs my heart.
Lets take another quick look at Zionism.
In a recent essay called Why Palestine is Important, Israel Shamir presents a picture that puts this entire Protocolian nonsense into perspective:
Palestine is important because it is believed to be a linchpin of Empire, one of the key points necessary to control the world. Such was the conviction of the 19th century British Empire-builders of the Rhodes variety.Once an arcane theory developed by HJ Mackinder, it has grown up to become a driving force behind globalism . Mackinder planned the subjugation of the whole planet to the Empire . Napoleon [had earlier] toyed with the idea of planting Jews in Palestine as Frances foot soldiers, but there were no takers among Jews. The Brits achieved what the French could not.
Zionism, in other words, according to Shamirs recent take on the subject, was a British inspiration and a tool in the armory of Pax Britannica. It was the way the Brits intended to conquer the world. They would plonk the unwanted Jews in Palestine as their proxies. Israel, in effect, was to be a British colony. And Lord Balfour, when he drew up the famous Balfour Declaration in 1917, had a glint in his beady little eye. He was more interested in advancing the designs of the British Empire than in being nice to the Jews.
If all this is trueand I think it possibly iswe can see what happened next. By 1948 the British Empire had collapsed in ruins. It was no longer in a position to use Israel as its cats paw. Another emerging nation however, the chief beneficiary of World War II, certainly was. This was America. Yet even as far back as 1948, America was largely controlled by its Jews. Their influence, though it was to grow by leaps and bounds after 1967, was enormous even in 1948.
It was the Jews who twisted President Trumans arm and got him to give his full backing to their fledgling state. It was the Jews again, through the vengeful Morgenthau, as I indicated in Part 1 of this essay, who were to make life a living hell for the conquered Germans in the aftermath of World War II. The Jews were always in the background, it seems, the shadowy lurkers in the cabbage patch of history.
The colony that the Brits had failed to acquire in the Middle East, Israel, was inherited by America. So Chomsky was right after all. To start with, anyway. Israel was to be Americas aircraft carrier in the Middle East. The Americans would use it as a gigantic military base from which to plunder Arab oil. Nor would they have any problems with Ben Gurions dreams of a Greater Israel stretching from the Nile to the Euphrates. After all, why not give the Jews what they wanted?
Greater Israel was simply to be an extension of America: its fifty-first state.
Things didnt work out as planned. The best-laid schemes of mice and men, we are told, often go askew. The tables were turned on the simple-minded Americans. The Jews were much smarter than their WASP masters could ever be. They had acquired through three thousand years of bitter experience the arts of duplicity and cunning. Guile was their genetic patrimony. They were the Ultimate Survivors.
One has to hand it to the Jews. The hitherto oppressed decided to become the oppressors. The former victims decided to take on the role of predators. The cats paw decided it would rather be the Cat from now onand it became the Cats Pajamas.
In short, the Jews took over America and turned it into a Jewish colony. As simple as that. Their American hosts were hoist with their own petard.
But why worry? American Jews are Americans, are they not? If theyre smart enough to take over America, as they have demonstrably done, why shouldnt they proceed to the next logical step and take over the worldyes, dominate the world through America? No one denies this is Americas aim: full spectrum dominance. So if the Jews control America, and if America controls the world, doesnt it follow logically that the Jews control the world? The logic is irrefutable.
Jewish world domination takes on a different perspective when viewed through this historical prism. No conspiracy theories here. No hook-nosed Jews grasping the globe in their cruel talons. No Illuminati trying to sodomize your children and drink their blood. Just logic. Just history. Just America striving for full-spectrum dominance with Jews leading the pack.
You could say the wild-eyed dreams of the Protocols have at last been realized, but not in the way their original masterminds intended.
Allow me now to present the testimony of Eustace Mullins, if only for the vivid pictures he presents to the mind of the terrors endured by millions of Russian Christians in Bolshevik Russia when it was under Jewish hegemony. Could this be the fate of American Christians in the not too distant future?
There are too many well documented massacres in history in which the Jews tortured and murdered their victims with the greatest glee, gloating in such barbaric practices as tearing out the hearts of women and children and smearing the blood on their faces.
The orgy of murder, torture and pillage which followed the Jewish triumph in Russia [after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917] has never been equaled in the history of the world. The Jews were free to indulge their most fervent fantasies of mass murder of helpless victims.
Christians were dragged from their beds, tortured and killed. Some were actually sliced to pieces, bit by bit, while others were branded with hot irons, their eyes poked out to induce unbearable pain.
Others were placed in boxesthen hungry rats placed in the boxes to gnaw upon their bodies. Some were nailed to the ceiling by their fingers or by their feet, and left hanging until they died of exhaustion.
Others were chained to the floor and hot lead poured into their mouths. Many were tied to horses and dragged through the streets of the city, while the mob attacked them with rocks and kicked them to death.
Mothers were taken to the public square and their babies snatched from their arms.the baby [was] tossed into the air while another member of the mob rushed to catch it on the tip of his bayonet.
Pregnant Christian women were chained to trees and their babies cut out of their bodies. (See here)
We should never forget what happened when Jews were a hostile elite in the USSR, Prof. Kevin MacDonald notes bleakly. The loathing and contempt for the traditional people and culture of Russia was a major factor in the avid Jewish participation in the greatest crimes of the 20th century.
MacDonald is referring to the systematic murder of over 50 million Russians under Lenin and Stalin: a period of mass murder spanning 36 years (1917-1953).
The new American eliteas I pointed out in Part 1 of this article, America as an Israeli Colonyis a Jewish elite. Exactly like the elite in Bolshevik Russia and Stalins USSR. And it is essentially a hostile elite that loathes the nation it rules.
So we need to watch out.
Because what happened to millions of Russians in the first half of the 20th centurysystematic genocidecould well happen to millions of Americans in the foreseeable future.
It is quite possible, Kevin MacDonald muses, that we are entering into a racial dystopia of unimaginable cruelty.
The extraordinary success of the Jews, who make up only 2.5 percent of Americas population, can be attributed to meticulous organization, coordination and networking. This advantageous cohesiveness derives from an evolutionary characteristic of the Jews: an exceptionally strong ethnocentricism which has enabled them to infiltrate almost every single organization that could possibly threaten them as a group. In America, highly gifted Jews whose primary loyalty is to Israel have managed to insinuate their way into key policy positions, including the Departments of Treasury and State, the Pentagon, the National Security Council and the White House.
Over the past 24 months not a single policy maker [James Petras tells us] has voiced any criticism of Israels most heinous crimes, ranging from the savaging of Gaza to the massacre of the humanitarian flotilla and the expansion of new settlements in Jerusalem and the West Bank.Many of the leading Zionist policy makers rose to power through a deliberate strategy of infiltrating the government to shape policy promoting Israels interest over and above the interests of the US populace.
If the goyim have lost the game of life and their hard-won freedoms to the Jews, it was because they didnt know they were playing a game in the first place. A game for the highest possible stakes.
A game called Survival.
The world that awaits us, if our New Masters prevail, will be a grim dystopia. It will be a spiritual wasteland in which an unprincipled elite rides roughshod over the teeming masses. It will be a cruel world of exploitation, moral darkness, and unspeakable brutality.
Death solves all problems, Stalin quipped cynically. No man, no problem. When mass extermination becomes the miracle cure, exciting times can be expected.
In Otto Friedrichs widely acclaimed Holocaust study, The Kingdom of Auschwitz, a concentration camp survivor is quoted as saying:
Concentration camp existence taught us that the whole world is really like a concentration camp. The world is ruled by neither justice nor morality. Crime is not punished nor virtue rewarded. The world is ruled by power. We are laying the foundation for some new, monstrous civilization.
So this is where we are now: in the eye of the storm.
America, once a democracy, is now a crypto-fascist country ruled by a corporate and cosmopolitan elite. There is no freedom, no democracy, and no government accountability in Amerika, a fascist state, Paul Craig Roberts concludes ruefully in one of his recent essays.
The Jews, fulfilling the wildest dreams conjured up in the Protocols, stand surveying the killing fields of the world they have conquered. Iraq and Afghanistan lie in ruins, thanks to their machinations. Iran lies in the cross-hairs, awaiting its expected doom. And meanwhile in America, as the body bags are flown in from foreign parts and the lurid circus of bread and games grinds on relentlessly, there is nothing much to live for except sex and death.
Stalins willing executioners, the Jews, are now the ruling elite in America. As in Weimar Germany, the Jews make most of the money and help to create a culture of neo-paganism and nihilism, decadence and despair. Nothing has changed except the country.
Russia, Germany, America they all went down like skittles in a row.
Here is the original post:
AMERICA VANQUISHED, Part 2: America under Jewish Rule
West Bank and Gaza Strip
President: Mahmoud Abbas (2005)
Prime Minister: Rami Hamdallah (2013)
Land area: West Bank: 2,178 sq mi (5,641 sq km); total area: West Bank: 2,263 sq mi (5,860 sq km); Gaza Strip: 139 sq mi (360 sq km)
Population (2010 est.): West Bank: 2,514,845, Gaza Strip: 1,604,238 (growth rate: West Bank: 2.1%, Gaza Strip: 3.3%); birth rate: West Bank: 24.9/1000, Gaza Strip: 36.2/1000; infant mortality rate: West Bank: 15.4/1,000, Gaza Strip: 17.7/1000; life expectancy: West Bank: 74.8, Gaza Strip: 73.7; density per sq mi: West Bank: 1,164, Gaza Strip: 10,077. NOTE: figures above include approximately 8,000 Israeli settlers who evacuated the Gaza Strip in Aug. 2005.
Large cities (2003 est.): Gaza, 1,331,600 (metro. area), 407,600 (city proper), Hebron, 137,000; Nablus, 115,400
Monetary units: New Israeli shekels, Jordanian dinars, U.S. dollars
More Facts & Figures
The West Bank is located to the east of Israel and the west of Jordan. The Gaza Strip is located between Israel and Egypt on the Mediterranean coast.
The Palestinian Authority (PA), with Yasir Arafat its elected leader, took control of the newly non-Israeli-occupied areas, assuming governmental duties in 1994.
The history of the proposed modern Palestinian state, which is expected to be formed from the territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, began with the British Mandate of Palestine. From Sept. 29, 1923, until May 14, 1948, Britain controlled the region, but by 1947, Britain had appealed to the UN to solve the complex problem of competing Palestinian and Jewish claims to the land. In Aug. 1947, the UN proposed dividing Palestine into a Jewish state, an Arab state, and a small international zone. Arabs rejected the idea. As soon as Britain pulled out of Palestine in 1948, neighboring Arab nations invaded, intent on crushing the newly declared State of Israel. Israel emerged victorious, affirming its sovereignty. The remaining areas of Palestine were divided between Transjordan (now Jordan), which annexed the West Bank, and Egypt, which gained control of the Gaza Strip.
Through a series of political and social policies, Jordan sought to consolidate its control over the political future of Palestinians and to become their speaker. Jordan even extended citizenship to Palestinians in 1949; Palestinians constituted about two-thirds of the country’s population. In the Gaza Strip, administered by Egypt from 19481967, poverty and unemployment were high, and most of the Palestinians lived in refugee camps.
In the Arab-Israeli War of 1967, Israel, over a period of six days, defeated the military forces of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan and annexed the territories of East Jerusalem, the Golan Heights, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and all of the Sinai Peninsula. The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), formed in 1964, was a terrorist organization bent on Israel’s annihilation. Palestinian rioting, demonstrations, and terrorist acts against Israelis became chronic. In 1974, PLO leader Yasir Arafat addressed the UN General Assembly, the first stateless government to do so. Violence again escalated in 1987 during the intifada (shaking off), a new era in Palestinian mass mobilization. In 1988, Yasir Arafat publicly eschewed terrorism and officially recognized the state of Israel.
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Palestinian State (proposed): Maps, History, Geography …
Published October 18, 2015
A Palestinian protester runs for cover from tear gas fired by Israeli soldiers during clashes with Israeli troops near Ramallah, West Bank, Saturday, Oct. 17, 2015. Israelis shot dead three Palestinians they said had attacked them with knives on Saturday in Jerusalem and the West Bank city of Hebron, the latest in a month of violent confrontations. (AP Photo/Majdi Mohammed)(The Associated Press)
Palestinian protesters run for cover from tear gas fired by Israeli soldiers during clashes with Israeli troops near Ramallah, West Bank, Saturday, Oct. 17, 2015. Israelis shot dead three Palestinians they said had attacked them with knives on Saturday in Jerusalem and the West Bank city of Hebron, the latest in a month of violent confrontations. (AP Photo/Majdi Mohammed)(The Associated Press)
Palestinians carry the body of Iyad Awawdeh, 26, during his funeral in the West Bank village of Dora, near Hebron, Saturday, Oct. 17, 2015. Awawdeh was killed after he stabbed an Israeli soldier, posing as a journalist, during clashes yesterday. (AP Photo/Nasser Shiyoukhi)(The Associated Press)
Palestinians watch a wall being built between Palestinian and Jewish neighborhoods in Jerusalem Sunday, Oct. 18, 2015. Palestinians in Jerusalem, more than one-third of the city’s population, have awoken to a new reality: Israeli troops are encircling Arab neighborhoods, blocking roads with cement cubes the size of washing machines and ordering some of those leaving on foot to bare their torsos to prove they not carrying knives. (AP Photo/Mahmoud Illean)(The Associated Press)
A Palestinian demonstrator has a knife in his belt and rocks in his hand during clashes with Israeli troops, near Ramallah, West Bank, Sunday, Oct. 18, 2015. (AP Photo/Majdi Mohammed)(The Associated Press)
JERUSALEM The Israeli military removed dozens of Jewish worshippers Sunday who clashed with Palestinians after illegally entering a biblical shrine in the West Bank that was recently torched by Palestinians.
The military said some 30 Jews descended upon the Joseph’s Tomb compound in Nablus, a site revered by Jews as the tomb of the biblical figure Joseph. The area is under full Palestinian control but Jewish prayer is permitted there when coordinated with authorities. The military said Sunday’s visit was not, and the worshippers had no permit. When they arrived they were confronted by Palestinians and a violent clash ensued. In consultation with Palestinian security forces, the military extracted the worshippers. One of them was lightly wounded and five were taken for police questioning.
On Friday, Palestinian assailants firebombed the West Bank compound, the first assault on a religious site. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas condemned the attack and United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said extremists were trying to turn the current conflict into a religious one.
Sunday’s incident comes after another bloody day in which Palestinian assailants carried out five stabbing attacks against Israelis in Jerusalem and the West Bank, as a month-long outburst of violence showed no signs of abating.
Over the past month, eight Israelis have been killed in Palestinian attacks, most of them stabbings. In that time, 40 Palestinians were killed by Israeli fire, including 19 labeled by Israel as attackers, and the rest in clashes with Israeli troops.
The daily attacks have caused a sense of panic across Israel and raised fears that the region is on the cusp of a new round of heavy violence.
Israel has taken unprecedented steps in response to the attacks. It has deployed soldiers in Israeli cities and erected concrete barriers outside some Arab neighborhoods of east Jerusalem, where most of the attackers have come from. Ordinary citizens have also increasingly taken up arms to protect themselves.
Palestinians said the roadblocks are collective punishment and ineffective in deterring attackers since those with bad intentions would try to reach Jewish neighborhoods through dirt roads anyway.
The violence erupted a month ago over the Jewish New Year, fueled by rumors that Israel was plotting to take over Jerusalem’s most sensitive holy site, a hilltop compound revered by Jews as the Temple Mount and home to the Al-Aqsa Mosque, Islam’s third-holiest shrine and a key national symbol for the Palestinians.
Israel has adamantly denied the allegations, saying it has no plans to change the status quo at the site, where Jews are allowed to visit but not pray.
It accuses the Palestinians of inciting to violence through the false claims. Palestinians say the violence is the result of nearly 50 years of Israeli occupation, more than two decades of failed peace efforts and a lack of hope for gaining independence anytime soon.
Dozens of Jewish worshippers illegally enter West Bank shrine
County Jewish population % of total 1 Rockland County, New York 91,300 31.4% 2 Kings County, New York 561,000 22.4% 3 New York County, New York 314,500 19.9% 4 Palm Beach County, Florida 255,550 19.4% 5 Nassau County, New York 230,000 17.2% 6 Westchester County, New York 136,000 14.3% 7 Broward County, Florida 206,700 11.8% 8 Montgomery County, Maryland 113,000 11.6% 9 Ocean County, New Jersey 61,500 10.7% 10 Marin County, California 26,100 10.3% 11 Bergen County, New Jersey 92,500 10.2% 12 Monmouth County, New Jersey 64,000 10.2% 13 Sullivan County, New York 7,425 9.6% 14 Norfolk County, Massachusetts 63,600 9.5% 15 Queens County, New York 198,000 8.9% 16 Orange County, New York 32,300 8.7% 17 San Francisco County, California 65,800 8.2% 18 Montgomery County, Pennsylvania 64,500 8.1% 19 Middlesex County, Massachusetts 113,800 7.6% 20 Baltimore County, Maryland 60,000 7.5% 21 Lake County, Illinois 51,300 7.3% 21 Richmond County, New York 34,000 7.3% 23 Santa Clara County, California 128,000 7.2% 24 Arlington County, Virginia 14,000 6.7% 24 San Mateo County, California 47,800 6.7% 26 Bucks County, Pennsylvania 41,400 6.6% 26 Ventura County, California 54,000 6.6% 28 Middlesex County, New Jersey 52,000 6.4% 29 Camden County, New Jersey 32,100 6.2% 29 Essex County, New Jersey 48,800 6.2% 31 Falls Church City, Virginia 750 6.1% 32 Morris County, New Jersey 29,700 6.0% 32 Howard County, Maryland 17,200 6.0% 34 Somerset County, New Jersey 19,000 5.9% County Jewish population % of total 35 Suffolk County, New York 86,000 5.8% 36 Cuyahoga County, Ohio 70,300 5.5% 37 Fulton County, Georgia 50,000 5.4% 38 Los Angeles County, California 518,000 5.3% 39 Ozaukee County, Wisconsin 4,500 5.2% 40 Fairfield County, Connecticut 47,200 5.1% 40 Oakland County, Michigan 61,200 5.1% 42 Baltimore City, Maryland 30,900 5.0% 42 St. Louis County, Missouri 49,600 5.0% 44 Nantucket County, Massachusetts 500 4.9% 45 Union County, New Jersey 25,800 4.8% 45 Denver County, Colorado 28,700 4.8% 45 Sonoma County, California 23,100 4.8% 48 Washington, District of Columbia 28,000 4.7% 49 Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania 66,800 4.4% 49 Pitkin County, Colorado 750 4.4% 51 Arapahoe County, Colorado 24,600 4.3% 51 Geauga County, Ohio 4,000 4.3% 51 Atlantic County, New Jersey 11,700 4.3% 51 Miami-Dade County, Florida 106,300 4.3% 55 Cook County, Illinois 220,200 4.2% 55 Chester County, Pennsylvania 20,900 4.2% 57 Boulder County, Colorado 12,000 4.1% 58 Passaic County, New Jersey 20,000 4.0% 59 Albany County, New York 12,000 3.9% 59 Alameda County, California 59,100 3.9% 59 Putnam County, New York 3,900 3.9% 59 Bronx County, New York 54,000 3.9% 63 Delaware County, Pennsylvania 21,000 3.8% 64 Suffolk County, Massachusetts 27,000 3.7% 64 Clark County, Nevada 72,300 3.7% 66 DeKalb County, Georgia 25,000 3.6% 66 Fairfax County, Virginia 38,900 3.6% 68 Alexandria, Virginia 4,900 3.5% County Jewish population % of total 69 Napa County, California 4,600 3.4% 69 Dutchess County, New York 10,000 3.4% 69 Schenectady County, New York 5,200 3.4% 72 Fairfax City, Virginia 750 3.3% 72 Hartford County, Connecticut 29,600 3.3% 72 Allegheny County, Pennsylvania 40,500 3.3% 72 Berkshire County, Massachusetts 4,300 3.3% 76 Ulster County, New York 5,900 3.2% 77 New Haven County, Connecticut 27,100 3.1% 77 Contra Costa County, California 32,100 3.1% 79 Essex County, Massachusetts 22,300 3.0% 80 Sussex County, New Jersey 4,300 2.9% 80 San Diego County, California 89,000 2.9% 80 Burlington County, New Jersey 12,900 2.9% 83 Orange County, California 83,750 2.8% 83 Johnson County, Kansas 15,000 2.8% 85 Pinellas County, Florida 25,000 2.7% 85 Multnomah County, Oregon 20,000 2.7% 85 Hamilton County, Ohio 21,400 2.7% 88 Sarasota County, Florida 9,950 2.6% 88 Monroe County, New York 19,000 2.6% 90 Hennepin County, Minnesota 29,300 2.5% 90 Cobb County, Georgia 17,300 2.5% 90 Broomfield County, Colorado 1,400 2.5% 90 Collier County, Florida 8,000 2.5% 90 Mercer County, New Jersey 9,000 2.5% 95 Cumberland County, Maine 6,775 2.4% 95 Seminole County, Florida 10,000 2.4% 97 Cherokee County, Georgia 5,000 2.3% 97 Santa Fe County, New Mexico 3,300 2.3% 97 Hampden County, Massachusetts 10,600 2.3% 97 Santa Cruz County, California 6,000 2.3% 97 Dukes County, Massachusetts 300 2.3% Assimilation and population changes
These parallel themes have facilitated the extraordinary economic, political, and social success of the American Jewish community, but also have contributed to widespread cultural assimilation. More recently however, the propriety and degree of assimilation has also become a significant and controversial issue within the modern American Jewish community, with both political and religious skeptics.
While not all Jews disapprove of intermarriage, many members of the Jewish community have become concerned that the high rate of interfaith marriage will result in the eventual disappearance of the American Jewish community. Intermarriage rates have risen from roughly 6% in 1950 and 25% in 1974, to approximately 4050% in the year 2000. By 2013, the intermarriage rate had risen to 71%. This, in combination with the comparatively low birthrate in the Jewish community, has led to a 5% decline in the Jewish population of the United States in the 1990s. In addition to this, when compared with the general American population, the American Jewish community is slightly older.
A third of intermarried couples provide their children with a Jewish upbringing, and doing so is more common among intermarried families raising their children in areas with high Jewish populations. The Boston area, for example, is exceptional in that an estimated 60% percent of children of intermarriages are being raised Jewish, meaning that intermarriage would actually be contributing to a net increase in the number of Jews. As well, some children raised through intermarriage rediscover and embrace their Jewish roots when they themselves marry and have children.
In contrast to the ongoing trends of assimilation, some communities within American Jewry, such as Orthodox Jews, have significantly higher birth rates and lower intermarriage rates, and are growing rapidly. The proportion of Jewish synagogue members who were Orthodox rose from 11% in 1971 to 21% in 2000, while the overall Jewish community declined in number. In 2000, there were 360,000 so-called “ultra-orthodox” (Haredi) Jews in USA (7.2%). The figure for 2006 is estimated at 468,000 (9.4%). Data from the Pew Center shows that as of 2013, 27% of American Jews under the age of 18 live in Orthodox households, a dramatic increase from Jews aged 18 to 29, only 11% of whom are Orthodox. The UJA-Federation of New York reports that 60% of Jewish children in the New York City area live in Orthodox homes. In addition to economizing and sharing, Orthodox communities depend on government aid to support their high birth rate and large families. The Hasidic village of New Square, New York receives Section 8 housing subsidies at a higher rate than the rest of the region, and half of the population in the Hasidic village of Kiryas Joel, New York receive food stamps, while a third receive Medicaid.
About half of the American Jews are considered to be religious. Out of this 2,831,000 religious Jewish population, 92% are non-Hispanic white, 5% Hispanic (Most commonly from Argentina, Venezuela, or Cuba), 1% Asian (Mostly Bukharian and Persian Jews), 1% Black and 1% Other (mixed race etc.). Almost this many non-religious Jews exist in United States, the proportion of Whites being higher than that among the religious population.
Many Jews identify as being of Middle Eastern descentor simply as “Jews”as supported by genetic research. As with other oppressed racial and ethnocultural groups, Jews have a complex relationship to the concept of “whiteness,” and as a result, many Americans of Jewish descent do not self-identify as white.
The American Jewish community includes African American Jews and other American Jews of African descent (such as American Beta Israel), excluding North African Jewish Americans, who are considered Sephardi and are thus classified as white. Estimates of the number of American Jews of African descent in the United States range from 20,000 to 200,000. Jews of African descent belong to all of American Jewish denominations. Like their white Jewish counterparts, some black Jews are Jewish atheists or ethnic Jews.
Notable African-American Jews include Lisa Bonet, Sammy Davis, Jr., Rashida Jones, Yaphet Kotto, Jordan Farmar, Taylor Mays, and rabbis Capers Funnye and Alysa Stanton.
Relations between American Jews of African descent and other Jewish Americans are generally cordial. There are, however, disagreements with a specific minority among African-Americans who consider themselves, but not other Jews, to be the true descendants of the Israelites of the Torah. They are generally not considered to be members of the mainstream Jewish community, since they have not formally converted to Judaism, nor are they ethnically related to other Jews. One such group, the African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem, emigrated to Israel and was granted permanent residency status there.
Education plays a major role as a part of Jewish identity; as Jewish culture puts a special premium on it and stresses the importance of cultivation of intellectual pursuits, scholarship and learning, American Jews as a group tend to be better educated and earn more than Americans as a whole. Forty-four percent (55% of Reform Jews) report family incomes of over $100,000 compared to 19% of all Americans, with the next highest group being Hindus at 43%. And while 27% of Americans have had college or postgraduate education, fifty-nine percent (66% of Reform Jews) of American Jews have, the second highest of any religious group after American Hindus. 31% of American Jews hold a graduate degree, this figure is compared with the general American population where 11% of Americans hold a graduate degree. White collar professional jobs have been attractive to Jews and much of the community tend to take up professional white collar careers requiring tertiary education involving formal credentials where the respectability and reputability of professional jobs is highly prized within Jewish culture. While 46% of Americans work in professional and managerial jobs, 61% of American Jews work as professionals, many of whom are highly educated, salaried professionals whose work is largely self-directed in management, professional, and related occupations such as engineering, science, medicine, investment banking, finance, law, and academia.
Much of the Jewish American community lead educated, professional and upper middle class lifestyles. While the median household net worth of the typical American family is $99,500, among American Jews the figure is $443,000. In addition, the median Jewish American income is estimated to be in the range of $97,000 to $98,000, nearly twice as high the American national median. Either of these two statistics may be confounded by the fact that the Jewish population is on average older than other religious groups in the country, with 51% of polled adults over the age of 50 compared to 41% nationally. Older people tend to both have higher income and be more highly educated.
While the median income of Jewish Americans is high, there are still small pockets of poverty. In the New York area, there are approximately 560,000 Jews living in poor or near-poor households, representing about 20% of the New York metropolitan Jewish community. Most affected are children, the elderly, immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Orthodox families.
According to analysis by Gallup, American Jews have the highest well-being of any ethnic or religious group in America.
The great majority of school-age Jewish students attend public schools, although Jewish day schools and yeshivas are to be found throughout the country. Jewish cultural studies and Hebrew language instruction is also commonly offered at synagogues in the form of supplementary Hebrew schools or Sunday schools.
From the early 1900s until the 1950s, quota systems were imposed at elite colleges and universities particularly in the Northeast, as a response to the growing number of children of recent Jewish immigrants; these limited the number of Jewish students accepted, and greatly reduced their previous attendance. Jewish enrollment at Cornell’s School of Medicine fell from 40% to 4% between the world wars, and Harvard’s fell from 30% to 4%. Before 1945, only a few Jewish professors were permitted as instructors at elite universities. In 1941, for example, antisemitism drove Milton Friedman from a non-tenured assistant professorship at the University of WisconsinMadison.Harry Levin became the first Jewish full professor in the Harvard English department in 1943, but the Economics department decided not to hire Paul Samuelson in 1948. Harvard hired its first Jewish biochemists in 1954.
Today, American Jews no longer face the discrimination in higher education that they did in the past, particularly in the Ivy League. For example, by 1986, a third of the presidents of the elite undergraduate final clubs at Harvard were Jewish.Rick Levin has been president of Yale University since 1993, Judith Rodin was president of the University of Pennsylvania from 1994 to 2004 (and is currently president of the Rockefeller Foundation), Paul Samuelson’s nephew, Lawrence Summers, was president of Harvard University from 2001 until 2006, and Harold Shapiro was president of Princeton University from 1992 until 2000.
There are an estimated 4,000 Jewish students at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jewishness in the United States is considered an ethnic identity as well as a religious one. See Ethnoreligious group.
Jewish religious practice in America is quite varied. Among the 4.3 million American Jews described as “strongly connected” to Judaism, over 80% report some sort of active engagement with Judaism, ranging from attendance at daily prayer services on one end of the spectrum to as little as attendance Passover Seders or lighting Hanukkah candles on the other.
A 2003 Harris Poll found that 16% of American Jews go to the synagogue at least once a month, 42% go less frequently but at least once a year, and 42% go less frequently than once a year.
The survey found that of the 4.3 million strongly connected Jews, 46% belong to a synagogue. Among those households who belong to a synagogue, 38% are members of Reform synagogues, 33% Conservative, 22% Orthodox, 2% Reconstructionist, and 5% other types. Traditionally, Sephardic and Mizrahis do not have different branches (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, etc.) but usually remain observant and religious. The survey discovered that Jews in the Northeast and Midwest are generally more observant than Jews in the South or West. Reflecting a trend also observed among other religious groups, Jews in the Northwestern United States are typically the least observant.
In recent years, there has been a noticeable trend of secular American Jews returning to a more observant, in most cases, Orthodox, lifestyle. Such Jews are called baalei teshuva (“returners”, see also Repentance in Judaism).
The 2008 American Religious Identification Survey found that around 3.4 million American Jews call themselves religious out of a general Jewish population of about 5.4 million. The number of Jews who identify themselves as only culturally Jewish has risen from 20% in 1990 to 37% in 2008, according to the study. In the same period, the number of all US adults who said they had no religion rose from 8% to 15%. Jews are more likely to be secular than Americans in general, the researchers said. About half of all US Jews including those who consider themselves religiously observant claim in the survey that they have a secular worldview and see no contradiction between that outlook and their faith, according to the study’s authors. Researchers attribute the trends among American Jews to the high rate of intermarriage and “disaffection from Judaism” in the United States.
About one-sixth of American Jews maintain kosher dietary standards.
American Jews are more likely to be atheist or agnostic than most Americans, especially so compared with Protestants or Catholics. A 2003 poll found that while 79% of Americans believe in God, only 48% of American Jews do, compared with 79% and 90% for Catholics and Protestants respectively. While 66% of Americans said they were “absolutely certain” of God’s existence, 24% of American Jews said the same. And though 9% of Americans believe there is no God (8% Catholic and 4% Protestant), 19% of American Jews believe God does not exist.
A 2009 Harris Poll showed American Jews as the religious group most accepting of evolution, with 80% believing in evolution, compared to 51% for Catholics, 32% for Protestants, and 16% of Born-again Christians. They were also less likely to believe in supernatural phenomena such as miracles, angels, or heaven.
Jews are overrepresented in American Buddhism specifically among those whose parents are not Buddhist, and without Buddhist heritage, with between one fifth and 30% of all American Buddhists identifying as Jewish though only 2% of Americans are Jewish. Nicknamed Jubus, an increasing number of American Jews have begun adopting Buddhist spiritual practice, while at the same time continuing to identify with and practice Judaism. Notable American Jewish Buddhists include: Robert Downey, Jr.Allen Ginsberg,Goldie Hawn and daughter Kate Hudson, Steven Seagal, Adam Yauch of the rap group The Beastie Boys, and Garry Shandling. Film makers the Coen Brothers have been influenced by Buddhism as well for a time. Founder of the New York City Marathon, Fred Lebow, dabbled in Buddhism for a brief period.
Today, American Jews are a distinctive and influential group in the nation’s politics. Jeffrey S. Helmreich writes that the ability of American Jews to effect this through political or financial clout is overestimated, that the primary influence lies in the group’s voting patterns.
“Jews have devoted themselves to politics with almost religious fervor,” writes Mitchell Bard, who adds that Jews have the highest percentage voter turnout of any ethnic group (84% reported being registered to vote).
Though the majority (6070%) of the country’s Jews identify as Democratic, Jews span the political spectrum, with those at higher levels of observance being far more likely to vote Republican than their less observant and secular counterparts.
Owing to high Democratic identification in the 2008 United States Presidential Election, 78% of Jews voted for Democrat Barack Obama versus 21% for Republican John McCain, despite Republican attempts to connect Obama to Muslim and pro-Palestinian causes. It has been suggested that running mate Sarah Palin’s conservative views on social issues may have nudged Jews away from the McCainPalin ticket. In the 2012 United States presidential election, 69% of Jews voted for the Democratic incumbent President Obama.
Helmreich describes Jews as “a uniquely swayable bloc” as a result of Republican stances on Israel. A paper by Dr. Eric Uslaner of the University of Maryland disagrees, at least with regard to the 2004 election: “Only 15% of Jews said that Israel was a key voting issue. Among those voters, 55% voted for Kerry (compared to 83% of Jewish voters not concerned with Israel).” The paper goes on to point out that negative views of Evangelical Christians had a distinctly negative impact for Republicans among Jewish voters, while Orthodox Jews, traditionally more conservative in outlook as to social issues, favored the Republican Party. A New York Times article suggests that the Jewish movement to the Republican party is focused heavily on faith-based issues, similar to the Catholic vote, which is credited for helping President Bush taking Florida in 2004. However, Natan Guttman, The Forwards Washington bureau chief, dismisses this notion, writing in Moment that while “[i]t is true that Republicans are making small and steady strides into the Jewish communitya look at the past three decades of exit polls, which are more reliable than pre-election polls, and the numbers are clear: Jews vote overwhelmingly Democratic,” an assertion confirmed by the most recent presidential election results.
Though some critics charged that Jewish interests were partially responsible for the push to war with Iraq, Jewish Americans were actually more strongly opposed to the Iraq war from its onset than any other religious group, or even most Americans. The greater opposition to the war was not simply a result of high Democratic identification among U.S. Jews, as Jews of all political persuasions were more likely to oppose the war than non-Jews who shared the same political leanings.
A 2013 Pew Research Center survey suggests that American Jews’ views on domestic politics are intertwined with the community’s self-definition as a persecuted minority who benefited from the liberties and societal shifts in the United States and feel obligated to help other minorities enjoy the same benefits. American Jews across age and gender lines tend to vote for and support politicians and policies supported by the Democratic Party. On the other hand, Orthodox American Jews have domestic political views that are more similar to their religious Christian neighbors.
American Jews are largely supportive of LGBT rights with 79% responding in a Pew poll that homosexuality should be “accepted by society”. A split on homosexuality exists by level of observance. Reform rabbis in America perform same-sex marriages as a matter of routine, and there are fifteen LGBT Jewish congregations in North America. Reform, Reconstructionist and, increasingly, Conservative, Jews are far more supportive on issues like gay marriage than Orthodox Jews are. A 2007 survey of Conservative Jewish leaders and activists showed that an overwhelming majority supported gay rabbinical ordination and same-sex marriage. Accordingly, 78% percent of Jewish voters rejected Proposition 8, the bill that banned gay marriage in California. No other ethnic or religious group voted as strongly against it.
In considering the trade-off between the economy and environmental protection, American Jews were significantly more likely than other religious groups (excepting Buddhism) to favor stronger environmental protection.
Jews in America also overwhelmingly oppose current United States marijuana policy. Eighty-six percent of Jewish Americans opposed arresting nonviolent marijuana smokers, compared to 61% for the population at large and 68% of all Democrats. Additionally, 85% of Jews in the United States opposed using federal law enforcement to close patient cooperatives for medical marijuana in states where medical marijuana is legal, compared to 67% of the population at large and 73% of Democrats.
Since the time of the last major wave of Jewish immigration to America (over 2,000,000 Jews from Eastern Europe who arrived between 1890 and 1924), Jewish secular culture in the United States has become integrated in almost every important way with the broader American culture. Many aspects of Jewish American culture have, in turn, become part of the wider culture of the United States.
Most American Jews today are native English speakers. A variety of other languages are still spoken within some American Jewish communities, communities that are representative of the various Jewish ethnic divisions from around the world that have come together to make up America’s Jewish population.
Many of America’s Hasidic Jews, being exclusively of Ashkenazi descent, are raised speaking Yiddish. Yiddish was once spoken as the primary language by most of the several million Ashkenazi Jews who immigrated to the United States. It was, in fact, the original language in which The Forward was published. Yiddish has had an influence on American English, and words borrowed from it include chutzpah (“effrontery”, “gall”), nosh (“snack”), schlep (“drag”), schmuck (“an obnoxious, contemptible person”, euphemism for “penis”), and, depending on ideolect, hundreds of other terms. (See also Yinglish.)
The Persian Jewish community in the United States, notably the large community in and around Los Angeles and Beverly Hills, California, primarily speak Persian (see also Judeo-Persian) in the home and synagogue. They also support their own Persian language newspapers. Persian Jews also reside in eastern parts of New York such as Kew Gardens and Great Neck, Long Island.
Many recent Jewish immigrants from the Soviet Union speak primarily Russian at home, and there are several notable communities where public life and business are carried out mainly in Russian, such as in Brighton Beach in New York City and Sunny Isles Beach in Miami. 2010 estimates of the number of Jewish Russian-speaking households in the New York city area are around 92,000, and the number of individuals are somewhere between 223,000350,000. Another high population of Russian Jews can be found in the Richmond District of San Francisco where Russian markets stand alongside the numerous Asian businesses.
American Bukharan Jews speak Bukhori, a dialect of Persian, and Russian. They publish their own newspapers such as the Bukharian Times and a large portion live in Queens, New York. Forest Hills in the New York City borough of Queens is home to 108th Street, which is called by some “Bukharian Broadway”, a reference to the many stores and restaurants found on and around the street that have Bukharian influences. Many Bukharians are also represented in parts of Arizona, Miami, Florida, and areas of Southern California such as San Diego.
Classical Hebrew is the language of most Jewish religious literature, such as the Tanakh (Bible) and Siddur (prayerbook). Modern Hebrew is also the primary official language of the modern State of Israel, which further encourages many to learn it as a second language. Some recent Israeli immigrants to America speak Hebrew as their primary language.
There are a diversity of Hispanic Jews living in America. The oldest community is that of the Sephardic Jews of New Netherland. Their ancestors had fled Spain or Portugal during the Inquisition for the Netherlands, and then came to New Netherland. Though there is dispute over whether they should be considered Hispanic. Some Hispanic Jews, particularly in Miami and Los Angeles, immigrated from Latin America. The largest groups are those that fled Cuba after the communist revolution (known as Jewbans), and Argentine Jews. Argentina is the Latin American country with the largest Jewish population. There are a large number of synagogues in the Miami area that give services in Spanish. The last Hispanic Jewish community would be those that recently came from Portugal or Spain, after Spain and Portugal granted citizenship to the descendants of Jews who fled during the Inquisition. All of the above listed Hispanic Jewish groups speak either Spanish or Ladino.
Although American Jews have contributed greatly to American arts overall, there remains a distinctly Jewish American literature. Jewish American literature often explores the experience of being a Jew in America, and the conflicting pulls of secular society and history.
Yiddish theater was very well attended, and provided a training ground for performers and producers who moved to Hollywood in the 1920s. Many of the early Hollywood moguls and pioneers were Jewish. Many individual Jews have made significant contributions to American popular culture. There have been many Jewish American actors and performers, ranging from early 1900s actors, to classic Hollywood film stars, and culminating in many currently known actors. The field of American comedy includes many Jews. The legacy also includes songwriters and authors, for example the author of the song “Viva Las Vegas” Doc Pomus, or Billy the Kid composer Aaron Copland. Many Jews have been at the forefront of women’s issues.
Since 1845, a total of 34 Jews have served in the Senate, including the 14 present-day senators noted above. Judah P. Benjamin was the first practicing Jewish Senator, and would later serve as Confederate Secretary of War and Secretary of State during the Civil War. Rahm Emanuel served as Chief of Staff to President Barack Obama. The number of Jews elected to the House rose to an all-time high of 30. Eight Jews have been appointed to the United States Supreme Court.
The Civil War marked a transition for American Jews. It killed off the antisemitic canard, widespread in Europe, to the effect that Jews are cowardly, preferring to run from war rather than serve alongside their fellow citizens in battle.
At least twenty eight American Jews have been awarded the Medal of Honor.
More than 550,000 Jews served in the U.S. military during World War II; about 11,000 were killed and more than 40,000 were wounded. There were three recipients of the Medal of Honor, 157 recipients of the Army Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Distinguished Service Cross, or Navy Cross, and about 1600 recipients of the Silver Star. About 50,000 other decorations and awards were given to Jewish military personnel, for a total of 52,000 decorations. During this period, Jews were approximately 3.3 percent of the total U.S. population but constituted about 4.23 percent of the U.S. armed forces. About 60 percent of all Jewish physicians in the United States under 45 years of age were in service as military physicians and medics.
Many Jewish physicists, including project lead J. Robert Oppenheimer, were involved in the Manhattan Project, the secret World War II effort to develop the atomic bomb. Many of these were refugees from Nazi Germany or from antisemitic persecution elsewhere in Europe.
Jews have been involved in the American folk music scene since the late 19th century; these tended to be refugees from Central and Eastern Europe, and significantly more economically disadvantaged than their established Western European and Sephardic coreligionists. Historians see it as a legacy of the secular Yiddish theater, cantorial traditions and a desire to assimilate. By the 1940s Jews had become established in the American folk music scene.
Examples of the major impact Jews have had in the American folk music arena include, but are not limited to: Moe Asch the first to record and release much of the music of Woodie Guthrie, including “This Land is Your Land” (see The Asch Recordings) in response to Irving Berlin’s “God Bless America”, and Guthrie wrote Jewish songs. Guthrie married a Jew and their son Arlo became influential in his own right. Asch’s one man corporation Folkways Records, also released much of the music of Leadbelly and Pete Seeger from the 40’s and 50’s. Asch’s large music catalog was voluntarily donated to the Smithsonian.
Three of the four creators of the Newport Folk Festival, Wein, Bikel and Grossman (Seeger is not) were Jewish. Albert Grossman put together Peter, Paul and Mary, of which Yarrow is Jewish. Oscar Brand, from a Canadian Jewish family, has the longest running radio program “Oscar Brand’s Folksong Festival” which has been on air consecutively since 1945 from NYC. And is the first American broadcast where the host himself will answer any personal correspondence.
Influential group The Weavers, successor to the Almanac Singers, led by Pete Seeger, had a Jewish manager, and 2 of the 4 members of the group were Jewish (Gilbert and Hellerman). The B-side of “Good Night Irene” had the Hebrew folk song personally chosen for the record by Pete Seeger “Tzena, Tzena, Tzena”.
The influential folk music magazine ‘Sing Out!’ was co-founded and edited by Irwin Silber in 1951, and edited by him until 1967, when the magazine stopped publication for decades. Rolling Stone magazine’s first music critic Jon Landau is of German Jewish descent. Izzy Young who created the legendary Folklore Center in NY, and currently the Folklore Centrum near Mariatorget in Sdermalm, Sweden, which relates to American and Swedish folk music.
“[The behind the scenes folk scene] Was at the very least 50 percent Jewish, and they adopted the music as part of their assimilation into the Anglo-American tradition which itself was largely an artificial construct but none the less provided us with some common ground”.
Jews have been involved in both financial thought from many diverting perspectives, and practical investment in the U.S. During the colonial era, before the establishment of the U.S.A. Jews were the first non-Protestants to receive rights to trade fur, from the Dutch and Swedish controlled colonies. The colonial United Kingdom honored after transitioning control of the colonies. During the Revolutionary War, Haym Solomon gave up his fortune to help create America’s first semi-central bank, and advised Alexander Hamilton on the building of America’s financial system.
American Jews in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries played a major role in the American financial services industry, both at investment banks and investment funds. German Jewish bankers began to assume a major role in American finance in the 1830s when government and private borrowing to pay for canals, railroads and other internal improvements increased rapidly and significantly. Men such as August Belmont (Rothschild’s agent in New York and a leading Democrat), Philip Speyer, Jacob Schiff (at Kuhn, Loeb & Company), Joseph Seligman, Philip Lehman (of Lehman Brothers), Jules Bache, and Marcus Goldman (of Goldman Sachs) illustrate this financial elite. As was true of their non-Jewish counterparts, family, personal, and business connections, a reputation for honesty and integrity, ability, and a willingness to take calculated risks were essential to recruit capital from widely scattered sources. The families and the firms which they controlled were bound together by religious and social factors, and by the prevalence of intermarriage. These personal ties fulfilled real business functions before the advent of institutional organization in the 20th century. Nevertheless, antisemitic elements often falsely targeted them as key players in a supposed Jewish cabal conspiring to dominate the world.
Since the late 20th century have Jews played a major role in the hedge fund industry, according to Zuckerman (2009) Thus SAC Capital Advisors,Soros Fund Management,Och-Ziff Capital Management,GLG PartnersRenaissance Technologies and Elliott Management Corporation are large hedge funds cofounded by Jews. They have also played a pivotal role in the private equity industry, co-founding some of the largest firms, such as Blackstone,Cerberus Capital Management,TPG Capital,BlackRock,Carlyle Group,Warburg Pincus, and KKR.
Paul Warburg, one of the leading advocates of the establishment of a central bank in the U.S. and one of the first governors of the newly established Federal Reserve System, came from a prominent Jewish family in Germany. Since then, several Jews have served as chairmen of the Fed, including the prior Chairman Ben Bernanke and Alan Greenspan. The current Chairwoman Janet Yellen is also Jewish.
With to the Jewish penchant to be drawn to white collar professional jobs and having excelled at intellectual pursuits, many Jews have also become been remarkably successful as an entrepreneurial and professional minority in the United States. Jewish culture also has a strong tradition, emphasis and respect for money, financial acumen, business, commerce, and entrepreneurship resulting many Jews to start their own businesses, especially family businesses that could be passed down from one generation to the next as well as serve as an asset, source of income and layering a strong financial groundwork for the family’s overall socioeconomic prosperity. Within the Jewish American cultural sphere, Jewish Americans have also developed a strong culture of entrepreneurship as excellence in entrepreneurship and engagement in business and commerce is highly prized in Jewish culture.
American Jews have also been drawn to various disciplines within academia such as sociology, economics, psychology, philosophy and linguistics (see Secular Jewish culture for some of the causes), and have played a disproportionate role in numerous academic domains. Jewish American intellectuals such as Saul Bellow, Ayn Rand, Noam Chomsky, Thomas Friedman, and Elie Wiesel have made a major impact within mainstream American public life. Of the United States top 200 most influential intellectuals, 50% are fully Jewish with 76% of Jewish Americans overall having at least one Jewish parent. Of American Nobel Prize winners, 37 percent have been Jewish Americans (18 times the percentage of Jews in the population), as have been 61 percent of the John Bates Clark Medal in economics recipients (thirty-five times the Jewish percentage).
In the business world, while Jewish Americans only constitute less than 2.5 percent of the U.S. population, they occupied 7.7 percent of board seats at various U.S. corporations. In New York real estate, 18 of the top 20 richest real estate moguls based in New York City are of Jewish extraction. American Jews also have a strong presence in NBA ownership. Of the 30 teams in the NBA, there are 14 Jewish principal owners. Several Jews have served as NBA commissioners including prior NBA commissioner David Stern and current commissioner Adam Silver.
Since many careers in science, business, and academia generally pay well, Jewish Americans also tend to have a higher average income than most Americans. The 20002001 National Jewish Population Survey shows that the median income of a Jewish family is $54,000 a year and 34% of Jewish households report income over $75,000 a year.
The 1993 Oslo Agreement made this split in the Jewish community official. Prime Minister Yitzak Rabins handshake with Yasir Arafat during the September 13 White House ceremony elicited dramatically opposed reactions among American Jews. To the liberal universalists the accord was highly welcome news. As one commentator put it, after a year of tension between Israel and the United States, “there was an audible sigh of relief from American and Jewish liberals. Once again, they could support Israel as good Jews, committed liberals, and loyal Americans.” The community “could embrace the Jewish state, without compromising either its liberalism or its patriotism”. Hidden deeper in this collective sense of relief was the hope that, following the peace with the Palestinians, Israel would transform itself into a Western-style liberal democracy, featuring a full separation between the state and religion. Not accidentally, many of the leading advocates of Oslo, including the Yossi Beilin, the then Deputy Foreign Minister, cherish the belief that a “normalized” Israel would become less Jewish and more democratic. However, to some right wing Jews, the peace treaty was worrisome. From their perspective, Oslo was not just an affront to the sanctity of how they interpreted their culture, but also a personal threat to the lives and livelihood settlers, in the West Bank and Gaza AKA “Judea and Samaria”. For these Jews, such as Morton Klein, the president of the Zionist organization of America, and Norman Podhoretz, the editor of Commentary, the peace treaty amounted to an appeasement of Palestinian terrorism. They and others repeatedly warned that the newly established Palestinian Authority (PA) would pose a serious security threat to Israel.
Religious Jews regarded those who assimilated with horror, and Zionists campaigned against assimilation as an act of treason.
American Jews – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
State of Israel
The State of Israel is a country in southwestern Asia on the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. Israel became an independent country in 1948. Israel is the only Jewish country, and Jews all over the world think of Israel as their spiritual home. Israel’s population was 8.1 million people in 2013 and 6.04 million are Jewish. Almost all the other citizens of Israel are Arabs (1.6 million) and include Muslims, Christians, Druze, and Samaritans.Jerusalem is Israel’s capital and largest city.
Israel is a small country, but it has mountains, deserts, shores, valleys and plains. The climate is hot and dry in the summers, and cool and rainy in the winters.
Israel has few natural resources and imports more goods than it exports. It has a relatively high standard of living and life expectancy. Almost all of its people can read and write.
The country’s history goes back thousands of years, to ancient times. Two world religions, Judaism and Christianity, began here. It is the place where the Jewish nation and religion first grew. Jews and Christians call it the Holy Land, because it is the place of many events described in the Bible.
Three thousand years ago, the Canaanites and other Semitic peoples lived here. Between about 1800 and 1500 BCE, another Semitic people, called the Hebrews, settled in Canaan after being freed from Egypt. They were named the Children of Israel or Israelites. The Israelites had 12 tribes. They chose a King, Saul, as their leader. The next king, David, began the Kingdom of Israel in about 1000 BCE and made the city of Jerusalem his capital. His son, Solomon, built the first Temple for the worship of God. Solomon died in about 928 BCE. His kingdom broke into two countries. The northern country kept the name Israel. The southern country, called Judah, kept Jerusalem as its capital.
The Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 732 BCE and the Babylonians conquered the Kingdom of Judah in 586 BCE. Many Jews returned from Babylonia and built a country again. First the Persians, then the Greeks and then the Romans ruled the Land of Israel.
The Jews fought against the Romans but the Romans defeated them. In 70 CE, the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple there. Again, in 132 CE, the Romans defeated the Jews and killed or took many of them to other places. The number of Jews living in Israel became much smaller. Many were forced to live in other countries. This spreading of Jewish communities outside of Israel is called the Diaspora.
Many of the Jews who remained moved to the Galilee. Jewish teachers wrote important Jewish books, called the Mishnah and part of the Talmud there, in the 2nd to 4th centuries CE.
The Romans began to call this region by the word that became Palestine in English. The Roman and then the Byzantine empires ruled until 635 CE, when Arabs conquered the region. Different Arab rulers, and for a while Crusaders, ruled the land. In 1516, the Ottoman Empire conquered the land and ruled the region until the 20th century.
Since the Diaspora, there have been many attempts to make a new homeland for the Jewish people. In the 1880s, this wish for a Jewish nation in Israel became a movement called Zionism. Jews from all over the world began to come to the area and settled in desert zones, then governed by the Turkish and later by the British Governments.
On 14 May 1948, British control over the Palestine Mandate ended. The Jewish inhabitants (under the leadership of David Ben-Gurion) declared independence for the new Jewish state. Immediately following Israel’s declaration of independence, the armies of several nearby countries, including Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq attacked the new country. Since the 1980s the main military opponents of Israel have been Islamist groups, such as Hezbollah.
The countries of Lebanon and Syria are to the north of Israel, Jordan is on the east and Egypt is to the southwest. Israel also controls the West Bank of the Jordan River.
Israel has a long coastline on the Mediterranean Sea. In the south, the town of Eilat is on the Gulf of Aqaba, which is part of the Red Sea.
The Galilee is a fertile and mountainous region in the north. There is a flat plain called the Coastal Plain to the west near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Negev Desert is a barren area of flat plains, mountains and craters in the south. There is a range of mountains in the center that runs from the north to south.
On the eastern side, there is a low area called a depression. The Hula Valley and the Sea of Galilee are in this low area in the north. The Jordan River runs from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. The land next to the Dead Sea is the lowest in the world. It is -417 meters below sea level.
The weather is normally hot and dry in the summer and mild in the winter. Rain falls mostly in the winter (between the months of November and April). There is more rain in the north than in the south and hardly any rain in the desert. Israel built a very big irrigation system to bring water from the north to the dry areas in the south so that crops can grow there also.
Jerusalem is the biggest city in Israel. Tel Aviv, Haifa, Beersheba and Rishon LeZion are also large cities. The capital city is Jerusalem.
Israel is a parliamentary democracy. All Israeli citizens who are 18 years or older may vote. The Israeli parliament is called the Knesset. The Knesset has 120 members. Each member is elected for no more than four years at a time. The Knesset makes laws, helps decide national policy, and approves budgets and taxes.
Voters do not vote for individual candidates in Knesset elections. Instead, they vote for a party. This party makes a list with all its candidates. The list may have only one candidate or as many as 120 candidates. In an election, the percentage of the vote that each list wins decides how many representatives, or seats, the party gets in the Knesset. For example, if a party list gets 33 percent of the vote, it gets 40 Knesset seats.
Israel has no written constitution. Instead, the Knesset made “Basic Laws”. The Basic Laws say how the government must work and give civil rights to the citizens.
The Prime Minister is the head of Israel’s government. He or she is usually the leader of the party that has the most seats in the Knesset. The prime minister must keep the support of a majority of Knesset members to stay in office. He or she appoints ministers to the cabinet. The Knesset approves appointments to the Cabinet. The ministers are responsible for subjects such as education, defense, social welfare and so on. The prime minister is the head of the cabinet and decides the topics of cabinet meetings and makes the final decisions.
Benjamin Netanyahu has been the Prime Minister since March 2009.
The President is the head of state. The Knesset elects the president for seven years. Most of the president’s duties are ceremonial: The president signs laws and treaties approved by the Knesset, appoints judges, and members of some public organizations. He or she also accepts the documents from ambassadors and foreign diplomats bring when they are appointed.
Reuven Rivlin has been the President since July 2014.
Israel has many political parties, with a large variety of opinions. In the elections of 2009, twelve parties won seats in the Knesset.
The parties belong to three main groups: The biggest groups are the Zionist parties. These include the conservatives such as the Likud party; social democrats, such as Kadima and the Labor party; and the religious Zionists. There are also smaller religious Orthodox Jewish parties, special-interest parties, and Israeli Arab parties.
A single party usually does not win enough seats in the Knesset by itself to have a majority, so one of the bigger parties asks for support from the other parties, including the religious parties, to form a coalition government. This gives these parties a lot of power although they are small.
The Likud supports free market policies and limited government involvement in the economy. Likud believes strongly in protecting Israel’s security. It wants to give less away in the peace process for a negotiated agreement with the Palestinians and the Arab states.
The Labor Party supports government control of the economy, but also believes in a limited amount of free enterprise. The party says it will give more away for an agreement with the Palestinians and the Arab states.
Kadima is a centrist political party. It believes in both Israel’s security and continuing the peace process, and supports negotiating an agreement for peace with the Palestinians.
At independence, Israel was a poor country with little agricultural or industrial production. But Israel’s economy has grown tremendously since 1948. The nation now enjoys a relatively high standard of living, despite having few natural resources and a limited water supply.
Many immigrants came to Israel in the years immediately after independence. Many of these immigrants were skilled laborers and professionals who greatly aided the nation’s economic development.
Many of Israel’s service industry workers are employed by the government or by businesses owned by the government. Government workers provide many of the services that are needed by Israel’s large immigrant population, such as housing, education, and vocational training.
Tourism is one of the country’s important sources of income. Tourists visit many archaeological, historical and religious sites, museums, nature reserves and beach resorts in Israel.
Tourists support many of Israel’s service industries, especially trade, restaurants, and hotels. Over 2.7 million foreign tourists visited Israel in 2009.
Israeli factories produce such goods as chemical products, electronic equipment, fertilizer, paper, plastics, processed foods, scientific and optical instruments, textiles and clothing. The cutting of imported diamonds is a major industry. Government-owned plants manufacture equipment used by Israel’s large armed forces. Israel is the world’s largest exporter of drones. Tel Aviv and Haifa are Israel’s major manufacturing centers.
Agriculture formerly employed a much larger percentage of Israel’s work force. But much of the work once performed by people is now performed by machines. Important agricultural products include citrus and other fruits, eggs, grain, poultry, and vegetables.
The government develops, helps finance, and controls agricultural activity, including fishing and forestry. Israel produces most of the food it needs to feed its people, except for grain. Agricultural exports provide enough income to pay for any necessary food imports. Most Israeli farmers use modern agricultural methods. Water drawn from the Sea of Galilee irrigates large amounts of land in Israel.
Most Israeli farms are organized as moshavim or kibbutzim. Israel also has some private farms.
The Dead Sea, the world’s saltiest body of water, is Israel’s leading source of minerals. Bromine, magnesium, potash and table salt are extracted from the sea. Potash, used mainly in fertilizers, is the most important mineral. In the Negev Desert, there are mines for phosphates, copper, clay, and gypsum.
Israel has few energy sources. It has no coal deposits or hydroelectric power resources and only small amounts of crude oil and natural gas. As a result, Israel depends on imported crude oil for gasoline and diesel for transportation, and coal producing electricity for its energy needs.
Solar energy energy from the sun is used widely to heat water for houses. Israel is developing other ways to use solar energy to power houses and factories.
In 2008, Israel began investing in building electric cars and the stations to charge them. There may also be large natural gas fields in the Mediterranean Sea that Israel could develop.
For 2006, Israeli exports grew by 11% to just over $29 billion; the hi-tech sector accounted for $14 billion, a 20% increase from the previous year.
Because it has few natural resources, Israel imports more goods than it exports. The country’s main imports include chemicals, computer equipment, grain, iron and steel, military equipment, petroleum products, rough diamonds, and textiles. Israel’s main exports are chemical products, citrus fruits, clothing, electronic equipment, fertilizers, polished diamonds, military equipment,and processed foods. The nation’s main trading partners include the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg), Germany, Italy, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Israel has a well-developed transportation system. Most middle-class Israeli families either own a car or have one provided by their employer. Paved roads reach almost all parts of the country. Public transportation both in and between cities is provided primarily by bus.
Ben-Gurion Airport is Israel’s main international airport. It is near Tel Aviv. There are smaller airports are located at Atarot, near Jerusalem, and at Eilat. El Al, Israel’s international airline, flies regularly to the United States, Canada, Europe, and parts of Africa and Asia. Israel has three major deepwater ports Haifa, Ashdod, and Eilat.
Israel’s communication system is one of the best in the Middle East. Israel has about 30 daily newspapers, about half of which are in Hebrew. The rest are in Arabic, Yiddish, or one of several foreign languages. The Israel Broadcasting Authority, a public corporation set up by the government, runs the TV and nonmilitary radio stations.
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Israel – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia